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Formula One
(Auto racing)
Ferrari P
(Automobiles)
Maserati
(Automobiles)
Enzo Ferrari
(Auto racing)
Scuderia Ferrari
(Auto racing)
Ferrari 458 Italia
(Automobiles)
 

See also

Ferrari

Knowledge Identifier: &Ferrari

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Ferrari

Italian sports car manufacturer based in Maranello, Italy add

Category: Business (14)

Founded in 1929.

Countries: Italy (34%), (19%), United States (11%)

Main connections: Formula One, Ferrari P, Maserati

Linked to: Scuderia Ferrari, Formula One, Pininfarina, Porsche

 

Timeline


 

This timeline needs to be reviewed and corrected, as it has been automatically generated from multiple web sources.
Please help improve it by adding dated informations, images and videos about Ferrari.


1929

Ferrari has used the "cavallino rampante" on official company stationery since 1929 add something


1930

A similar black horse on a yellow shield is the Coat of Arms of the German city of Stuttgart, home of Mercedes-Benz and the design bureau of Porsche, both being main competitors of Alfa and Ferrari in the 1930s add something


1932

Since the Spa 24 Hours of 9 July 1932, the "cavallino rampante" has been used on Alfa Romeos raced by Scuderia Ferrari add something


1934

In that scheme, French-entered cars such as Bugatti were blue, German such as Benz and Mercedes white , and British green such as the mid-1960s Lotus and BRM, for instance add something


1938

Ferrari prepared, and successfully raced, various drivers in Alfa Romeo cars until 1938, when he was hired by Alfa Romeo to head their motor racing department add something


1940

The 1940 AAC 815 was the first racing car to be designed by Enzo Ferrari, although it was not badged as a Ferrari model add something

 

Ferrari 125 S - Although preceded by Enzo & Ferrari's Auto Avio Costruzioni 815 of 1940, the 125 S was the first vehicle to bear the Ferrari name when it debuted on May 11, 1947 at the Piacenza racing circuit

 

Colotti Trasmissioni - Valerio Colotti having worked for & Ferrari in the late 1940's and early 1950's, and having engineered the chassis and transmission of their first GP car of its own design under Enzo Ferrari, Aurelio Lampredi and Gioacchino Colombo, Piero Ferrari asked Colotti Trasmissioni to build an exact replica of Ferrari 125, with the original engine and drawings provided by the Maranello factory


1941

In 1941, Alfa Romeo was confiscated by the fascist government of Benito Mussolini as part of the Axis Powers' war effort add something


1943

In 1943 the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained ever since add something


1944

The factory was bombed by the Allies in 1944 and rebuilt in 1946, after the war ended, and included a works for road car production add something


1947

The first Ferrari road car was the 1947 125 S, powered by a 1,5 L V12 engine; Enzo Ferrari reluctantly built and sold his automobiles to fund Scuderia Ferrari add something


1949

In 1949, Luigi Chinetti drove a 166 M to Ferrari's first win in motorsports, the 24 Hours of Le Mans add something

 

In 1949, the Ferrari 166 Inter, the company's first move into the grand touring market, which continues to make up the bulk of Ferrari sales to the present day add something

 

Zagato - In 1949 he built for Antonio Stagnoli a Panoramic body for his Ferrari 166 Mille Miglia

 

Ferrari 166 S - Only 39 Ferrari 166 S's were produced, soon followed by the production of the 166 Mille Miglia which was made in much larger numbers from 1949 to 1952

 

Ferrari 166 Inter - The first Ferrari GT car debuted at the Paris Motor Show on October 6, 1949


1950

In the 1950s and 60s, Ferrari supplied Formula One cars to a number of private entrants and other teams add something

 

"Scuderia" Ferrari has participated in a number of classes of motorsport, though it is currently only officially involved in Formula One. It is the only team to have competed in the Formula One World Championship continuously since its inception in 1950 add something

 

Giotto Bizzarrini - A native of Livorno, Bizzarrini was chief engineer at Ferrari in the 1950s, working on such notable projects as the Ferrari 250 GTO

 

Gioacchino Colombo - Colombo left Ferrari in 1950 and returned to Alfa Romeo

 

Monteverdi (automobile) - During the late 1950s and early 1960s Peter Monteverdi built, sold and raced a number of "specials" called MBM while at the same time developing the motor vehicle repair business founded by his father into a major dealership handling Ferrari, &BMW and Lancia marques

 

Formula One - Team orders, legal since the championship started during 1950, were banned during 2002 after several incidents in which teams openly manipulated race results, generating negative publicity, most famously by Ferrari at the 2002 Austrian Grand Prix

 

Ferrari 195 Inter - The "'195 Inter"' is a grand tourer produced by Ferrari in 1950


1951

Formula One - However Fangio won the title in 1951, 1954, 1955, 1956 & 1957 , his streak interrupted by two-time champion Alberto Ascari of Ferrari


1953

Ferrari went on to dominate the early years of the World Sportscar Championship which was created in 1953, winning the title seven out of its first nine years add something


1954

Mercedes-Benz 300SL - These successes, especially those on the high speed open road races, were rather surprising as the engine was fitted only with carburetors, producing , which was not only less than the competing cars by Ferrari and Jaguar, but less than the road car of 1954


1955

V6 engine - Alfredo & Ferrari , son of Enzo Ferrari, suggested to him the development of a 1,5 L DOHC V6 engine for Formula Two at the end of 1955

 

V8 engine - Arguably, Ferrari had their first contact with V8 power with the "inherited" Lancia D50s in 1955

 

V8 engine - When Lancia withdrew from racing in 1955, Ferrari bought their design and continued to develop it


1956

V8 engine - Juan Manuel Fangio won the 1956 World Drivers' Championship in a V8-powered Ferrari


1957

Giotto Bizzarrini - Bizzarrini left Alfa Romeo in 1957 and went to Ferrari when that company needed a test driver

 

Mike Hawthorn - In 1957, Hawthorn joined the Ferrari factory team, and soon became friends with Peter Collins, a fellow Englishman and Ferrari team driver


1958

Mike Hawthorn - During the 1958 racing season, the two Englishmen became engaged in a rivalry with Luigi Musso, another Ferrari driver, that spurred all three into fierce competition for prize money

 

Lamborghini - He purchased his first Ferrari, a 250GT, in 1958, and went on to own several more

 

V6 engine - The Dino V6 underwent several evolutions, including an increased engine displacement to , for use in the Ferrari 246 Formula One car in 1958

 

Formula One - The first British World Champion was Mike Hawthorn, who drove a Ferrari to the title during the 1958 season


1959

Giotto Bizzarrini - Jaguar had just launched the Jaguar E-Type and Ferrari needed a top contender in the tracks, and Enzo Ferrari wanted to ensure that his racing team did not suffer another loss as it had in the 1959 LeMans race


1960

James Coburn - He's credited with introducing Steve McQueen to Ferraris, and in the early 1960s owned a Ferrari 250 GT Lusso and a Ferrari 250 GT Spyder California SWB

 

Georges Berger - Later in his career he shared the winning Ferrari at the 1960 Tour de France automobile


1961

V8 engine - Apart from Phil Hill's 1961 World Drivers' Championship, which he won in a V6-powered Ferrari, all the other World Drivers' Champions drove V8-powered cars to their victories

 

Lamborghini - Autostar was led by Giotto Bizzarrini, a member of the "Gang of Five" of & Ferrari engineers, who had been responsible for creating the famous Ferrari 250 GTO, but left the company in 1961 after founder Enzo Ferrari announced his intention to reorganize the engineering staff

 

Colotti Trasmissioni - Colotti-Francis was responsible for a Formula Junior car named T.C.A. built for Graf von Trips, but this project ended with Trips' death at 1961 Italian Grand Prix held at Monza, where his Ferrari 156 collided with Jim Clark's Lotus 21, when a 3rd place finish would have secured Count Trips the first ever Grand Prix World Championship title for a German, which did not materialize until 1994

 

Maserati - In response, Enzo Ferrari was charged with manslaughter in a lengthy criminal prosecution that was finally dismissed in 1961

 

V8 engine - The 1,5 L Formula One era of 1961–1965 included V8 engines from Ferrari, Coventry Climax, BRM, and ATS


1962

The 1962 250 GTO may be considered the first in the line of Ferrari supercars, which extends to the recent Enzo and FXX models add something

 

When the championship format changed in 1962, Ferrari earned titles in at least one class each year through to 1965 and again in 1967 add something

 

Giotto Bizzarrini - His masterpiece at Ferrari was the 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO


1963

In 1963, Enzo Ferrari was approached by the Ford Motor Company about a possible buy over add something

 

Lamborghini - A. in 1963 with the objective of producing a refined grand touring car to compete with offerings from established marques such as Ferrari


1964

Curiously, Ferrari won the 1964 World championship with John Surtees by competing the last two races in North America with cars painted in the US-American race colors white and blue, as these were not entered by the Italian factory themselves, but by the U.S.-based North American Racing Team team add something

 

Henry Ford II consequently directed his racing division to negotiate with Lotus, Lola, and Cooper to build a car capable of beating Ferrari on the world endurance circuit, eventually resulting in the production of the Ford GT40 in 1964 add something


1966

Porsche 906 - At the 1966 24 Hours of Le Mans, the 906 placed 4-5-6-7 behind three Ford GT40 Mk IIs, outlasting all of the previously dominant V12-engined Ferrari Ps

 

Porsche 909 Bergspyder - Porsche had great success with earlier models, the 910, 907, and 908, they had won hillclimbing championships in 1966 and 1967, but in 1968 & Ferrari announced that they had an all new lightweight car for competition, the 212E. Ferdinand Piëch immediately set out to develop a new model designed specifically to outdo Ferrari's new car


1967

Fiat Dino - & Fiat quoted for the Fiat Dino and Coupe, and in 1967 Ferrari - presenting the first prototype of the Dino 206 GT - claimed

 

The Daytona name commemorates Ferrari's triple success in the February 1967 24 Hours of Daytona with the 330 P4 add something


1968

Porsche 917 - With Ferrari absent in 1968, mainly Porsche 908 and Ford P68 were entered there, with the Ford being a total failure


1969

As the Ford deal fell through, FIAT approached Ferrari with a more flexible proposal and purchased controlling interests in the company in 1969 add something

 

The North American Racing Team's entries in the final three rounds of the 1969 season were the last occasions on which a team other than Scuderia Ferrari entered a World Championship Grand Prix with a Ferrari car add something

 

Fiat - Then, in 1969, it purchased controlling interests in Ferrari and Lancia

 

Porsche 917 - During June 1969, Enzo & Ferrari had sold half of his stock to FIAT, and used some of that money to build 25 cars powered by a 5-litre V12 in order to compete with the Porsche 917: the Ferrari 512 would be introduced for the 1970 season


1970

These include the BB 512 LM in the 1970s, the 333 SP which won the IMSA GT Championship in the 1990s, and currently the F430 GT2 and GT3 which are currently winning championships in their respective classes add something

 

Mauro Forghieri - In 1970, Forghieri designed the Ferrari 312 series

 

Michael T. Lynch - Lynch became known in the 1970s for his work on the history of Ferrari racecars

 

Porsche 917 - Towards the end of the 1970 season, Ferrari entered some races with a new version of the 512, the 512M


1971

Zagato - A new & Ferrari Zagato, called 3Z, came to life in 1971, thanks to an idea of Luigi Chinetti of Ferrari NART who financed the decidedly angular spider


1972

Ferrari would win one final title, the 1972 World Championship of Makes before Enzo decided to leave sports car racing after 1973 and allow Scuderia Ferrari to concentrate solely on Formula One add something

 

Porsche 917 - Surprisingly, Ferrari decided to give up any official effort with the 512 in order to prepare for the 1972 season


1973

Although Scuderia Ferrari no longer participated in sports cars after 1973, they have occasionally built various successful sports cars for privateers add something

 

Ferrari entered the mid-engined 12-cylinder fray with the Berlinetta Boxer in 1973 add something


1974

V6 engine - The & Fiat Dino and Dino 246GT were phased out in 1974, but 500 engines among the last built were delivered to Lancia, who was like Ferrari already under the control of Fiat


1980

This layout would go on to be used in most Ferraris of the 1980s and 1990s add something

 

Formula One - After having virtually disappeared by the early 1980s, factory teams made a comeback in the 1990s and 2000s and formed up to half the grid with Ferrari, Jaguar, BMW, Renault, Toyota, and Honda either setting up their own teams or buying out existing ones

 

Romano Artioli - Artioli was born in Moglia in the Province of Mantua, and raised in Bolzano where in the 1980s he ran one of the largest Ferrari dealerships in the world, selling in northern Italy and southern Germany

 

Fiat Dino - Lampredi, interviewed in the early 1980s , noted that, "Things didn't work out exactly as Ferrari had foreseen


1982

Lancia - In 1982 the team moved up to Group 6 with the LC1 Spyder, followed by the Group C LC2 coupé which featured a Ferrari powerplant in 1983


1984

Formula One - Drivers from McLaren, Williams, Renault and Ferrari, dubbed the "Big Four", won every World Championship from 1984 to 2008 and the teams themselves won every Constructors' Championship from 1979 to 2008


1986

Steve Matchett - He started working as a mechanic for Greypaul, a UK Ferrari dealership in 1986; a BMW dealership from 1989 to 1990


1987

Mauro Forghieri - After leaving Ferrari in 1987, Forghieri joined Lamborghini Engineering, a department created by Lee Iacocca, the CEO of Chrysler, who had bought the Emilian car firm Lamborghini


1988

In 1988, Enzo Ferrari oversaw the launch of the Ferrari F40, the last new Ferrari to be launched before his death later that year, and arguably one of the most famous supercars ever made add something


1990

Bret Michaels - In the mid 1990s, after a night of partying, Michaels came close to dying when he crashed his Ferrari into a telephone pole


1991

Lamborghini - Chrysler aimed to produce a car to compete with the Ferrari 328 by 1991, and wanted the Italians to produce an engine that could be used in a Chrysler car for the American market

 

Leonardo Fioravanti (engineer) - Before founding Fioravanti Srl in 1991 he held the positions of deputy General Manager at Ferrari and the director's role at the Centro Stile Alfa Romeo

 

Zagato - In 1991 and 1993, the Design Zagato division introduced two Ferrari show cars based on the 348 and the Testarossa where styling motifs subsequently adopted on the F355 and more recently on the 360 Modena and the Enzo were used

 

Jean Alesi - Though Benetton was the defending constructors' champions, they were about to experience a lull in form like Ferrari in 1991


1992

Jean Alesi - Ferrari, however, experienced a disastrous downturn in form in , while the Williams team experienced a resurgence which would lead them to win five constructor's titles between 1992 and 1997, thus becoming the most successful team of the 1990s


1994

Steve Matchett - During this period Michael Schumacher won the Drivers' Championship in both 1994 and 1995 before leaving the team, moving to Ferrari the following year; while Matchett and his team won the Constructors' Championship in 1995


1996

Steve Matchett - Brawn and Matchett remained on amicable terms even after Brawn's move to Ferrari at the end of 1996 and Matchett's own move into television four years later

 

Jean Alesi - When Benetton's Michael Schumacher joined Ferrari in 1996, Alesi and teammate Gerhard Berger swapped places with him


1997

Jean Alesi - Alesi moved on, initially to Sauber and later Prost, the latter being owned by his former Ferrari teammate Alain Prost after Prost had bought the Ligier team in early 1997 and re-named it


1998

Vincenzo Sospiri - In 1998 and 1999, he won the Sports Racing World Cup with a Ferrari 333 SP, teaming up with Emmanuel Collard

 

Piaggio Aero - Piaggio Aero Industries was established in its current form in November 1998, when a group of shareholders headed by Piero Ferrari and Josè Di Mase acquired the assets of Rinaldo Piaggio


1999

Maserati - In 1999 Ferrari took full control, making Maserati its luxury division


2000

Formula One - However by the end of the 2000s factory teams were once again on the decline with only Ferrari, &Mercedes-Benz and Renault lodging entries to the 2010 championship


2001

Rickard Rydell - He spent 2001 largely waiting for his European Touring Car Championship Volvo to be built, but he raced a Ferrari 550 Maranello in the FIA GT Championship for the Prodrive team

 

Maserati - In 2001 Ferrari decided to throw away all the old tooling and installed high-tech devices in the Modena factory, making it one of the most advanced in the world


2002

From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari produced the Enzo add something


2004

The car was designed by Rory Byrne and is styled to resemble the 2004 Ferrari Formula one car add something

 

Max Mosley - In 2004, Mosley said he felt Ferrari's team principal Jean Todt should succeed him as president of the FIA when he stepped down

 

Roman Rusinov - In 2004, Rusinov raced with Ferrari Modena and became the Le Mans Series Champion in the GT2 class

 

V8 engine - The old "Dino" V8 was retired for 2004 with the introduction of a 4,3 L V8, based on the originally Ferrari designed Maserati 4,2 V8, in the F430 and the California


2005

Maserati - In 2005 Maserati were split off from Ferrari and merged with Alfa Romeo under Fiat Auto

 

Corey Rudl - On June 2, 2005, Rudl was a passenger in a 2005 Porsche Carrera GT driven by Benjamin Miles Keaton, on the California Speedway a San Bernardino county track that was being used by a local Ferrari sports club


2006

At the end of the 2006 season, the team courted controversy by continuing to allow Marlboro to sponsor them after they, along with the other F1 teams, made a promise to end sponsorship deals with tobacco manufacturers add something

 

Ferrari's latest supercar, the 2006 FXX is not road legal, and is therefore only used for track events add something

 

Darius Grala - In 2006, Grala was one of the founding instructors of the Ferrari Driving Experience

 

Marco Bortolami - In an interview in 2006, Bortolami stated that he wishes to become a mechanic for Ferrari after he retires from professional rugby, using the mechanical skills that he picked up in college


2007

Sergio Marchionne - A supercar enthusiast and proficient driver who frequently takes to the track with a & Ferrari, &Maserati or other high-performance vehicle manufactured by the group he manages, Marchionne suffered some embarrassment when he wrecked his personal Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano while in his adopted Switzerland in 2007

 

Bruno Senna - During the four week break in the GP2 series between the Monaco and French races, Senna took part in the third round of the Ferrari Challenge Trofeo Pirelli European series at Silverstone on June 9 and 10, 2007

 

Darius Grala - He will continue working with Ferrari in 2007

 

Spyker N.V. - In the 2007, the team competed as Spyker F1 using engines supplied by Ferrari

 

Spyker Cars - In the 2007, the team competed as Spyker F1 using engines supplied by Ferrari

 

Web Sheriff - Nick Bracegirdle with Chicane hired Web Sheriff in 2007 to prevent leaks from his album, "Somersault", after self-financing it by selling his Ferrari and mortgaging his home

 

Rickard Rydell - Rydell lost his SEAT drive for 2007, and instead drove an Aston Martin DBR9 with the Prodrive team in the GT Championship having previously worked with the team when using Ferrari's in 2004


2008

Ferrari has considered making hybrids; for example, a F430 Spider that runs on ethanol was displayed at the 2008 Detroit Auto Show add something

 

Ferrari supplied cars complete with V8 engines for the A1 Grand Prix series, from the 2008-09 season add something

 

Zytek - In 2008 Ferrari replaced Zytek as the sole engine supplier in A1GP. Zytek continued to power Euroseries 3000 until 2009 when it was replaced by Auto GP, which utilises Zytek power in the form of the ZA348 3,4-Litre engine

 

Piaggio Aero - In 2008, the Indian multinational conglomerate the Tata Group acquired a one-third stake in Piaggio Aero Industries, becoming one of the primary shareholders alongside Ferrari and Di Mase families and Mubadala Development Company

 

Ian Poulter - Poulter is an avid car collector, and along with his 2008 purchase of a Ford GT, he has a Bentley Continental GT, a Ferrari California, and has owned a Ferrari, Nissan Skyline and an Aston Martin DB9

 

Tesla Roadster - In January 2008, the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration announced that it would grant a waiver of the "advanced" air bag rule noting that the Tesla Roadster already includes standard air bags; similar waivers have been granted to many other small volume manufacturers as well, including Lotus, Ferrari, and Bugatti

 

Tesla Roadster - In a review of a Roadster prototype before the cars were in serial production, "Motor Trend" gave a generally favorable review in March 2008, stating that, it was "undeniably, unbelievably efficient" and would be "profoundly humbling to just about any rumbling Ferrari or Porsche that makes the mistake of pulling up next to a silent, 105 mpg Tesla Roadster at a stoplight"


2009

The drivers competing for 2009 were Felipe Massa and defending champion Kimi Räikkönen add something

 

Max Mosley - As of 2009, Ferrari is the only F1 team to retain tobacco sponsorship, although the team carries no explicit branding in races because of the European legislation

 

Iveco - In 2009 Iveco became the Trucks and Commercial Vehicle Supplier for the Moto GP, together with the historical sponsorship to the Ferrari Racing Team, for which it supplies the vehicles that transport the single-seaters at all the Formula 1 World Championship races

 

Steve Matchett - In 2009 Matchett presented a thirty-minute show for Speed Channel called "Always Ferrari", in which he visited the famous Italian marque's Maranello factory, toured the road car restoration division, the Formula 1 racing headquarters and there interviewed F1 team members including drivers Felipe Massa and Kimi Räikkönen

 

Cristiano Ronaldo - On 8 January 2009, Ronaldo was uninjured in a single-car accident in which he wrote off his Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano in a tunnel along the A538 near Manchester Airport

 

Lotus Cars - Kimberley retired as CEO on 17 July 2009, replaced on 1 October 2009 by the former Senior Vice President for Commercial & Brand at Ferrari, Dany Bahar

 

Jean Alesi - On 13 October 2009, Alesi tested an AF Corse Ferrari F430 GT2 at Maranello, on the same day that Felipe Massa drove an F1 car for the first time after his accident in Hungary earlier in the year


2010

As of 2010 Fernando Alonso has started racing for Ferrari after racing for Renault, Minardi and Mclaren, filling Kimi Räikkönen's former seat add something

 

At the 2010 Geneva Motor Show, Ferrari unveiled a hybrid version of their flagship 599 add something

 

The most recent concept car to be produced by Ferrari themselves was the 2010 Ferrari Millechili add something

 

Jean Alesi - After the test, which lasted just 65 laps, Alesi was enthusiastic and Amato Ferrari talked about Alesi's possible involvement in the 2010 programme

 

Jeremy Clarkson - In an episode aired after the watershed on 1 August 2010, Clarkson described a "Ferrari F430 Speciale" as "speciale needs"


2011

A five-year deal was agreed and although this is not due to end until 2011, in April 2008 Marlboro dropped their on-car branding on Ferrari add something

 

Jay Kay - The album's cover featured an adaptation of the "Buffalo Man" logo and the Ferrari crest, In 2011 he visited Maranello for an exclusive viewing of the then-new Ferrari 458 Spider


2012

Tracy Krohn - For 2012, the team will compete in the FIA World Endurance Championship with a Ferrari F458 Italia in GTE-Am

 

Mansory - In 2012, "Top Gear" featured a Ferrari 458 Italia tuned by Mansory on their website


2013

Formula One - Both Ferrari and McLaren of the 2013 season used a pullrod suspension at both the front and the rear

 

Fabien Barthez - In 2013 he will compete in the newly re-branded FIA GT Series alongside Gérard Tonelli in the Gentleman Trophy class with SOFREV ASP driving a GT3-spec Ferrari 458 Italia

 

Bernard Tomic - On January 29, 2013 Tomic was caught speeding by police when travelling 78 km/h in a 60 km/h zone while driving his Ferrari on the Gold Coast


2014

Of the 19 tracks used in 2014, 8 have lap records set by the Ferrari F2004, with a further 3 set by the Ferrari F2003-GA, Ferrari F2008 and Ferrari F10 add something

 

On 29 October 2014, the FCA group, resulting from the merger between manufacturers Fiat and Chrysler, announced the split of its luxury brand, Ferrari add something


2015

Ferrari has announced that a hybrid will be in production by 2015 add something


2016

Ferrari's former CEO and Chairman, Luca di Montezemolo, resigned from the company after 23 years, who was succeeded by Amedeo Felisa and finally on 3rd May, 2016 Amedeo resigned and was succeeded by Sergio Marchionne, CEO and Chairman of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, Ferrari's parent company add something

 

Ferrari's former CEO and Chairman, Luca di Montezemolo, resigned from the company after 23 years, who was succeeded by Amedeo Felisa and finally on 3 May 2016 Amedeo resigned and was succeeded by Sergio Marchionne, CEO and Chairman of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, Ferrari's parent company add something


2018

As of 2018, the estimated total of Ferrari built and sold cars in whole company history was about 190,000 add something

 

In July 2018, Marchionne was replaced by board member Louis Camilleri as CEO and by John Elkann as chairman add something