Central processing unit

Knowledge Identifier: $Central_processing_unit

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Central processing unit

Hardware within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetical, logical, and inputoutput operations of the system add

Category: Technology (10)

Launched in 1950.

Countries: (52%), United States (36%), United Kingdom (8%)

Main connections: Intel, Shrek (franchise), Three-dimensional integrated circuit

Linked to: Digital Equipment Corporation, Cray, Intel, IBM

 

Timeline


 

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1950

Transistorized CPUs during the 1950s and 1960s no longer had to be built out of bulky, unreliable, and fragile switching elements like vacuum tubes and electrical relays add something

 

While the complexity, size, construction, and general form of CPUs have changed enormously since 1950, it is notable that the basic design and function has not changed much at all add something


1960

The term has been in use in the computer industry at least since the early 1960s add something


1970

A more general approach to this technology was introduced in the 1970s when systems were designed to run multiple computation threads in parallel add something

 

For several decades from the 1970s to early 2000s, the focus in designing high performance general purpose CPUs was largely on achieving high ILP through technologies such as pipelining, caches, superscalar execution, out-of-order execution, etc add something

 

In the 1970s the fundamental inventions by Federico Faggin changed the design and implementation of CPUs forever add something

 

7400 series - The 74H family provided a number of unique devices for CPU designs in the 1970s


1980

7400 series - Through the late 1980s and 1990s newer versions of this family were introduced to support the lower operating voltages used in newer CPU devices


1990

To increase the number of cooperating CPUs beyond a handful, schemes such as non-uniform memory access and directory-based coherence protocols were introduced in the 1990s add something

 

Weitek - During the early 1990s most CPU designs started including FPUs built-into the system, basically for free, and Weitek made a series of attempts to break into the general CPU and graphics driver market


1995

Be Inc. - In 1995, the BeBox personal computer was released by Be, with its distinctive strips of lights up the front that indicated the load of each CPU, and the combined analogue/digital, 37-pin GeekPort has made it a highly desirable item for collectors


2000

By the early 2000s, CPU designers were thwarted from achieving higher performance from ILP techniques due to the growing disparity between CPU operating frequencies and main memory operating frequencies as well as escalating CPU power dissipation owing to more esoteric ILP techniques add something

 

Shrek (franchise) - Despite the advances in computing power over the 2000s decade, the increasing usage of novel techniques like global illumination, physics simulation, and 3D demanded ever more CPU hours to render the films

 

ETRAX CRIS - In 2000, the ETRAX 100LX design added an MMU, as well as USB, synchronous serial and SDRAM support, and boosted the CPU performance up to 100 MIPS


2001

Shrek (franchise) - In 2001, "Shrek" required approximately 5 million CPU render hours


2004

Three-dimensional integrated circuit - In 2004, Intel presented a 3D version of the Pentium 4 CPU. The chip was manufactured with two dies using face-to-face stacking, which allowed a dense via structure

 

Three-dimensional integrated circuit - In 2004, Intel presented a 3D version of the Pentium 4 CPU. The chip was manufactured with two dies using face-to-face stacking, which allowed a dense via structure

 

Shrek (franchise) - In 2004, "Shrek 2" required over 10 million CPU render hours


2006

Chartered Semiconductor Manufacturing - In 2006, AMD announced that it will manufacture CPUs with Chartered on a 65 nanometer process


2007

Shrek (franchise) - In 2007, "Shrek the Third" required over 20 million CPU render hours, and the 2010 3D release of "Shrek Forever After" demanded more than 50 million CPU render hours on behalf of rendering double amount of frames


2014

Rockchip - At the CES electronics show in January 2014, someone apparently corrected the CPU specification as being &ARM (ARM_Holdings) Cortex-A12 instead of Cortex-A17 on one of the panels of their show booth

 

Rockchip - In January 2014, official marketing materials listed the CPU cores as &ARM (ARM_Holdings) Cortex-A17

 

Intel Edison - A later announcement changed the CPU to a 22 nm Silvermont dual core Intel Atom CPU, and in September 2014 a second version of Edison was shown at IDF, which was bigger and thicker than a standard SD card


2015

Microsoft Surface - However, the Surface 3 which was announced March 31, 2015 features an x64 Intel Atom CPU and runs Windows 8,1


2016

This widely observed trend is described by Moore's law, which had proven to be a fairly accurate predictor of the growth of CPU complexity until 2016 add something

 

Windows 10 - In January 2016, Microsoft stated that under new support policies, Windows 10 will be the only Windows platform supported on future CPU microarchitectures, beginning with the upcoming generations of Intel and AMD architectures, and that support for Windows 7 and Windows 8,1 on Intel's Skylake processors will end July 17, 2017, making Windows 10 the only supported Windows platform on Skylake chips


2018

Meltdown (security vulnerability) - On March 15, 2018, Intel reported that it will redesign its CPU processors to help protect against the Meltdown and related Spectre vulnerabilities , and expects to release the newly redesigned processors later in 2018

 

Spectre (security vulnerability) - On March 15, 2018, Intel reported that it will redesign its CPU processors to help protect against the Spectre and related Meltdown vulnerabilities , and expects to release the newly redesigned processors later in 2018

 

OSTC - On March 15, 2018, Intel reported that it will redesign its CPU processors to protect against the Spectre security vulnerability, and expects to release the newly redesigned processors later in 2018

 

Intel - On March 15, 2018, Intel reported that it will redesign its CPU processors to protect against the Spectre security vulnerability, and expects to release the newly redesigned processors later in 2018