American Civil War

Knowledge Identifier: !American_Civil_War

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American Civil War

Civil war fought from 1861 to 1865 in the United States of America after seven Southern slave states declared their secession and formed the Confederate States of America add

Category: Military

Activity starting in 1861.

Countries: United States (83%), (4%), India (2%)

Main connections: Union Army, Abraham Lincoln, Virginia

Linked to: History of the United States Democratic Party, Republican Party, Whig Party, Union Army

 

Timeline


 

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1861

A pre-war February Peace Conference of 1861 met in Washington, Lincoln sneaking into town to stay in the Conference's hotel its last three days add something

 

By early 1861, General Winfield Scott had devised the Anaconda Plan to win the war with as little bloodshed as possible add something

 

By the end of 1861, Missouri and Kentucky were effectively under Union control, with Confederate state governments in exile add something

 

In 1861, Lincoln worried that premature attempts at emancipation would mean the loss of the border states, and that "to lose Kentucky is nearly the same as to lose the whole game add something

 

In 1861, Southerners voluntarily embargoed cotton shipments, hoping to start an economic depression in Europe that would force Britain to enter the war in order to get cotton but this did not work add something

 

Many Catholics in the North had volunteered to fight in 1861, sending thousands of soldiers to the front and taking high casualties, especially at Fredericksburg; their volunteering fell off after 1862 add something

 

The Revenue Act of 1861 introduced the income tax to help finance the war add something

 

The South blundered in embargoing cotton exports in 1861 before the blockade was effective; by the time they realized the mistake it was too late add something

 

The "'American Civil War"', known as the "'War Between the States"', or simply the "'Civil War"' in the United States , was a civil war fought from 1861 to 1865 in the United States of America after seven Southern slave states declared their secession and formed the Confederate States of America add something

 

The increases were finally enacted in 1861 after Southerners resigned their seats in Congress add something

 

The small U.S. Navy of 1861 was rapidly enlarged to 6,000 officers and 45,000 men in 1865, with 671 vessels, having a tonnage of 510,396 add something

 

Jay Cooke - American Civil War - On January 1, 1861, just months before the start of the American Civil War, Cooke opened the private banking house of Jay Cooke & Company in Philadelphia

 

Seven Deep South cotton states seceded by February 1861, starting with South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas add something

 

They established a Southern government, the Confederate States of America on February 4, 1861 add something

 

Before Lincoln took office in March 1861, seven slave states had declared their secession and joined to form the Confederacy add something

 

Lincoln won, but before his inauguration on March 4, 1861, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy add something

 

On March 4, 1861, Abraham Lincoln was sworn in as President add something

 

They took control of federal forts and other properties within their boundaries with little resistance from outgoing President James Buchanan, whose term ended on March 4, 1861 add something

 

In April 1861, Lincoln announced the Union blockade of all Southern ports; commercial ships could not get insurance and regular traffic ended add something

 

Jefferson C. Davis - American Civil War - At the start of the American Civil War, Davis was serving in the Fort Sumter garrison when it was bombarded by Confederate forces in April 1861

 

Charles Sumner - American Civil War - During the American Civil War, after the fall of Fort Sumter, in April 1861, Sumner, Chandler and Wade repeatedly visited President Abraham Lincoln at the White House, speaking on slavery and the rebellion

 

Kit Carson - American Civil War - When the American Civil War began in April 1861, Kit Carson resigned his post as federal Indian agent for northern New Mexico

 

Boston Corbett - In April 1861, early in the American Civil War, Corbett enlisted as a private in Company I of the 12 Regiment New York Militia

 

Silas Stringham - On the outbreak of the Civil War in April 1861, he was appointed Flag officer of the Atlantic Blockading Squadron

 

Samuel Baldwin Marks Young - On the outbreak of the Civil War, he joined the 12th Pennsylvania Infantry in April 1861 as a private

 

The attempt failed at resolving the crisis, but the remaining eight slave states rejected pleas to join the Confederacy following a two-to-one no-vote in Virginia's First Secessionist Convention on April 4, 1861 add something

 

Hostilities began on April 12, 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, a key fort held by Union troops in South Carolina add something

 

John Wilkes Booth - On April 12, 1861, the Civil War began, and eventually 11 Southern states seceded from the Union

 

Charles John Biddle - American Civil War - In May 1861, following the outbreak of the American Civil War and President Abraham Lincoln's call to arms, he was appointed a lieutenant colonel in the Pennsylvania Reserves, rising in May to the rank of colonel in command of the 42nd Pennsylvania Volunteers Infantry, known as the 1st Pennsylvania Rifles

 

Guy Vernor Henry - He graduated from the United States Military Academy in May 1861, serving as a Union officer in the Civil War, and later in conflicts against the Native Americans in the West and southwest of the United States of America

 

Two weeks later, on May 3, 1861, Lincoln called for an additional 42,034 volunteers for a period of three years add something

 

By June 1861, warships were stationed off the principal Southern ports, and a year later nearly 300 ships were in service add something

 

Adna Chaffee - American Civil War - When the American Civil War broke out in July 1861, Chaffee enlisted in the Union Army as a Private in the U.S. 6th Cavalry Regiment

 

Lloyd Tilghman - American Civil War - Tilghman was commissioned colonel of the 3rd Kentucky Infantry on July 5, 1861, shortly after the start of the American Civil War

 

Kamehameha IV - American Civil War - In August 1861 he issued a declaration of neutrality in the American Civil War

 

Gustavus Fox - On 1 August 1861, Lincoln appointed him Assistant Secretary of the Navy, an office which he held until the close of the Civil War. In 1866, he was sent on a special mission to Russia; he conveyed the congratulations of the President to Tsar Alexander II upon his escape from assassination

 

When Confederate forces entered the state in September 1861, neutrality ended and the state reaffirmed its Union status, while trying to maintain slavery add something

 

Benjamin Wade - American Civil War - During the American Civil War, Wade was highly critical of President Abraham_Lincoln; in a September 1861 letter, he privately wrote that Lincoln's views on slavery "could only come of one born of poor white trash and educated in a slave State

 

Thomas L. Young - Young joined Company F, of the Benton Cadets as a captain in September 1861 after the outbreak of the Civil War, but resigned in December

 

Henry Percy Brewster - When the Civil War erupted he returned to Texas, where he was commissioned a captain in the Confederate Army and was appointed adjutant general to General Albert Sidney Johnston on September 11, 1861

 

Edmund Colhoun - American Civil War - With the onset of the American Civil War in April 1861, Colhoun returned to U.S. Navy service, becoming an Acting Lieutenant on 24 September 1861

 

Aaron T. Bliss - During the American Civil War, Bliss enlisted as a private in the Peterman Guards of the Tenth New York Volunteer Cavalry, October 1, 1861 and reported for duty at Elmira, New York, New York

 

After Virginia's secession, a Unionist government in Wheeling asked 48 counties to vote on an ordinance to create a new state on October 24, 1861 add something


1862

By 1862, when it became clear that this would be a long war, the question of what to do about slavery became more general add something

 

Confederate incursions into New Mexico were repulsed in 1862, the exiled Arizona government withdrew into Texas add something

 

From early years of the war, hundreds of thousands of African Americans escaped to Union lines, especially in occupied areas like Nashville, Norfolk and the Hampton Roads region in 1862, Tennessee from 1862 on, the line of Sherman's march, etc add something

 

Gen. George B. McClellan took command of the Union Army of the Potomac on July 26 , and the war began in earnest in 1862 add something

 

Nashville and central Tennessee fell to the Union early in 1862, leading to attrition of local food supplies and livestock and a breakdown in social organization add something

 

The 1862 Union strategy called for simultaneous advances along four axes add something

 

The autumn 1862 Confederate campaign into Maryland ended with Confederate retreat at the Battle of Antietam, dissuading British intervention add something

 

To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, and the Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River add something

 

Upon the strong urging of President Lincoln to begin offensive operations, McClellan attacked Virginia in the spring of 1862 by way of the peninsula between the York River and James River, southeast of Richmond add something

 

James Hoge Tyler - American Civil War - About 1862, at the age of 16, he enlisted in the Army of the Confederate States of America and served as a private until the end of the American Civil War rather than accept a commission as an officer and be separated from his friend

 

Daniel Garrison Brinton - American Civil War - From 1862 to 1865, during the American Civil War, he was a surgeon in the Union army, acting during 1864-1865 as surgeon-in-charge of the U.S. Army general hospital at Quincy, Illinois

 

Ormsby M. Mitchel - American Civil War - General Ormsby M. Mitchell died in 1862 in South Carolina, a victim of yellow fever, while a soldier in the American Civil War

 

Wayne MacVeagh - American Civil War - He led militia forces organized to battle back threatened Confederate invaders in 1862 and 1863 and served in the Union army during the American Civil War as an infantry captain and as a major in the cavalry

 

Garnet Wolseley, 1st Viscount Wolseley - American Civil War - In 1862, shortly after the battle of Antietam, Wolseley took leave from his military duties and went to investigate the American Civil War

 

George W. Randolph - Confederate States Secretary of War - He served for eight months in 1862 as the Confederate States Secretary of War during the American Civil War, when he reformed procurement, wrote the conscription law, and strengthened western defenses

 

Thomas Wentworth Higginson - During the Civil War, he served as colonel of the 1st South Carolina Volunteers, the first federally authorized African-American regiment, from 1862-1864

 

John C. Calhoun - During the Civil War, the Confederate government honored Calhoun on a one-cent postage stamp, which was printed in 1862 but was never officially released

 

Edward H. East - He served as Secretary of State for the state of Tennessee from 1862 to 1865, having been appointed by Andrew Johnson, the state's military governor under the Union Army occupation during the Civil War

 

Edwards Pierrepont - In 1862, during the Civil War Pierrepont was appointed by President Abraham Lincoln a member of the military commission to try the cases of state prisoners in the custody of the federal military authorities

 

Kit Carson - In the Civil War he led a regiment of mostly Hispanic volunteers at the Battle of Valverde in 1862

 

The Confederates, lacking their own gunboats, were forced to retreat and the Union took control of western Kentucky in March 1862 add something

 

On its first foray on March 8, 1862, the "Virginia" decimated the Union's wooden fleet, but the next day the first Union ironclad, the U.S."Monitor", arrived to challenge it add something

 

At Shiloh, in Tennessee in April 1862, the Confederates made a surprise attack that pushed Union forces against the river as night fell add something

 

In April 1862, US Naval forces under Farragut ran past Confederate defenses south of New Orleans add something

 

In April 1862, the Union Navy captured New Orleans, which allowed Union forces to begin moving up the Mississippi add something

 

The Confederacy passed a draft law in April 1862 for young men aged 18 to 35; overseers of slaves, government officials, and clergymen were exempt add something

 

Alferd Packer - American Civil War - Alfred Packer served in the Union Army in the American Civil War, enlisting on April 22, 1862 at Winona, Minnesota in Company F, 16th U. S. Infantry Regiment, giving his occupation as a shoemaker

 

Charles S. Boggs - American Civil War - Receiving his Captain's commission in July 1862, during the rest of the American Civil War he was commanding officer of the steam sloops "Juniata" and "Sacramento", with the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, the steam cruiser "Connecticut" in the West Indies, and had special duty at the New York Navy Yard

 

Horatio Collins King - He served in the armies of the Potomac and Shenandoah during the Civil War from August 1862 until October 1865, when he resigned with the rank of brevet colonel

 

In September 1862, the Battle of Antietam provided this opportunity, and the subsequent War Governors' Conference added support for the proclamation add something

 

John Woodward Philip - During the Civil War, he served in , and until September 1862 when he was ordered to

 

McClellan and Lee fought at the Battle of Antietam near Sharpsburg, Maryland, on September 17, 1862, the bloodiest single day in United States military history add something

 

Lincoln issued his preliminary Emancipation Proclamation on September 22, 1862, and his final Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863 add something

 

William Ewart Gladstone - American Civil War - As Chancellor, Gladstone made a speech at Newcastle on 7 October 1862 in which he supported the independence of the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War, claiming that Jefferson Davis had "made a nation"

 

Harriet Beecher Stowe - After the start of the Civil War, Stowe traveled to Washington, D.C. and there met President Abraham Lincoln on November 25, 1862

 

Burnside was soon defeated at the Battle of Fredericksburg on December 13, 1862, when over 12,000 Union soldiers were killed or wounded during repeated futile frontal assaults against Marye's Heights add something


1863

After 1863, the Polish revolt against Russia further distracted the European powers, and ensured that they would remain neutral add something

 

He attributes the major Confederate defeats in 1863 at Vicksburg and Missionary Ridge to this class conflict add something

 

In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg add something

 

In 1863, the Union army accepted Freedmen add something

 

The Republicans' counterargument that slavery was the mainstay of the enemy steadily gained support, with the Democrats losing decisively in the 1863 elections in the northern state of Ohio when they tried to resurrect anti-black sentiment add something

 

When the draft began in the summer of 1863, they launched a major riot in New York City that was suppressed by the military, as well as much smaller protests in other cities add something

 

Anthony Comstock - American Civil War - As a young man, he enlisted and fought for the Union in the American Civil War from 1863 to 1865 in Company H, 17th Connecticut Infantry

 

George S. Boutwell - American Civil War - First elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1863 during the American Civil War, Boutwell became prominent nationally as a Radical Republican

 

John C. Breckinridge - American Civil War - Following the outbreak of the American Civil War, he served in the Confederate States Army as a general and commander of Confederate forces prior to the 1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana, and of the young Virginia Military Institute cadets, at the 1864 Battle of New Market in New Market, Virginia

 

Harvey Washington Wiley - American Civil War - He enrolled in nearby Hanover College in 1863 and studied for about one year until patriotism inspired him to enlist with the Union Army in 1864 as a corporal in Company I of the 137th Regiment Indiana Volunteers during the American Civil War

 

Ferdinand von Zeppelin - American Civil War - In 1863 Zeppelin took leave to act as an observer for the northern troops of the Union's Army of the Potomac in the American Civil War against the Confederates, and later took part in an expedition with Russians and Indians to the source of the Mississippi river and he made his first ascent with Steiner's captive balloon

 

Richard Watson Gilder - During the American Civil War, he enlisted in the state's Emergency Volunteer Militia as a private in Landis's Philadelphia Battery at the time of the Robert E. Lee's 1863 invasion of Pennsylvania

 

Lucy Stone - During the Civil War, Stone joined with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Martha Coffin Wright, Amy Post, Antoinette Brown Blackwell, Ernestine Rose, and Angelina Grimké Weld to form the Woman's National Loyal League in 1863

 

Lucy Stone - Further conventions were stopped by the onset of the Civil War, and were replaced by meetings hosted by the new Woman's National Loyal League starting in 1863

 

John C. Pemberton - He served as a Confederate general during the American Civil War, noted for his defeat and surrender in the critical Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi in the summer of 1863

 

When the Emancipation Proclamation went into effect in January 1863, ex-slaves were energetically recruited by the states, and used to meet the state quotas add something

 

Reconstruction began during the war, with the Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, 1863 and continued to 1877 add something

 

Congress tightened the law in March 1863 add something

 

Hooker, too, proved unable to defeat Lee's army; despite outnumbering the Confederates by more than two to one, he was humiliated in the Battle of Chancellorsville in May 1863 add something

 

Congress admitted West Virginia to the Union on June 20, 1863 add something

 

The northwestern portion of Virginia subsequently seceded from Virginia, joining the Union as the new state of West Virginia on June 20, 1863 add something

 

After the fall of Vicksburg in July 1863, General Kirby Smith in Texas was informed by Jefferson Davis that he could expect no further help from east of the Mississippi River add something

 

Naval forces assisted Grant in his long, complex campaign that resulted in the surrender of Vicksburg in July 1863, and full Union control of the Mississippi soon after add something

 

The great draft riot in New York City in July 1863 involved Irish immigrants who had been signed up as citizens to swell the vote of the city's Democratic political machine, not realizing it made them liable for the draft add something

 

George Armstrong Custer - One of Custer's finest hours in the Civil War occurred just east of Gettysburg on July 3, 1863

 

Erastus Corning - He resigned his seat in October 1863 because of failing health and disagreements with the administration over prosecution of the Civil War


1864

At the beginning of 1864, Lincoln made Grant commander of all Union armies add something

 

By 1864, these violent activities harmed the nationwide anti-war movement organizing against the re-election of Lincoln add something

 

By late 1864, Lincoln was playing a leading role in getting Congress to vote for the Thirteenth Amendment, which made emancipation universal and permanent add something

 

Even as the Confederacy was visibly collapsing in 1864-5, he says most Confederate soldiers were fighting hard add something

 

Grant finally found a commander, General Philip Sheridan, aggressive enough to prevail in the Valley Campaigns of 1864 add something

 

Historian Gary Gallagher cites General Sherman who in early 1864 commented, "The devils seem to have a determination that cannot but be admired add something

 

The Confederacy sought to win independence by out-lasting Lincoln; however, after Atlanta fell and Lincoln defeated McClellan in the election of 1864, all hope for a political victory for the South ended add something

 

The major slave-populations found in Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Alabama were effectively under Union control by the end of 1864 add something

 

Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864 add something

 

William Mahone - American Civil War - During the American Civil War, as a leader eventually attaining the rank of major general of the Confederate States Army, Mahone is best known for turning the tide of the Battle of the Crater against the Union advance during the Siege of Petersburg, Virginia in 1864

 

John M. Pattison - American Civil War - He joined the Union Army during the American Civil War in 1864

 

John Russell, 1st Earl Russell - This period was a particularly eventful one in the world outside Britain, seeing the Unification of Italy, the American Civil War, and the 1864 war over Schleswig-Holstein between Denmark and the German states

 

The fall of Atlanta on September 2, 1864, guaranteed the reelection of Lincoln as president add something

 

He reached the Atlantic Ocean at Savannah, Georgia in December 1864 add something

 

Joel Minnick Longenecker - American Civil War - In the American Civil War, Longenecker, age 18, joined Co. F, 5th Regiment of the Illinois Cavalry as a private on December 4, 1864 in Olney, Illinois, Illinois


1865

At the beginning of 1865, the Confederacy controlled one-third of its congressional districts, which were apportioned by population add something

 

Meanwhile the Freedmen's Bureau, started by Lincoln in 1865 to help the freed slaves, played a major role in helping the blacks and arranging work for them add something

 

President Johnson took a lenient approach and saw the achievement of the main war goals as realized in 1865, when each ex-rebel state repudiated secession and ratified the Thirteenth Amendment add something

 

Benjamin G. Humphreys - American Civil War - He was a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War and served as Governor of Mississippi from 1865 to 1868, during Reconstruction

 

William Barton Rogers - American Civil War - The university opened in 1865 after the American Civil War

 

William Nelson Page - Emma's parents moved to Richmond, Virginia at the outset of the American Civil War, where her father helped with Virginia and Confederate troop training. after the end of hostilities in 1865, he worked for a fertilizer company

 

Booker T. Washington - His family gained freedom in 1865 as the Civil War ended, and his mother took them to West Virginia to join her husband

 

Daniel Sheldon Norton - He was elected to the U.S. Senate during the American Civil War from Minnesota as a Republican from March 4, 1865 until his death, in the 39th and 40th congresses

 

Edward Douglass White - American Civil War - The only "hard" evidence of White's Confederate service consists of the account of his capture on March 12, 1865 in an action in Morganza in Pointe Coupee Parish contained in the Official Records of the American Civil War, and his service records in the National Archives, documenting his subsequent imprisonment in New Orleans and parole in April 1865

 

Lee surrendered his Army of Northern Virginia on April 9, 1865, at the McLean House in the village of Appomattox Court House add something

 

The defending Confederate army failed, leading to Lee's surrender to Grant at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865 add something

 

Luke P. Blackburn - On April 12, 1865, just days after the last major battle of the Civil War, a Confederate double agent named Godfrey Joseph Hyams approached the U.S. consul in Toronto claiming to have information about a plot by Blackburn to infect Northern cities with yellow fever

 

On April 14, 1865, President Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth, a Southern sympathizer add something

 

President Johnson officially declared a virtual end to the insurrection on May 9, 1865, Confederate President Jefferson Davis was captured the following day add something

 

On June 23, 1865, Cherokee leader Stand Watie was the last Confederate General to surrender his forces add something

 

Henry H. Bell - With the Civil War at an end, in July 1865 Commodore Bell was sent to the Far East to command the East India Squadron

 

Augustus Hill Garland - At the end of the Civil War, Garland was pardoned by President Andrew Johnson on July 15, 1865


1866

They came to the fore after the 1866 elections and undid much of Johnson's work add something

 

David L. Payne - In 1866, shortly after the Civil War, the Federal government forced many tribes in the Indian Territory into making concessions

 

Henry Villard - At the close of the Civil War, he married Helen Frances Garrison, the daughter of the anti-slavery campaigner William Lloyd Garrison, on January 3, 1866

 

Samuel Baldwin Marks Young - After the Civil War he rejoined the Regular Army as a First Lieutenant in May 1866, and was promoted to Captain of the 8th U.S. Cavalry in July 1866

 

Jefferson C. Davis - After the Civil War, Davis continued service with the Army, being appointed colonel of the 23rd Infantry Regiment in July 1866


1867

Charles W. Chesnutt - Civil War - After the end of the Civil War, in 1867 the Chesnutt family returned to Fayetteville, North Carolina, when Charles was nine years old

 

Jeremiah S. Black - American Civil War - After the American Civil War, he vigorously opposed the Congressional Plan for Reconstruction and drafted President Johnson's message vetoing the Reconstruction Act passed on March 2, 1867; his veto was overridden


1868

Grant was elected president in 1868 and continued the Radical policies add something


1872

They ran a ticket in 1872 but were decisively defeated as Grant was reelected add something


1874

In 1874, Democrats took control of Congress and opposed any more reconstruction add something

 

John Horton Slaughter - American Civil War - After serving in the army of the Confederacy during the American Civil War, Slaughter was a member of the Texas Rangers before becoming a cattle business man around 1874


1875

Lawrence Sullivan Ross - Following the Civil War, Ross briefly served as sheriff of McLennan County before resigning to participate in the 1875 Texas Constitutional Convention


1876

The disputed 1876 elections were resolved by the Compromise of 1877 which put Republican Rutherford B. Hayes in the White House add something


1879

Luke P. Blackburn - In late May 1879, the Republican-leaning "Cincinnati Gazette" reported on Blackburn's alleged plot to infect northern cities with yellow fever during the Civil War, apparently the first time the incident had been reported in Kentucky


1881

Frederick Douglass - He wrote two more autobiographies, with his last, "Life and Times of Frederick Douglass", published in 1881 and covering events through and after the Civil War. After the Civil War, Douglass remained active in the United States' struggle to reach its potential as a "land of the free"

 

Frederick Douglass - In 1881, after the Civil War, Douglass published "Life and Times of Frederick Douglass", which he revised in 1892


1882

1884

Francis Marion Crawford - American Civil War - In October 1884 he married Elizabeth Berdan, the daughter of the American Civil War Union Gen. Hiram Berdan


1886

Joe Start - He started his career before the American Civil War and continued to play professionally until 1886, when he was 43


1890

Lawrence Sullivan Ross - As the news of his acceptance spread throughout the state, prospective students flocked to Texas AMC. Many of the men Ross had supervised during the Civil War wanted their sons to study under their former commander, and 500 students attempted to enroll at the beginning of the 1890–1891 school year


1893

Guy Vernor Henry - He received the Medal of Honor on December 5, 1893, for his Civil War service at the Battle of Cold Harbor on June 1, 1864, where he was serving as a Colonel and commanded a brigade


1894

Stephen Crane - In the spring of 1894, Crane offered the finished manuscript of "The Red Badge of Courage" to "McClure's Magazine", which had become the foremost magazine for Civil War literature


1895

Myles Standish - At least two forts were named after Standish—an earthen fort on Plymouth, Massachusetts's Saquish Neck built during the American Civil War and a larger cement fort built on Lovells Island in Boston Harbor in 1895

 

Stephen Crane - He won international acclaim for his 1895 Civil War novel "The Red Badge of Courage", which he wrote without any battle experience


1896

Dorothy Dix - She first used the pen name Dorothy Dix in 1896 for her column in the "Picayune"; Dorothy, because she liked the name, and Dix in honor of an old family slave named Mr. Dick who had saved the Meriwether family silver during the Civil War


1898

Ezra Pound - From 1898 until 1900 he attended the Cheltenham Military Academy, where the boys wore Civil War-style uniforms and were taught military drilling, how to shoot, and the importance of submitting to authority

 

Virgil Earp - In 1898 Virgil received a startling letter from a Mrs. Levi Law. After returning from the Civil War as a young man, his wife Ellen and daughter Nellie had disappeared, having been told that Virgil had been killed in the war


1903

Lawrence Sullivan Ross - Samuel Willis Tucker Lanham was the last governor of Texas that served as a Confederate soldier in the Civil War, January 20, 1903 to January 15, 1907


1906

Alfred Thayer Mahan - He became rear admiral in 1906 by an act of Congress promoting all retired captains who had served in the Civil War


1920

Most historians now disagree with the economic determinism of historian Charles Beard in the 1920s and emphasize that Northern and Southern economies were largely complementary add something


1928

Stephen Vincent Benet - Benét is best known for his book-length narrative poem of the American Civil War, "John Brown's Body" , for which he won a Pulitzer Prize in 1929, and for two short stories, "The Devil and Daniel Webster" and "By the Waters of Babylon"


1930

Carl Albert - The Congressional Archives hold material from the Civil War era to the present, but the largest portion covers the 1930s to the 1970s


1933

Adelbert Ames - Ames was the last general officer of the American Civil War from either side of the conflict to die, dying at age 97 in 1933


1941

Charles Lindbergh - American Civil War - President Roosevelt publicly criticized Lindbergh's views on neutrality three months later during a White House press conference on April 25, 1941, as being those of a "defeatist and appeaser" and compared him to U.S. Rep. Clement L. Vallandigham , the leader of the "Copperhead" movement that had opposed the American Civil War


1948

F. Van Wyck Mason - He finished his American Revolution series with "Eagle in the Sky" in 1948, wrote a popular novel about the famous buccaneer, Henry Morgan called "Cutlass Empire" in 1949, and started a trilogy on the Civil War in 1951


1950

Joseph Cotten - Cotten's career cooled in the 1950s with a string of less high-profile roles in films such as the dark Civil War "Two Flags West" , the Joan Fontaine romance "September Affair" , and the Marilyn Monroe vehicle "Niagara" , after James Mason turned down the role


1951

Audie Murphy - He starred in the 1951 adaptation of Stephen Crane's Civil War novel, "The Red Badge of Courage", which earned critical success


1955

Joanne Woodward - Woodward's first film was a post-Civil War Western, Count Three and Pray, in 1955.


1957

Yvonne De Carlo - American Civil War - The 1957 film "Band of Angels" featured her opposite Clark Gable in an American Civil War story, along with Sidney Poitier and Efrem Zimbalist, Jr. The actress worked steadily for the next several years, although many of the films failed to advance her career


1959

Jose Ferrer - In 1959 Ferrer directed the original stage production of Saul Levitt's "The Andersonville Trial", about the trial following the revelation of conditions at the infamous Civil War prison


1984

Karla Faye Tucker - Tucker gained international attention because she would be the first woman to be executed in Texas since the Civil War and the first in the United States since 1984


1985

David Carradine - American Civil War - Carradine attracted notice in 1985 when he appeared in a major supporting role in "North and South", a miniseries about the American Civil War, as the evil and abusive Justin LaMotte


1989

Matthew Broderick - American Civil War - In the 1989 film "Glory", he received good reviews for his portrayal of the American Civil War officer Robert Gould Shaw


1994

The People's Chronology, 1994 by James Trager add something


2006

"The Historical Statistics of the United States: Millennial Edition" , 2006 add something


2008

Maya Angelou - A 2008 PBS documentary found that Angelou's maternal great-grandmother Mary Lee, who had been emancipated after the Civil War, became pregnant by her former white owner, John Savin


2011

Snell, Mark A., "West Virginia and the Civil War", History Press, Charleston, SC, 2011, pg add something


2012

Allan Pinkerton - Pinkerton's role in foiling the assassination plot against Abraham Lincoln was dramatized in the 2012 film "Saving Lincoln", which tells President Lincoln's story through the eyes of Ward Hill Lamon, a former law partner of Lincoln who served as his primary bodyguard during the Civil War

 

William H. Seward - Seward was portrayed by Bruce Davison in the 2012 film "Saving Lincoln", which tells President Lincoln's story through the eyes of Ward Hill Lamon, a former law partner of Lincoln who served as his primary bodyguard during the American Civil War

 

D1 , and April 2, 2012 on NYTimes.com add something


2015

It was digitally remastered and re-released in 2015 add something


2017

However, a 2017 study challenges this, noting that while some Southern elites retained their economic status, the turmoil of the 1860s created greater opportunities for economic mobility in the South than in the North add something