Paul von Hindenburg
Nazi Party
Soviet Union
Albert Speer
(Visual Arts)
Benito Mussolini
Leni Riefenstahl
(Movies & TV)

See also

Adolf Hitler

Knowledge Identifier: +Adolf_Hitler


Adolf Hitler

Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the Nazi Partyadd

Category: Politics

Born in 1889.

Countries: Germany (48%), United States (11%), United Kingdom (11%)

Education: undef.

Main connections: Paul von Hindenburg, Nazi Party, Soviet Union

Linked to: German Workers' Party, Centre Party, Nazi Party, Axis powers




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Adolf Hitler was born on 20 April 1889 at the Gasthof zum Pommer, an inn in Ranshofen, a village annexed in 1938 to the municipality of Braunau am Inn, Upper Austria. add something


In 1894 the family relocated to Leonding (near Linz), and in June 1895, Alois retired to a small landholding at Hafeld, near Lambach, where he tried his hand at farming and beekeeping. add something


The death of his younger brother Edmund from measles on 2 February 1900 deeply affected Hitler. add something


Ludwig Wittgenstein - Several commentators have argued that a school photograph of Hitler may show Wittgenstein in the lower left corner, but Hamann says the photograph stems from 1900 or 1901, before Wittgenstein's time.


After Alois' sudden death on 3 January 1903, Hitler's behaviour at the technical school became even more disruptive, and he was asked to leave in 1904. add something


From 1905, Hitler lived a bohemian life in Vienna financed by orphan's benefits and support from his mother. add something


In the autumn of 1905, after passing a repeat and the final exam, Hitler left the school without showing any ambitions for further schooling or clear plans for his future career. add something


The Academy of Fine Arts Vienna rejected him twice, in 1907 and 1908, because of his "unfitness for painting", and the director recommended that he study architecture. add something


Richard Strauss - For reasons of expediency, however, he was initially drawn into cooperating with the early Nazi regime in the hope that Hitler – an ardent Wagnerian and music lover who had admired Strauss's work since viewing Salome in 1907 – would promote German art and culture.


In 1909, he lived in a homeless shelter, and by 1910, he had settled into a house for poor working men on Meldemannstraße. add something


Hitler received the final part of his father's estate in May 1913 and moved to Munich . add something


In March, Prince Bernhard Wilhelm von Bülow, secretary at the Auswärtiges Amt, issued a major statement of German foreign policy aims: Anschluss with Austria, the restoration of Germany's national borders of 1914, rejection of Part V of the Treaty of Versailles, the return of the former German colonies in Africa, and a German zone of influence in Eastern Europe. add something


After a physical exam on 5 February 1914, he was deemed unfit for service and returned to Munich . add something


When Germany entered World War I in August 1914, he successfully petitioned King Ludwig III of Bavaria for permission to serve in a Bavarian regiment. add something


During the Battle of the Somme in October 1916, he was wounded either in the groin area or the left thigh by a shell that had exploded in the dispatch runners' dugout. add something


The Russian Roots of Nazism White Émigres and the Making of National Socialism, 1917–1945. add something


Hitler spent almost two months in the Red Cross hospital at Beelitz, returning to his regiment on 5 March 1917. add something


Germany Tried Democracy: A Political History of the Reich from 1918 to 1933. add something


He received the Wound Badge on 18 May 1918. add something


Recommended by Hugo Gutmann, he received the Iron Cross, First Class, on 4 August 1918, a decoration rarely awarded to one of Hitler's rank. add something


On 15 October 1918, Hitler was temporarily blinded by a mustard gas attack and was hospitalised in Pasewalk. add something


The experience made Hitler a passionate German patriot, and he was shocked by Germany's capitulation in November 1918. add something


Hitler was a renowned orator, and honed his skills by giving speeches to military audiences in 1919 and 1920. add something


Hitler accepted on 12 September 1919, becoming the party's 55th member. add something


Alfred Rosenberg - Rosenberg became one of the earliest members of the German Workers Party , joining in January 1919; Adolf Hitler did not join until October 1919


After his discharge from the army in March 1920, Hitler began working full time for the party. add something


In June 1921, while Hitler and Eckart were on a fundraising trip to Berlin , a mutiny broke out within the DAP in Munich . add something


The Nazi Party had used Italian Fascism as a model for their appearance and policies, and in 1923, Hitler wanted to emulate Benito Mussolini's "March on Rome" by staging his own "Campaign in Berlin". add something


The Bavarian Supreme Court issued a pardon and he was released from jail on 20 December 1924, against the state prosecutor's objections. add something


Ezra Pound - He moved to Italy in 1924, where throughout the 1930s and 1940s, to his friends' dismay, he embraced Benito Mussolini's fascism, expressed support for Adolf Hitler and wrote for publications owned by Oswald Mosley


Published in two volumes in 1925 and 1926, it sold 228,000 copies between 1925 and 1932. add something


In a meeting with Prime Minister of Bavaria Heinrich Held on 4 January 1925, Hitler agreed to respect the authority of the state: he would only seek political power through the democratic process. add something


Hitler formally renounced his Austrian citizenship on 7 April 1925, but at the time did not acquire German citizenship. add something


However, Hitler was barred from public speaking, a ban that remained in place until 1927. add something


At age 39 Alois assumed the surname "Hitler", spelled as "Hiedler", "Hüttler", or "Huettler"; the name was probably regularised to its final spelling by a clerk. add something


Hitler became obsessed with German nationalism from a young age as a way of rebelling against his father, who was proudly serving the Austrian government. add something


The stock market in the United States crashed on 24 October 1929. add something


Hitler made a prominent appearance at the trial of two Reichswehr officers, Lieutenants Richard Scheringer and Hans Ludin, in the autumn of 1930. add something


The Great Depression in Germany in 1930 provided a political opportunity for Hitler. add something


Kurt Schwitters - The political situation in Germany under the Nazis continued to deteriorate throughout the 1930s; he lost his contract with Hanover City Council in 1934 and examples of his work in German museums were confiscated and publicly ridiculed in 1935.


During a meeting with a Japanese professor in 1931, Hitler praised the Shinto religion and Japanese culture. add something


Hitler had at various times contemplated suicide, and the Walther was the same pistol that his niece, Geli Raubal, had used in her suicide in 1931. add something


Henry Ford - Speaking in 1931 to a "Detroit News" reporter, Hitler said he regarded Ford as his "inspiration," explaining his reason for keeping Ford's life-size portrait next to his desk


Paul von Hindenburg - In October 1931, Hindenburg and Adolf Hitler met for the very first time in a high level conference in Berlin over Hitler's Nazi Party's politics among Hindenburg's cabinet


In 1932 Hitler ran against von Hindenburg in the presidential elections. add something


This law violated the Enabling Act as well as the constitution: the Enabling Act specifically barred Hitler from passing any law that tampered with the presidency, and in 1932, the constitution had been amended to make the president of the High Court of Justice, not the chancellor, acting president pending new elections. add something


Unemployment fell substantially, from six million in 1932 to one million in 1936. add something


Paul von Hindenburg - He dissolved the parliament twice in 1932 and eventually appointed Hitler as Chancellor in January 1933


Walter Benjamin - In 1932, during the turmoil preceding Adolf_Hitler’s assumption of the office of Chancellor of Germany, Walter Benjamin left Germany for the Spanish island of Ibiza for some months; he moved to Nice, where he considered killing himself.


Leni Riefenstahl - Riefenstahl heard candidate Adolf Hitler speak at a rally in 1932 and was mesmerized by his talent as a public speaker


Paul von Hindenburg - Though 84 years old and in poor health, Hindenburg was persuaded to run for re-election in 1932, as he was considered the only candidate who could defeat Adolf Hitler


Paul von Hindenburg - Brüning met with Hitler in January 1932 to ask if he would agree to President Hindenburg's demand to forgo the presidential election


Paul von Hindenburg - In the runoff election of April 1932, Hindenburg defeated Hitler for the Presidency thus securing his re-election


Paul von Hindenburg - Following the Nazi electoral triumph in the Reichstag elections held on 31 July 1932, there were widespread expectations that Hitler would soon be appointed Chancellor


At the first meeting of his Cabinet in 1933, Hitler prioritised military spending over unemployment relief. add something


One million copies were sold in 1933, Hitler's first year in office. add something


The Foreign Policy of Hitler's Germany Diplomatic Revolution in Europe 1933–1936. add something


In a meeting with German military leaders on 3 February 1933, Hitler spoke of "conquest for Lebensraum in the East and its ruthless Germanisation" as his ultimate foreign policy objectives. add something


On 27 February 1933, the Reichstag building was set on fire. add something


On 14 July 1933 Hitler's Nazi Party was declared the only legal political party in Germany. add something


Germany withdrew from the League of Nations and the World Disarmament Conference in October 1933. add something


Martin Heidegger - Adolf Hitler was sworn in as Chancellor of Germany on January 30, 1933.


Werner Heisenberg - After Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, Heisenberg was attacked in the press as a "White Jew" by elements of the deutsche Physik movement for his insistence on teaching about the roles of Jewish scientists.


Leni Riefenstahl - After meeting Hitler she was offered the opportunity to direct "Sieg des Glaubens" , an hour-long feature film about the fifth Nazi Party rally at Nuremberg in 1933


Lise Meitner - After the war, Meitner, while acknowledging her own moral failing in staying in Germany from 1933 to 1938, was bitterly critical of Hahn and other German scientists who had collaborated with the Nazis and done nothing to protest against the crimes of Hitler's regime


Paul von Hindenburg - During 1933 and 1934, Chancellor Hitler, as head of government, was very aware of the fact that President Hindenburg, his only superior, was head of state as well as Supreme Commander of the German armed forces


Kurt Godel - In 1933 Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany and over the following years the Nazis rose in influence in Austria, and among Vienna 's mathematicians


Thomas Mann - In 1933, after Hitler assumed power, Mann emigrated to Küsnacht, near Zurich, but received Czechoslovak citizenship and a passport in 1936.


Arnold Schoenberg - Schoenberg continued in his post until the election of Adolf Hitler and the Nazis in 1933.


Albert Speer - The organizers of the 1933 Nürnberg Nazi Party rally asked Speer to submit designs for the rally, bringing him into contact with Hitler for the first time


Lise Meitner - When Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, Meitner was acting director of the Institute for Chemistry


Fritz Lang - Adolf Hitler came to power in January 1933, and by March 30, the new regime banned it as an incitement to public disorder.


Paul von Hindenburg - Until January 1933, Hindenburg often stated that he would never appoint Hitler as Chancellor under any circumstances


Albert Speer - When the commission was completed, Speer returned to Mannheim and remained there as Hitler took office in January 1933


Pope Pius XII - Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor on 30 January 1933 and sought to gain international respectability and to remove internal opposition by representatives of the Church and the Catholic Centre Party


Paul von Hindenburg - On the morning of 30 January 1933, Hindenburg swore Hitler in as Chancellor at the Presidential Palace


Richard Strauss - In March 1933, when Richard Strauss was 68, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party rose to power.


Anne Frank - On 13 March 1933, elections were held in Frankfurt for the municipal council, and Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party won.


Paul von Hindenburg - At the opening of the new "Reichstag" on 21 March 1933, at the Garrison Church at Potsdam, the Nazis staged an elaborate ceremony in which Hindenburg played the leading part, appearing alongside Hitler during an event orchestrated to mark the continuity between the old Prussian-German tradition and the new Nazi state


Errol Flynn - Hermann Erben, an Austrian who served in the German military intelligence, and that declassified files held by the CIA show that, in an intercepted letter in September 1933, Flynn wrote to Erben: "A slimy Jew is trying to cheat me… I do wish we could bring Hitler over here to teach these Isaacs a thing or two.


In 1934, Hitler became Germany's president under the title of Führer und Reichskanzler. add something


Hitler responded by purging the entire SA leadership in what became known as the Night of the Long Knives, which took place from 30 June to 2 July 1934. add something


Billy Wilder - After the rise of Adolf Hitler, Wilder, a Jew, left for Paris , where he made his directorial debut with the 1934 film Mauvaise Graine.


William Randolph Hearst - In 1934 after checking with Jewish leaders to make sure the visit would prove of benefit to Jews, Hearst visited Berlin to interview Adolf Hitler


Jorge Luis Borges - In 1934, Argentine ultra-nationalists, sympathetic to Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party, asserted Borges was secretly Jewish, and by implication, not a "true" Argentine.


Fiorello La Guardia - In a public address in 1934, LaGuardia warned, "Part of Hitler's program is the complete annihilation of the Jews in Germany


Paul von Hindenburg - Hitler had a plebiscite held on 19 August 1934, in which the German people were asked if they approved of Hitler merging the two offices


In 1935 Hitler appointed Hjalmar Schacht as Plenipotentiary for War Economy, in charge of preparing the economy for war. add something


On 15 September 1935 he presented two laws—known as the Nuremberg Laws—to the Reichstag. add something


Neville Chamberlain - By 1935, faced with a resurgent Germany under Hitler's leadership, he was convinced of the need for rearmament


Sven Hedin - He met Adolf Hitler in Berlin before his lecture on April 14, 1935.


Sven Hedin - In 1935 Hedin made his exclusive knowledge about central Asia available, not only to the Swedish government, but to foreign governments such as China and Germany, in lecturers and personal discussions with political representatives of Chiang Kai-shek and Adolf Hitler.


In 1936 Hitler opened the summer Olympic games in Berlin. add something


The laws banned marriage between non-Jewish and Jewish Germans, and forbade the employment of non-Jewish women under the age of 45 in Jewish households. add something


Germany reoccupied the demilitarised zone in the Rhineland in March 1936, in violation the Versailles treaty. add something


Hitler sent troops to Spain to support General Franco after receiving an appeal for help in July 1936. add something


Frederik Pohl - During 1936, Pohl joined the Young Communist League because of its positions for unions and against racial prejudice, Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini


Leni Riefenstahl - In 1936, Hitler invited Riefenstahl to film the Olympic Games in Berlin, a film which Riefenstahl claimed had been commissioned by the International Olympic Committee


Reinhard Heydrich - On 17 June 1936 all police forces throughout Germany were united, following Hitler appointing Himmler as Chief of German Police


David Lloyd George - In September 1936 Lloyd George went to Germany to talk with the German dictator Adolf Hitler


Britain, China, Italy, and Poland were invited to join the Anti-Comintern Pact, but only Italy signed in 1937. add something


Hitler began using amphetamine occasionally after 1937 and became addicted to the drug in the fall of 1942. add something


Pope Pius XII - According to Joseph Bottum, Pacelli in 1937 "warned A. W. Klieforth, the American consul to Berlin, that Hitler was "an untrustworthy scoundrel and fundamentally wicked person"; Klieforth wrote that Pacelli "did not believe Hitler capable of moderation, and


Edvard Munch - Adolf Hitler announced in 1937, "For all we care, those prehistoric Stone Age culture barbarians and art-stutterers can return to the caves of their ancestors and there can apply their primitive international scratching.


Erwin Rommel - In 1937, Rommel conducted a tour of Hitler Youth meetings and encampments and delivered lectures on German soldiering while inspecting facilities and exercises


Michael of Romania - Michael had lunch with Adolf Hitler twice, once with his father in Bavaria in 1937, and with his mother in Berlin in 1941


Edward VIII - In October 1937, the Duke and Duchess visited Germany, against the advice of the British government, and met Adolf Hitler at his Obersalzberg retreat.


As a result of the summit, Hitler was selected Time magazine's Man of the Year for 1938. add something


As recorded in the Hossbach Memorandum, Hitler stated his intention of acquiring Lebensraum ("living space") for the German people, and ordered preparations for war in the east, which would commence as early as 1938 and no later than 1943. add something


Both men had already fallen into disfavour when they objected to his demand that they have the Wehrmacht ready to go to war as early as 1938. add something


Chamberlain was satisfied with the Munich conference, calling the outcome "peace for our time", while Hitler was angered about the missed opportunity for war in 1938. add something


In early 1938, Hitler forced his War Minister, Field Marshal Werner von Blomberg, to resign when a police dossier was discovered showing that Blomberg's new wife had a record for prostitution. add something


In early 1938, in the wake of the Blomberg–Fritsch Affair, Hitler asserted control of the military-foreign policy apparatus. add something


By early February 1938, twelve other generals had been removed. add something


In February 1938, on the advice of his newly appointed Foreign Minister, the strongly pro-Japanese Joachim von Ribbentrop, Hitler ended the Sino-German alliance with the Republic of China to instead enter into an alliance with the more modern and powerful Japan. add something


On 12 March 1938 Hitler declared unification of Austria with Nazi Germany in the Anschluss. add something


Hitler called off Fall Grün, originally planned for 1 October 1938. add something


Albert Speer - In January 1938, Hitler asked Speer to build a new Reich Chancellery on the same site as the existing structure, and said he needed it for urgent foreign policy reasons no later than his next New Year's reception for diplomats on January 10, 1939


Neville Chamberlain - In February 1938, Hitler began to press the Austrian government to accept "Anschluss" or union between Germany and Austria


Leni Riefenstahl - She arrived in New York City in November 1938, five days before Kristallnacht, or 'night of broken glass'; when news of the event reached the U.S., Riefenstahl maintained that Hitler was innocent


Between 1939 and 1945 there were many plans to assassinate Hitler, some of which proceeded to significant degrees. add something


Between 1939 and 1945, the SS, assisted by collaborationist governments and recruits from occupied countries, were responsible for the deaths of eleven to fourteen million people, including about six million Jews, representing two-thirds of the Jewish population in Europe, and between 500,000 and 1,500,000 Roma. add something


In private discussions in 1939, Hitler described Britain as the main enemy that had to be defeated. add something


In retaliation, Chinese General Chiang Kai-shek cancelled all Sino-German economic agreements, depriving the Germans of many Chinese raw materials, though they did continue to ship tungsten, a key metal in armaments production, through to 1939. add something


The fall of Poland was followed by what contemporary journalists dubbed the "Phoney War" or Sitzkrieg ("sitting war"). add something


Therefore, Hitler decided to invade Poland; he made this the main German foreign policy goal of 1939. add something


In his "Export or die" speech of 30 January 1939, he called for an economic offensive to increase German foreign exchange holdings to pay for raw materials such as high-grade iron needed for military weapons. add something


Hitler was offended by the British "guarantee" of Polish independence issued on 31 March 1939, and told his associates that "I shall brew them a devil's drink". add something


On 15 March 1939, in violation of the Munich accord and possibly as a result of the deepening economic crisis requiring additional assets, Hitler ordered the Wehrmacht to invade Prague , and from Prague Castle proclaimed Bohemia and Moravia a German protectorate. add something


In a speech in Wilhelmshaven for the launch of the battleship Tirpitz on 1 April 1939, Hitler threatened to denounce the Anglo-German Naval Agreement if the British persisted with their guarantee of Polish independence, which he perceived as an "encirclement" policy. add something


On 3 April 1939 Hitler ordered the military to prepare for Fall Weiss, the plan for an invasion of Poland on 25 August 1939. add something


In response to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact—and contrary to the prediction of Ribbentrop that the newly-formed pact would sever Anglo-Polish ties—Britain and Poland signed the Anglo-Polish alliance on 25 August 1939. add something


The German Ambassador in London, Herbert von Dirksen, supported Ribbentrop's analysis with a dispatch in August 1939, reporting that Chamberlain knew "the social structure of Britain, even the conception of the British Empire, would not survive the chaos of even a victorious war", and so would back down. add something


Erwin Rommel - By 1939 the Hitler Youth had 20,000 rifle instructors


Martin Heidegger - In private notes written in 1939, Heidegger took a strongly critical view of Hitler's ideology, however in public lectures he seems to have continued to make ambiguous comments which, if they expressed criticism of the regime, did so only in the context of praising its ideals.


Reinhard Heydrich - When Hitler asked for a pretext for the invasion of Poland in 1939, Himmler, Heydrich, and Heinrich Müller masterminded a false flag plan code-named Operation Himmler


Neville Chamberlain - When Hitler continued his aggression, Chamberlain pledged Britain to defend Poland's independence if the latter were attacked, an alliance that brought Britain into war when Germany attacked Poland in 1939


William Lyon Mackenzie King - King realized the likelihood of World War II before Hitler invaded Poland in 1939, and began mobilizing on August 25, 1939, with full mobilization on September 1


Francisco Franco - In September 1939, World War II broke out in Europe, and on 12 October 1940 Hitler and Franco met in Hendaye, to discuss the possibility of Spain's entry on the side of the Axis


Neville Chamberlain - Second World War - When Adolf Hitler continued his aggression by invading Poland, Britain declared war on Germany on 3 September 1939, and Chamberlain led Britain through the first eight months of the Second World War


At a conference held at Göring's Karinhall estate on 12 February 1940, the dispute was initially settled in favour of the Göring–Frank view of economic exploitation, which ended the economically disruptive mass expulsions. add something


Hitler commenced building up military forces on Germany's western border, and in April 1940, German forces invaded Denmark and Norway. add something


In May 1940, Hitler's forces attacked France, and conquered Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and Belgium. add something


On 15 May 1940, however, Himmler presented Hitler with a memo entitled "Some Thoughts on the Treatment of Alien Population in the East", which called for expulsion of the entire Jewish population of Europe into Africa and reducing the remainder of the Polish population to a "leaderless class of labourers". add something


These victories prompted Mussolini to have Italy join forces with Hitler on 10 June 1940. add something


On 27 September 1940 the Tripartite Pact was signed in Berlin by Saburo Kurusu of Imperial Japan, Hitler, and Italian foreign minister Ciano. add something


By the end of October 1940, air superiority for the invasion of Britain—Operation Sea Lion—could not be achieved, and Hitler ordered nightly air raids of British cities, including London, Plymouth, and Coventry. add something


Pope Pius XII - In the spring of 1940, a group of German generals seeking to overthrow Hitler and make peace with the British approached Pope Pius XII, who acted as a negotiator between the British and the abortive plot


Ion Antonescu - Many young German Romanian men opted to join the "Schutzstaffel" as early as 1940 and, in 1943, an accord between Antonescu and Hitler automatically sent ethnic Germans of recruitable age into the Wehrmacht


Bertrand Russell - Russell opposed rearmament against Nazi Germany, but in 1940 changed his view that avoiding a full scale world war was more important than defeating Hitler


Mel Brooks - The song - satirizing German society in the 1940s with Brooks playing Hitler - was an unlikely hit, peaking at 12 on the UK Singles Chart in February 1984 and 3 on the Australian Singles Chart that same year.


Leni Riefenstahl - On 14 June 1940, the day Paris was declared an open city by the French and occupied by German troops, Riefenstahl wrote to Hitler in a telegram, With indescribable joy, deeply moved and filled with burning gratitude, we share with you, my Führer, your and Germany's greatest victory, the entry of German troops into Paris


In the Spring of 1941, Hitler was distracted from his plans for the East by military activities in North Africa, the Balkans, and the Middle East. add something


War of Annihilation: Combat and Genocide on the Eastern Front, 1941. add something


Hitler and the Japanese Foreign Minister, Yosuke Matsuoka, at a meeting in Berlin in March 1941. add something


On 22 June 1941, contravening the Hitler-Stalin non-aggression pact of 1939, three million German troops attacked the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa. add something


Viktor Suvorov, Ernst Topitsch, Joachim Hoffmann, Ernst Nolte, and David Irving have argued that the official reason for Barbarossa given by the German military was the real reason—a preventive war to avert an impending Soviet attack scheduled for July 1941. add something


The Wehrmacht invasion of the Soviet Union reached its peak on 2 December 1941, when the 258th Infantry Division advanced to within 15 miles of Moscow, close enough to see the spires of the Kremlin. add something


Ion Antonescu - After entering Romania into an alliance with Nazi Germany and the Axis and ensuring Adolf Hitler's confidence, he eliminated the Guard during the Legionary Rebellion of 1941


Franklin D. Roosevelt - The Conquerors: Roosevelt, Truman, and the destruction of Hitler's Germany, 1941–1945.


Ion Antonescu - The German military presence increased significantly in early 1941, when, using Romania as a base, Hitler invaded the rebellious Kingdom of Yugoslavia and the Kingdom of Greece


Albert Speer - When Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941, Speer came to doubt, despite Hitler's reassurances, that his projects for Berlin would ever be completed


Sven Hedin - After the third senate of the highest German military court in Berlin condemned to death for alleged espionage the ten Norwegians Sigurd Jakobsen, Gunnar Hellesen, Helge Børseth, Siegmund Brommeland, Peter Andree Hjelmervik, Siegmund Rasmussen, Gunnar Carlsen, Knud Gjerstad, Christian Oftedahl and Frithiof Lund on 24 February 1941, Sven Hedin successfully appealed via Colonel General Nikolaus von Falkenhorst to Adolf Hitler for their reprieve.


Ion Antonescu - Antonescu traveled to Germany and met Hitler on eight more occasions between June 1941 and August 1944. and the only foreigner to consult on military matters


Joseph Stalin - During the early morning of 22 June 1941, Hitler broke the pact by implementing Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of Soviet held territories and the Soviet Union that began the war on the Eastern Front.


Joseph Stalin - In September 1941, Stalin told British diplomats that he wanted two agreements: a mutual assistance/aid pact and a recognition that, after the war, the Soviet Union would gain the territories in countries that it had taken pursuant to its division of Eastern Europe with Hitler in the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact.


Karl Donitz - On 11 December 1941, following Adolf Hitler's declaration of war on the United States, Dönitz immediately planned for implementation of Operation Drumbeat This targeted shipping along the east coast of the United States


Erwin Rommel - Erwin von Witzleben, who would have become commander-in-chief of the Wehrmacht if Hitler had been overthrown, was a field marshal, but had not been on active duty since 1942


Joseph Stalin - In 1942, Hitler shifted his primary goal from an immediate victory in the East, to the more long-term goal of securing the southern Soviet Union to protect oil fields vital to a long-term German war effort.


Reinhard Heydrich - On 27 May 1942 Heydrich was scheduled to attend a meeting with Hitler in Berlin


Werner Heisenberg - Five days later, on 9 June 1942, Adolf Hitler issued a decree for the reorganization of the RFR as a separate legal entity under the Reich Ministry for Armament and Ammunition; the decree appointed Reich Marshall Göring as the president.


Wernher von Braun - On December 22, 1942, Adolf Hitler signed the order approving the production of the A-4 as a "vengeance weapon" and the group developed it to target London


Following the allied invasion of Sicily in 1943, Mussolini was deposed by Pietro Badoglio, who surrendered to the Allies. add something


The country's name was changed to the "Greater German Reich" in 1943. add something


Throughout 1943 and 1944, the Soviet Union steadily forced Hitler's armies into retreat along the Eastern Front. add something


Albert Speer - Speer was so successful in his position that by late 1943, he was widely regarded among the Nazi elite as a possible successor to Hitler


Wernher von Braun - Following von Braun's July 7, 1943 presentation of a color movie showing an A-4 taking off, Hitler was so enthusiastic that he personally made von Braun a professor shortly thereafter


By late 1944, the Red Army had driven the German army back into Western Europe, and the Western Allies were advancing into Germany. add something


Depiction of Adolf Hitler as the Führer of the Reich on a 42 pfennig stamp, 1944. add something


He suffered ruptured eardrums as a result of the 20 July plot bomb blast in 1944, and two hundred wood splinters had to be removed from his legs. add something


In July 1944, in the 20 July plot, part of Operation Valkyrie, Claus von Stauffenberg planted a bomb in one of Hitler's headquarters, the Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) at Rastenburg. add something


Konrad Adenauer - After the failed assassination attempt on Hitler in 1944, he was imprisoned for a second time as an opponent of the regime.


Leni Riefenstahl - For whatever reason, her relationship with Hitler had declined by 1944, when her brother Heinz died on the Russian Front of the war


Karl Donitz - On German Heroes' Day of 1944, Dönitz declared that without Adolf Hitler Germany would be beset by "the poison of Jewry", and the country destroyed for lack of National Socialism, which, as Dönitz declared, met an uncompromising ideology with defiance


Leni Riefenstahl - The last time Riefenstahl saw Hitler was when she married Peter Jacob on 21 March 1944, shortly after she had introduced Jacob to Hitler in Kitzbühel, Austria


Erwin Rommel - By D-Day on 6 June 1944 virtually all German officers, including Hitler's staff, firmly believed that Pas-de-Calais was going to be the invasion site


Albert Speer - Speer's name was included on the list of members of a post-Hitler government drawn up by the conspirators behind the July 1944 assassination plot to kill Hitler


Erwin Rommel - Rommel was approached at his home by Wilhelm Burgdorf and Ernst Maisel, two generals from Hitler's headquarters, on 14 October 1944


Pope Pius XII - The Kaltenbrunner Report to Hitler, dated 29 November 1944, against the backdrop of the 20 July 1944 Plot to assassinate Hitler, states that the Pope was somehow a conspirator, specifically naming Eugenio Pacelli , as being a party in the attempt


Morell treated Hitler with a drug that was commonly prescribed in 1945 for Parkinson's disease. add something


Franklin D. Roosevelt died on 12 April 1945. This buoyed Hitler's hope to negotiate peace with America and Britain. add something

On 30 April 1945, after intense street-to-street combat, when Soviet troops were within a block or two of the Reich Chancellery, Hitler shot himself with his 7.65 mm Walther PPK pistol. add something


Albert Speer - Speer testified that he had planned to kill Hitler in early 1945 by dropping a canister of poison gas into the bunker's air intake


Max Planck - In January 1945, Erwin, to whom he had been particularly close, was sentenced to death by the Nazi Volksgerichtshof because of his participation in the failed attempt to assassinate Hitler in July 1944.


Paul von Hindenburg - In January 1945, as Soviet forces advanced into East Prussia, Hitler ordered both coffins to be disinterred for their safety


Albert Speer - On March 19, 1945, Hitler issued his Nero Decree, ordering a scorched earth policy in both Germany and the occupied territories


Karl Donitz - In his last will and testament, dated 29 April 1945, Hitler named Dönitz his successor as "Staatsoberhaupt" , with the titles of "Reichspräsident" and Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces


Pope Pius XII - Leon Poliakov wrote in 1950 that Pius had been a tacit supporter of Vichy France's anti-Semitic laws, calling him "less forthright" than Pope Pius XI either out of "Germanophilia" or the hope that Hitler would defeat communist Russia


Albert Speer - As early as 1953, when Wolters strongly objected to Speer referring to Hitler in the memoirs draft as a criminal, Speer had predicted that were the writings to be published, he would lose a "good many friends"


Edward VIII - However, during the 1960s he said privately to a friend, Patrick Balfour, 3rd Baron Kinross, "I never thought Hitler was such a bad chap.


On 4 April 1970, a Soviet KGB team used detailed burial charts to exhume five wooden boxes at the SMERSH facility in Magdeburg add something


Henry Ford - Years later, in 1977, Winifred claimed that Ford had told her that he had helped finance Hitler