United Artists
(Media and Entertainment)
Francis Ford Coppola
(Movies & TV)
Robert Redford
(Movies & TV)
Mark Rydell
(Movies & TV)
Andy Warhol
(Visual Arts)
Gregory Markopoulos
(Movies & TV)
Kenneth Anger
(Movies & TV)

See also

Independent film

Knowledge Identifier: $Independent_film


Independent film

Film production resulting in a feature film that is produced mostly or completely outside of the major film studio system add

Category: Movies & TV

Launched in 1950.

Countries: United States (77%), America (6%), (6%)

Main connections: United Artists, Francis Ford Coppola, Robert Redford

Linked to: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, American Mutoscope and Biograph Company, De Laurentiis Entertainment Group, Grand National Films Inc.




This timeline needs to be reviewed and corrected, as it has been automatically generated from multiple web sources.
Please help improve it by adding dated informations, images and videos about Independent film.


By the late 1950s, RKO had ceased film production, and the remaining four of big five had recognized that they did not know how to reach the youth audience add something


The 1950s and early 1960s saw a Hollywood dominated by musicals, historical epics, and other films which benefited from these advances add something


This proved commercially viable during most of the 1950s add something


Meanwhile, in 1951, lawyers-turned-producers Arthur Krim and Robert Benjamin had made a deal with the remaining stockholders of United Artists which would allow them to make an attempt to revive the company and, if the attempt was successful, buy it after five years add something


The attempt was a success, and in 1955 United Artists became the first "studio" without an actual studio add something


UA went public in 1956, and as the other mainstream studios fell into decline, UA prospered, adding relationships with the Mirisch brothers, Billy Wilder, Joseph E. Levine and others add something


By 1958, many of the reasons for creating the SIMPP had been corrected and SIMPP closed its offices add something


Corman's example would help start a boom in independent B-movies in the 1960s, the principal aim of which was to bring in the youth market which the major studios had lost touch with add something


However, by the late 1960s, audience share was dwindling at an alarming rate add something


Founded in 1962 by Jonas Mekas, Stan Brakhage, Shirley Clarke, Gregory Markopoulos, and others, the Cooperative provided an important outlet for many of cinema's creative luminaries in the 1960s, including Jack Smith and Andy Warhol add something


In 1968, a young filmmaker named George A. Romero shocked audiences with "Night of the Living Dead", a new kind of intense and unforgiving independent horror film add something


Though thematic changes which spread through the American cinema of the 1970s prominently featured heightened depictions of realistic sex and violence, directors who wished to reach the mass audience of the old Hollywood quickly learned to stylize these themes to make their films appealing and attractive rather than repulsive or obscene add something


George Lucas would leave Zoetrope in 1971 to create his own independent studio, Lucasfilm, which would produce the blockbuster "Star Wars" and "Indiana Jones" franchises add something


Until his so-called "retirement" as a director in 1971 he would produce up to seven movies a year, matching and often exceeding the five-per-year schedule that the executives at United Artists had once thought impossible add something


The jury of the 1978 festival was headed by Gary Allison, and included Verna Fields, Linwood Gale Dunn, Katherine Ross, Charles E. Sellier Jr., Mark Rydell, and Anthea Sylbert add something


Though Coppola made considerable efforts to resist the influence of the studios, opting to finance his risky 1979 film "Apocalypse Now" himself rather than compromise with skeptical studio executives, he, and filmmakers like him, had saved the old studios from financial ruin by providing them with a new formula for success add something


In 1981, the same year that United Artists, bought out by MGM, ceased to exist as a venue for independent filmmakers, Sterling Van Wagenen left the film festival to help found the Sundance Institute with Robert Redford add something


In 1985, the now well-established Sundance Institute, headed by Sterling Van Wagenen, took over management of the US Film Festival, which was experiencing financial difficulties add something


With the advent of consumer camcorders in 1985, and more importantly, the arrival of digital video in the early 1990s lowered the technology barrier to movie production add something


The 1990s saw the rise and success of independent films not only through the film festival circuit but at the box office as well while established actors, such as Bruce Willis, John Travolta, and Tim Robbins, found success themselves both in independent films and Hollywood studio films add something


The independent film scene's development in the 1990s and 2000s has been stimulated by a range of factors, including the development of affordable digital cinematography cameras that can rival 35 mm film quality and easy-to-use computer editing software add something


In 1991, the festival was officially renamed the "Sundance Film Festival", after Redford's famous role as The Sundance Kid add something


The acquisitions proved to be a good move for Turner Broadcasting as New Line released "The Mask" and "Dumb & Dumber", Castle Rock released "The Shawshank Redemption", and Miramax released "Pulp Fiction", all in 1994 add something


Turner Broadcasting, in a billion-dollar deal, acquired New Line Cinema, Fine Line Features, and Castle Rock Entertainment in 1994 add something


One of the examples of such a new indie approach to filmmaking is a documentary film Genghis Blues that has been shot by brothers Belic on two Hi8 consumer camcorders and won the 1999 Sundance Film Festival Audience award for a Documentary add something


In 2004 Panasonic released the DVX100 camcorder, which featured film-like 24-frame per second shooting rate add something


New York, N.Y.: August 21, 2005. pg add something


Director Francis Ford Coppola, long an advocate of new technologies like non-linear editing and digital cameras, said in 2007 that "cinema is escaping being controlled by the financier, and that's a wonderful thing add something


In 2008 Canon released the first DSLR camera that could shoot full HD video, the Canon EOS 5D Mark II add something


Five of the Golden Age Majors continue to exist as important Hollywood studio entities through 2009 add something


Michelle Ray Smith - In 2010, she had a supporting role in the film "Salt", starring Angelina Jolie, and played the female lead role alongside Robert Englund in the Independent film Inkubus


The development of no-budget film production company ASS Studios in 2011 brought guerrilla style tactics to their filmmaking add something


The upset 2015 Best Picture win for "Spotlight" at the 88th Academy Awards had a major impact on box office intake on major studio films in 2016, proving that the ever growing success of independent films are not dependent on any particular format add something


The upset Best Picture Oscar wins for "Spotlight" at the 2016 awards and "Moonlight" at the 2017 awards had, and continues to have, a major impact on box office intake on major studio films in the present era, proving that the ever-growing success of independent films is not dependent on any particular format add something