Twisted nematic field effect

Knowledge Identifier: $Twisted_nematic_field_effect


Twisted nematic field effect

The twisted nematic effect was a main technology breakthrough that made LCDs practical add

Category: Technology (706)

Launched in 1962.

Countries: RCA (71%), France (14%), US (14%)

Main connection: Charles-Victor Mauguin

Linked to: RCA




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In 1962, Richard Williams, a physical chemist working at RCA Laboratories, started seeking new physical phenomena that might yield a display technology without vacuum tubes add something


In 1964, RCA's George H. Heilmeier along with Louis Zanoni and chemist Lucian Barton discovered that certain liquid crystals could be switched between a transparent state and a highly scattering opaque one with the application of electrical current add something


One of these potential effects had been discovered by Heilmeier in 1964 add something


In 1965 Joseph Castellano and Joel Goldmacher, organic chemists, sought crystals that remained in the fluid state at room temperature add something


Wolfgang Helfrich, a physicist who joined RCA in 1967, became interested in Mauguin's twisted structure and thought it might be used to create an electronic display add something


Within six months they had found a number of candidates, and with further development, RCA was able to announce the first liquid crystal displays in 1968 add something


In 1970, Helfrich left RCA and joined the Central Research Laboratories of Hoffmann-LaRoche in Switzerland, where he teamed up with Martin Schadt, a solid-state physicist add something


When news of the demonstration reached Hoffmann-LaRoche, Helfrich and Schadt immediately pushed for a patent, which was filed on 4 December 1970 add something


Fergason published a similar patent in the US on either 9 February 1971 or 22 April 1971 add something


Their formal results were published in "Applied Physics Letters" in 15 February 1971 add something


In 1972 a team led by George W. Gray developed a new type of cyanobiphenyls that could be mixed with PEBAB to produce less reactive materials add something


In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the new effect for displays, Schadt fabricated a 4-digit display panel in 1972 add something


By the 1990s, TN-effect LCDs were largely universal in portable electronics add something