Anthony Eden

Knowledge Identifier: +Anthony_Eden

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Anthony Eden

British Conservative politician, who was Prime Minister from 1955 to 1957 add

Category: Politics

Born in 1897.

Countries: United Kingdom (54%), France (7%), Israel (5%)

Education: undef.

Main connections: Harold Macmillan, Winston Churchill, Neville Chamberlain

Linked to: Conservative Party, University of Birmingham, Eton College, Labour Party

 

Timeline


 

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Anthony Eden was born in 1897 add something


1914

Battle of Jutland - Eden had an elder brother called John, who was killed in action in 1914 and a younger brother, Nicholas, who was killed when the battlecruiser HMS "Indefatigable" blew up and sank at the Battle of Jutland in 1916 add something


1922

Like many aspirant politicians Captain Eden, as he was still known, first contested a seat where he had little chance of winning in the November 1922 general election, and was elected Member of Parliament for Warwick and Leamington in the December 1923 general election, as a Conservative, at the age of twenty-six add something


1929

Harold Caccia, Baron Caccia - He entered the diplomatic service in 1929 and was posted to Peking and to Athens and London where, in 1936, he became assistant private secretary to Anthony Eden


1930

At a conference in the early 1930s, he and Adolf Hitler observed that they had probably fought on opposite sides of the trenches in the Ypres sector add something

 

Eden, drawing on his experience in the 1930s, saw Nasser as another Mussolini, considering the two men aggressive nationalist socialists determined to invade other countries add something

 

Too often in his career, for instance in the late 1930s, following his resignation from Chamberlain's government, his parliamentary performances disappointed many of his followers add something


1931

In 1931 he held his first ministerial office as Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs add something


1932

James Thomas, 1st Viscount Cilcennin - He was Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Dominions Secretary, James Henry Thomas, between 1932 to 1935, to the Colonial Secretary, Thomas and from 1936 William Ormsby-Gore, between 1935 and 1937, and to the Foreign Secretary, Anthony Eden, between 1937 and Eden's resignation in 1938


1934

In 1934 he was appointed Lord Privy Seal and Minister for the League of Nations in Stanley Baldwin's Government add something


1935

He privately opposed the policy of the Foreign Secretary, Sir Samuel Hoare, of trying to appease Italy during its invasion of Abyssinia in 1935 add something

 

He was Foreign Secretary for three periods between 1935 and 1955, including during World War II add something

 

Anglo-German Naval Agreement - On March 26, 1935, during one of his meetings with Simon, and his deputy Sir Anthony Eden, Hitler stated his intention to formally reject the naval disarmament section of Versailles, but was prepared to discuss a treaty regulating the scale of German naval rearmament


1936

He did not protest when Britain and France failed to oppose Hitler's reoccupation of the Rhineland in 1936 add something

 

Alexander Cadogan - In 1936, Cardogan received a request from the newly appointed Secretary of State, Anthony Eden, offering him the post of joint Deputy Under-Secretary


1937

Joachim von Ribbentrop - In November 1937, Ribbentrop was placed in a highly embarrassing situation when his forceful advocacy of the return of the former German colonies led to the British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden and the French Foreign Minister Yvon Delbos offering to open talks on returning the former German colonies, in return for which the Germans would make binding commitments to respect their borders in central and eastern Europe


1938

His resignation in February 1938 was largely attributed to growing dissatisfaction with Chamberlain's policy of Appeasement add something

 

Roger Keyes, 1st Baron Keyes - Munich agreement - He was opposed to the Munich agreement that Neville Chamberlain made with Adolf Hitler in 1938 and, along with Winston Churchill, Anthony Eden, Louis Spears and Duff Cooper, was one of the few who withheld support from the Government on this issue


1939

In September 1939, on the outbreak of war, Eden, who had briefly rejoined the army with the rank of major, returned to Chamberlain's government as Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs, but was not in the War Cabinet add something

 

Bladen Hawke, 9th Baron Hawke - He succeeded his father in the barony in 1939 and served as a Lord-in-Waiting from 1953 to 1957 in the Conservative administrations of Sir Winston Churchill, Sir Anthony Eden and Harold Macmillan


1940

Secretary of State for War - As Secretary of State for War in 1940, Eden authorised the setting-up of the Local Defence Volunteers add something

 

At the end of 1940 Eden returned to the Foreign Office, and in this role became a member of the executive committee of the Political Warfare Executive in 1941 add something

 

As a result, he was not a candidate for the Premiership when Chamberlain resigned after Germany invaded France in May 1940 and Churchill became Prime Minister add something

 

This was a similar offer, in reverse, to that made by Churchill in June 1940 add something

 

Birmingham Small Arms Company - The creation of the Home Guard following Anthony Eden's broadcast appeal to the Nation on Tuesday 14 May 1940 created further demand for arms production to equip this new force

 

East African Campaign (World War II) - Because of the increasing Axis threat in the Middle East, at the end of October 1940 the British Foreign Secretary, Anthony Eden, convened a conference in Khartoum


1942

He was considered for various other major jobs during and after the war, including Commander-in-Chief Middle East in 1942 , Viceroy of India in 1943 , or Secretary-General of the newly formed United Nations Organisation in 1945 add something

 

In 1942 Eden was given the additional job of Leader of the House of Commons add something

 

Harold Macmillan - Macmillan attained real power and Cabinet rank upon being sent to North Africa in 1942 as British government representative to the Allies in the Mediterranean, reporting directly to Prime Minister Winston Churchill instead of to the Foreign Secretary, Anthony Eden


1943

In 1943 with the revelation of the Katyn Massacre Eden refused to help the Polish Government in Exile add something


1944

Tolstoy Conference - In 1944 Eden went to Moscow to negotiate with the Soviet Union at the Tolstoy Conference add something

 

Joel Brand - During a meeting with Moshe Sharett on 6 July 1944, Anthony Eden expressed his sympathy regarding the decision to block the negotiations with Eichmann, but said he had to act in unison with the United States and Soviet Union


1945

Nobel Prize in Peace - In 1945, he was mentioned by Halvdan Koht among seven candidates that were qualified for the Nobel Prize in Peace add something

 

After the Labour Party won the 1945 elections, Eden went into opposition as Deputy Leader of the Conservative Party add something

 

From 1945 to 1973, Eden was Chancellor of the University of Birmingham, England add something

 

Eden's eldest son, Pilot Officer Simon Gascoigne Eden, went missing in action, later declared deceased, while serving as a navigator with the RAF in Burma, in June 1945 add something

 

Wirral West (UK Parliament constituency) - From 1945 until 1976, the MP was Selwyn Lloyd, who served as Foreign Secretary under Anthony Eden and Chancellor of the Exchequer under Harold Macmillan, later becoming Speaker of the Commons in 1971 before being raised to the peerage in 1976


1946

As early as the spring of 1946 Eden openly asked Churchill to retire in his favour add something

 

Between 1946 and 1950, whilst separated from his wife, Eden conducted an open affair with Dorothy, Countess Beatty whilst she was married to David, Earl Beatty add something

 

Noel Skelton - His thinking on property ownership as the fundamental basis of modern conservatism proved particularly attractive, and Anthony Eden personally revived the phrase as a political slogan at the 1946 Conservative Party conference


1947

Allan Noble - He was Parliamentary Private Secretary to Anthony Eden from 1947 to 1951

 

Paulette Goddard - In 1947 she made "An Ideal Husband" in Britain for Alexander Korda films, being accompanied on a publicity trip to Brussels by Clarissa Churchill, niece of Sir Winston and future wife of Prime Minister Anthony Eden

 

Clarissa Eden, Countess of Avon - She informed Cooper in 1947, following a weekend in the country with Anthony Eden, at which the only other guest was the French Ambassador to Britain, that Eden "never stops trying to make love to her"


1950

He was prescribed Benzedrine, the wonder drug of the 1950s add something

 

Conservative Party (UK) - Conservative prime ministers Churchill, Anthony Eden, Harold_Macmillan and Sir Alec Douglas-Home promoted relatively liberal trade regulations and less state involvement throughout the 1950s and early 1960s

 

George Gardiner (politician) - Gardiner joined the Conservative Party aged 15 in 1950, and whilst at Oxford University, organised a petition in support of Anthony Eden's Suez policy

 

Niall Macpherson, 1st Baron Drumalbyn - He served as Liberal-Unionist Scottish whip from 1950 to 1955, when he was appointed Joint Under-Secretary of State for Scotland by Sir Anthony Eden, a post he retained when Harold Macmillan became Prime Minister in early 1957


1951

In 1951, the Conservatives returned to office and Eden became Foreign Secretary for a third time, as well as Deputy Prime Minister add something

 

Antony Head, 1st Viscount Head - Secretary of State for War - He served as Secretary of State for War from 1951 to 1956 and as Minister of Defence from 1956 to 1957, in the administrations of Winston Churchill and Anthony Eden

 

Edward Heath - He remained in the Whip's Office after the Conservatives won the 1951 general election, rising rapidly to Joint Deputy Chief Whip, Deputy Chief Whip and, in December 1955, Government Chief Whip under Anthony Eden


1952

Harold Watkinson, 1st Viscount Watkinson - He became a government member under Winston Churchill as Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Labour and National Service in 1952, a post he held until December 1955, when he was made Minister of Transport and Civil Aviation by Sir Anthony Eden, entering the cabinet in January 1957, and remaining there when promoted to Minister of Defence under Harold Macmillan in 1959

 

John Spencer-Churchill (artist) - His sister Clarissa married Anthony Eden in 1952 - becoming Lady Eden in 1954 when he was made a Knight of the Garter, wife of the Prime Minister when Winston Churchill retired in 1955, and later the Countess of Avon in 1961 on his elevation to the peerage

 

Percy Thrower - Anthony Eden opened the garden in May 1952

 

Abd al-Rahman al-Mahdi - Sayyid Abd al-Rahman visited London and met the British Foreign Secretary Sir Anthony Eden on 11 November 1952


1953

Eden would almost certainly have become Prime Minister when Churchill suffered a severe stroke on 23 June 1953, had he not been recovering from corrective surgery in the United States on the same day add something

 

Birmingham Small Arms Company - In 1953 BSA withdrew motorcycle production from BSA Cycles Ltd, the company it has established in 1919, by creating BSA Motorcycles Ltd. BSA produced its 100,000th BSA Bantam motorcycle, a fact celebrated at the 1953 motorcycle show with a visit by Sir Anthony Eden to the BSA stand

 

Rab Butler - In 1953, Butler acted as head of the Government when Winston Churchill suffered a stroke while his successor Anthony Eden was undergoing an operation overseas


1954

During the summer and fall of 1954, the Anglo-Egyptian agreement to withdraw all British forces from Egypt was negotiated and ratified add something

 

He was critical of the United States decision not to sign the 1954 Geneva accord on Vietnam, of which he was an architect add something

 

His 1954 Suez Canal Base Agreement was sold to the Conservative Party against Churchill's wishes add something

 

In 1954 he was made a Knight of the Garter and became "Sir Anthony Eden" add something

 

The success of the 1954 Geneva Conference on Indo-China ranks as his outstanding achievement of his third term in the Foreign Office add something

 

Eden believed the nationalisation was in violation of the Anglo-Egyptian Agreement that Nasser had signed with the British and French governments on 19 October 1954 add something


1955

The 1955 general election was the last in which the Conservatives won the majority share of the votes in Scotland add something

 

In April 1955 Churchill finally retired, and Eden succeeded him as Prime Minister add something

 

Office vacant from 6 April 1955 to 13 July 1962 add something

 

On taking office he immediately called a general election for 27 May 1955, at which he increased the Conservative majority from seventeen to sixty, a majority which broke a ninety-year record for any UK government add something

 

John Hare, 1st Viscount Blakenham - Secretary of State for War - He served under Sir Anthony Eden as Minister of State for the Colonies between 1955 and 1956 and under Eden and his successor, Harold Macmillan, as Secretary of State for War from 1956 to 1958

 

Reginald Maudling - When Anthony Eden took over as Prime Minister in 1955, Maudling was promoted to head a department as Minister of Supply

 

Osbert Peake, 1st Viscount Ingleby - In December 1955, shortly after Anthony Eden succeeded Winston Churchill as Prime Minister in April, Peake resigned from the government


1956

He suffered from cholangitis, an abdominal infection which became so agonising that he was admitted to hospital in 1956 with a temperature reaching 106°F. He required major surgery on three occasions to alleviate the problem add something

 

While British actions in 1956 are routinely described as "imperialistic", the motivation was in fact economic add something

 

The alliance with the US proved not universal, however, when in July 1956 Gamal Abdel Nasser, President of Egypt, unexpectedly nationalised the Suez Canal, following the withdrawal of Anglo-American funding for the Aswan Dam add something

 

British Government cabinet papers from September 1956, during Eden's term as Prime Minister, have shown that French Prime Minister Guy Mollet approached the British Government suggesting the idea of an economic and political union between France and Great Britain add something

 

In September 1956 a plan was drawn up to reduce the flow of water in the Nile by using dams in an attempt to damage Nasser's position add something

 

On 25 September 1956 the Chancellor of the Exchequer Harold Macmillan met informally with President Eisenhower at the White House; he misread Eisenhower's determination to avoid war and told Eden that the Americans would not in any way oppose the attempt to topple Nasser add something

 

Israel invaded at the end of October 1956 add something

 

At a private meeting at Downing Street on 16 October 1956 Eden showed several ministers a plan, submitted two days earlier by the French add something

 

He went on vacation to Jamaica in November 1956, at a time when he was still determined to soldier on as Prime Minister add something

 

In his final statement to the House of Commons as Prime Minister on 20 December 1956, Eden told MPs "there was not foreknowledge that Israel would attack Egypt"; however, papers released in January 1987 showed the entire Cabinet had been informed of the plan on 23 October 1956 add something

 

Julian Ridsdale - After supporting Prime Minister Anthony Eden during the 1956 inavsion of Suez, Ridsdale served from 1957-58 as the Parliamentary Private Secretary to John Profumo, the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies

 

Elizabeth II - In 1956, French Prime Minister Guy Mollet and British Prime Minister Sir Anthony Eden discussed the possibility of France joining the Commonwealth.

 

David Owen - Owen was deeply affected by the Suez crisis of 1956, when Anthony Eden's Conservative government launched a military operation to retrieve the Suez Canal from Nasser's decision to nationalise it

 

David Ormsby-Gore, 5th Baron Harlech - Under Prime Minister Anthony Eden he served briefly, from November 1956 to January 1957, as Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs; and under Prime Minister Harold Macmillan was from 1957 to 1961 Minister of State for Foreign Affairs


1957

Eden resigned on 9 January 1957, after his doctors warned him his life was at stake if he continued in office add something

 

Although the media expected Butler would get the nod, a survey of the Cabinet done for the Queen showed Macmillan was the nearly unanimous choice, and he became Prime Minister on 10 January 1957 add something

 

He underwent further surgery at a New York hospital in April 1957 add something

 

Victor Goodhew - He was shortlisted in 1957 as a prospective candidate for Warwick and Leamington, the seat vacated by the retirement of Prime Minister Anthony Eden, but Sir John Hobson was selected ahead of him

 

Douglas Dodds-Parker - After Anthony Eden was replaced as Prime Minister by Harold Macmillan, Dodds-Parker was sacked in January 1957


1961

Eden retained much of his personal popularity in Britain, was created Earl of Avon in 1961, and entered the House of Lords add something


1963

Charles de Gaulle - Also in the congregation were David Ben-Gurion, Anthony Eden, Harold_Macmillan, Harold Wilson, former West German Chancellors Ludwig Erhard and Kurt-Georg Kiesinger, Marlene Dietrich and US Senator Edward Kennedy, who remembered De Gaulle's immediate decision to attend the funeral of his brother John following his assassination in 1963.


1966

In a television interview in 1966 he called on the United States to halt its bombing of North Vietnam to concentrate on developing a peace plan "that might conceivably be acceptable to Hanoi add something

 

Charles Morrison - In 1966, Morrison bought Fyfield Manor near Pewsey in Wiltshire from the former Prime Minister Anthony Eden


1967

Anthony Nutting, who resigned as a Foreign Office Minister over Suez, expressed the former view in 1967, the year of the Arab-Israeli Six-Day War, when he wrote that "we had sown the wind of bitterness and we were to reap the whirlwind of revenge and rebellion" add something

 

Conversely, D. R. Thorpe, another of Eden's biographers, suggests that had the Suez venture succeeded, "there would almost certainly have been no Middle East war in 1967, and probably no Yom Kippur War in 1973 also" add something

 

Following the defeat of the Arab armies by Israel in the Six Day War of 1967 Eden's own reputation, not least in Israel and the United States, soared, and he was deluged with letters of the "you were right in 1956" variety add something

 

In his 1967 interview , Eden acknowledged secret dealings with the French and "intimations" of the Israeli attack add something

 

Recalling the incident in a 1967 interview, he declared, "I am still unrepentant about Suez add something

 

The invasion, he contended at the time, and again in a 1967 interview, was aimed at maintaining the sanctity of international agreements and at preventing future unilateral denunciation of treaties add something


1969

Eden is mentioned in a song by The Kinks, "She's Bought a Hat Like Princess Marina" from the 1969 album "Arthur " add something

 

He featured frequently in Marcel Ophüls' 1969 documentary "Le chagrin et la pitié", discussing the occupation of France in a wider geopolitical context add something


1973

The World at War - Eden sat for extensive interviews for the famed multi-part Thames Television production, "The World at War", which was first broadcast in 1973 add something

 

Melvyn Bragg - Bragg's second wife, Catherine Mary Haste, whom he married in 1973, is a television producer and writer, having, among other things, edited the 2007 memoir of Clarissa Eden, widow of Sir Anthony Eden, and collaborated with Cherie Booth, wife of Tony Blair, on a 2004 book about the wives of British Prime Ministers


Anthony Eden died in 1977 add something

 

Eden died from liver cancer in Salisbury on 14 January 1977, at the age of 79 add something


1978

Hugh Fraser (actor) - Fraser's first big break came after portraying Anthony Eden in the 1978 television series "Edward & Mrs. Simpson", with Edward Fox, after which he was frequently cast as upper class or aristocratic characters, such as Mr Talmann in Peter Greenaway's "The Draughtsman's Contract"


1985

The offer by Guy Mollet was referred to by Sir John Colville, Churchill's former private secretary, in his collected diaries, "The Fringes of Power" , his having gleaned the information in 1957 from Air Chief Marshal Sir William Dickson during an air flight add something


1986

London, 1986 only to regain his temper within a few minutes add something


1987

In his 1987 book "Spycatcher" Peter Wright revealed that, following the imposed ending to the military operation, Eden reactivated the assassination option for a second time add something


1993

Eden is mentioned in the 1993 film "The Remains of the Day" when Anthony Hopkins´s character mentions that Eden has been a guest at Darlington Hall add something


2013

He appeared in the 2013 stage play "The Audience" by Peter Morgan add something


2015

In the 2015 West End version featuring Kristin Scott Thomas as the Queen in the revival of the Audience, Eden is portrayed by Scottish actor David Robb add something

 

In the 2015 rewrite of the Audience the Queen makes reference to Tony Blair, seen in a flashback, and his proposal of sending troops to Iraq, likening it to the conversation she'd had with Eden 50 years previously about Suez add something