Anwar Sadat

Knowledge Identifier: +Anwar_Sadat

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Anwar Sadat

Third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers.add

Category: Politics

Born in 1918.

Countries: Egypt (41%), Israel (15%), United States (11%)

Main connections: Menachem Begin, Gamal Abdel Nasser, National Guard (Egypt)

Linked to: Arab League, National Democratic Party, Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Free Officers Movement

 

Timeline


 

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Anwar Sadat was born in 1918 add something


1938

He graduated from the Royal Military Academy in Cairo in 1938 and was appointed to the Signal Corps add something


1952

Egyptian Revolution of 1952 - Along with his fellow Free Officers, Sadat participated in the military coup that launched the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 which overthrew King Farouk I on 23 July of that year add something

 

Sadat was a senior member of the Free Officers group that overthrew the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 and a close confidant of President Gamal Abdul Nasser, whom he succeeded as President in 1970 add something


1954

During the presidency of Gamal Abdel Nasser, Sadat was appointed Minister of State in 1954 add something


1959

In 1959, he assumed the position of Secretary to the National Union add something


1967

Six-Day War - Sadat likely perceived that Israel's desire to negotiate was directly correlated to how much of a military threat they perceived from Egypt, which, after the Six-Day War of 1967, was at an all time low add something

 

Saddam Hussein - He had a good instinct for what the "Arab street" demanded, following the decline in Egyptian leadership brought about by the trauma of Israel's six-day victory in the 1967 war, the death of the pan-Arabist hero, Gamal Abdul Nasser, in 1970, and the "traitorous" drive by his successor, Anwar Sadat, to sue for peace with the Jewish state.

 

State of emergency - The emergency was imposed during the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, and reimposed following the assassination of President Anwar Sadat


1968

Israel Broadcasting Authority - Television broadcasts commenced on 2 May 1968, with colour television following on 23 February 1983, although occasional colour transmissions were made earlier, such as the Eurovision Song Contest 1979 and the visit of the Egyptian President Anwar Sadat in 1977


1969

He was reappointed as Vice President again in December 1969 add something

 

Nicolae Ceausescu - Ceau?escu negotiated in international affairs, such as the opening of US relations with China in 1969 and the visit of Egyptian president Anwar Sadat to Israel in 1977.


1970

Sadat succeeded Nasser as president after the latter's death in 1970 add something

 

Indira Gandhi - But, the death of Nasser in 1970 and Sadat's growing friendship with Riyadh, and his mounting differences with Moscow, constrained Egypt to a policy of neutrality

 

Hikmat Abu Zayd - Following Nasser's death in 1970 and Anwar Sadat's ascension to the presidency, Abu Zayd's career progression was blocked

 

Hussein Salem - Relations between Howeidi and Salem deteriorated following Nasser's death in 1970 and the succession of Anwar Sadat to the presidency afterward

 

Hanna Kvanmo - She was highly critical of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin for their efforts of negotiating Israeli-Egyptian peace in the late 1970s

 

Amin Iskander - Throughout the 1970s, during the presidency of Anwar Sadat, he was part of the anti-Sadat student movement and won in two student union elections


1971

War of Attrition - In 1971, three years into the War of Attrition in the Suez Canal zone, Sadat endorsed in a letter the peace proposals of UN negotiator Gunnar Jarring which seemed to lead to a full peace with Israel on the basis of Israel's withdrawal to its pre-war borders add something

 

Hussein el-Shafei - Anwar Sadat appointed el-Shafei as vice-president of Egypt's new government in 1971 and he was succeeded by Hosni Mubarak in April 1975

 

Shukri Mustafa - He was released from prison in 1971 as part of the new president Anwar Sadat's rapprochement with the Muslim Brotherhood

 

Hamdeen Sabahi - The old guard was represented by Dawoud and included former members of the Arab Socialist Union who were imprisoned by then-President Anwar Sadat in 1971, while the young guard consisted of student activists who advocated the principles Nasserism throughout Sadat's rule


1972

Muhammad Naguib - Disagreements with Nasser led to his forced removal from office, and subsequent 18 year house arrest until his release by President Anwar Sadat in 1972

 

Muhammad Naguib - Naguib was released from his isolation in 1972 by President Anwar Sadat

 

National Guard (Egypt) - The CSF was deployed by the Sadat government to tackle large protests by Leftist and hardline Nasserist groups in January 1972 in Cairo, the protests were called to protest against Sadat's anti-Soviet and anti-Palestinian foreign policy, lack of action against Israel and right-wing economic measures such as cutting some subsidies and increasing some prices of welfare services like public transport


1973

Corrective Revolution - Some of the major events of the Sadat's presidency were his "Corrective Revolution" to consolidate power, the break with Egypt's long-time ally and aid-giver the USSR, the 1973 October War with Israel, the Camp David peace treaty with Israel, the "opening up" of Egypt's economy, and finally his assassination in 1981 add something

 

As president, he led Egypt in the October War of 1973 to re-acquire Egyptian territory lost to Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War, making him a hero in Egypt and, for a time, the wider Arab World add something

 

His predecessor Nasser had made Egypt an icon of Arab nationalism, an ideology that appeared to be sidelined by an Egyptian orientation following the 1973 war add something

 

One of his brothers, Atef Sadat, later became a pilot and was killed in action during the Yom Kippur War in October 1973 add something

 

Yom Kippur War - On 6 October 1973, in conjunction with Hafez al-Assad of Syria, Sadat launched the October War, known as the Yom Kippur War , a surprise attack against the Israeli forces occupying the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula and the Syrian Golan Heights in an attempt to retake the territory captured by Israel six years earlier add something

 

Prompted by an agreement between the United States of America and Egypt's Soviet allies, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 338 on 22 October 1973, calling for an immediate ceasefire add something

 

Saad el-Shazly - In 1973, at the pinnacle of his military career, General Shazly was removed from military service by President Anwar Sadat and appointed Ambassador to Britain and later Ambassador to Portugal


1974

The first of these agreements was signed on 18 January 1974, and the second on September 4, 1975 add something

 

Yehia El-Gamal - El Gamal was a minister of state and administrative reform from 1974 to 1975 under the premiership of Abd El Aziz Muhammad Hegazi and the presidency of Anwar Sadat

 

Richard Nixon - Nixon meets with President Anwar Sadat of Egypt, June 1974.


1975

Warith Deen Mohammed - Early meetings with prominent political figures included Egyptian President Anwar Sadat in 1975, Sharjah ruler Sheik Sultan bin Mohamed Al-Qasimi in 1976, and U.S. President Jimmy Carter in 1977


1976

In an interview he gave to the Lebanese paper "El Hawadeth" in early February 1976, he claimed he had secret commitment from the US government to put pressure on the Israeli government for a major withdrawal in Sinai and the Golan Heights add something

 

Palestine Liberation Army - The Egyptian PLA was deployed in Lebanon in 1976, after Palestinian leader Yassir Arafat had approached the Egyptian president Anwar Sadat, to mend relations damaged by Sadat's peacemaking attempts with Israel


1977

In January 1977, a series of 'Bread Riots' protested Sadat's economic liberalization and specifically a government decree lifting price controls on basic necessities like bread add something

 

Ezer Weizman - After the visit to Jerusalem of Egypt's president Anwar Sadat in 1977, Weizman developed a close friendship with him

 

Yitzhak Shamir - In 1977 he presided at the Knesset visit of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat

 

Hamdeen Sabahi - In 1977, when President Anwar Sadat met with Student Union representatives from around Egypt, Sabahi openly expressed his disapproval of Sadat's policies and regime

 

Mourid Barghouti - In the autumn of 1977, Barghouti was deported from Egypt on the eve of Anwar Sadat's controversial visit to Israel and was allowed to come back only after 17 years

 

Saddam Hussein - Relations between Iraq and Egypt violently ruptured in 1977, when the two nations broke relations with each other following Iraq's criticism of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat's peace initiatives with Israel.

 

Wolf Blitzer - At an April 1977 White House press conference, Blitzer asked Egyptian leader Anwar Sadat why Egyptian scholars, athletes and journalists were not permitted to visit Israel

 

Hassaballah El Kafrawy - In May 1977, he became a Deputy Minister for Reconstruction in the Cabinet until October 1977 when President Anwar Sadat appointed him to become a Minister of Housing & Reconstruction within his cabinet

 

Mustafa Khalil - Mustafa Khalil accompanied Egyptian President Anwar Sadat on his historic first visit to Jerusalem, Israel, in November 1977 to meet with the Prime Minister of Israel Menachem Begin

 

Hussein Salem - Following then-Egyptian President Anwar Sadat's visit to Israel on November 19, 1977, the UAE downgraded relations with Egypt


1978

Menachem Begin - In 1978 Begin, aided by Foreign Minister Moshe Dayan and Defense Minister Ezer Weizman, negotiated the Camp David Accords, and in 1979 signed the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty with Egyptian President, Anwar Sadat

 

Fouad Serageddin - Serageddin did not return to the political landscape until 1978, when President Anwar Sadat, attempting to reinvigorate party pluralism, likened him to Louis XIV coming back from the grave


1979

Before the Islamic revolution of Iran in 1979, the relationship between Cairo and Tehran was so friendly that the Shah of Iran , Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, called Sadat his "dear brother" add something

 

Frank Sinatra - In 1979, in front of the Egyptian pyramids, Sinatra performed for Anwar Sadat.


1980

Harald Bredesen - Bredesen was the founder of the Prince of Peace Prize, given to Egyptian President Anwar Sadat in 1980, Mother Teresa in 1989, posthumously to King Hussein of Jordan in 1999, and to Billy Graham in 2004

 

Bruno Kreisky - He cultivated friendly relations with Arab leaders such as Anwar Sadat and Muammar Gaddafi, and in 1980 Austria established relations with the Palestine Liberation Organisation

 

Talaat Harb - In 1980, on the occasion of the sixtieth anniversary of Banque Misr, the late President Anwar Sadat, awarded Talaat Harb posthumously the Nile Collar, which is the highest ranking of all Egyptian decorations


1981

Furthermore, had the Muslim Brotherhood assumed power back in 1981, it would have repudiated the Camp David Accords at once add something


Anwar Sadat died in 1981 add something

 

In February 1981, Egyptian authorities were alerted to El-Jihad's plan by the arrest of an operative carrying crucial information add something

 

On 6 October 1981, Sadat was assassinated during the annual victory parade held in Cairo to celebrate Egypt's crossing of the Suez Canal add something

 

As author Chafetz points out in "The Search for the Lost Army", on 7 October 1981, a photograph appeared on the front page of The New York Times, above the story reporting Sadat's assassination add something

 

Khairat El-Shater - After the president Anwar Sadat's assassination in 1981, El-Shater was exiled as an Islamist dissident, and left for England

 

Abd al-Hamid Kishk - He was arrested again in 1981 shortly before Sadat's assassination, but was released by Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak in 1982 under the condition that he end his career as a public activist

 

Ayman al-Zawahiri - In 1981, Al-Zawahiri was one of hundreds arrested following the assassination of President Anwar Sadat

 

Ayman al-Zawahiri - In his book, "Al-Zawahiri as I Knew Him", Al-Zayat maintains that under torture by the Egyptian police, following his arrest in connection with the murder of Sadat in 1981, Al-Zawahiri revealed the hiding place of Essam al-Qamari, a key member of the Maadi cell of al-Jihad, which led to Al-Qamari's "arrest and eventual execution

 

National Guard (Egypt) - The Egyptian government subsequently came to rely on the CSF to quell any source of instability within the country and to uphold the emergency laws imposed on Egypt since the 1981 assassination of the President of Egypt, Anwar Sadat

 

Hassan Mustafa Osama Nasr - The group has been linked to the murder of Anwar Sadat in 1981 and a terrorist campaign in the 1990s that culminated in the November 1997 Luxor massacre

 

Islamism - The path of violence and military struggle was taken up by the Egyptian Islamic Jihad organization responsible for the assassination of Anwar Sadat in 1981

 

Palestine Liberation Organization - Other Arab voices had recently called for a diplomatic resolution to the hostilities in accord with the international consensus, including Egyptian leader Anwar Sadat on his visit to Washington, DC in August 1981, and Crown Prince Fahd of Saudi Arabia in his 7 August peace proposal; together with Arafat's diplomatic maneuver, these developments made Israel's argument that it had "no partner for peace" seem increasingly problematic


1982

Islambouli was tried, found guilty, sentenced to death, and executed by firing squad in April 1982 add something

 

As part of the peace deal, Israel withdrew from the Sinai peninsula in phases, returning the entire area to Egypt on 25 April 1982 add something


1983

In 1983, "Sadat", a miniseries based on the life of Anwar Sadat, aired on US television with Oscar-winning actor Louis Gossett, Jr. in the title role add something


1984

Zawahiri was released from prison in 1984 add something


1989

It was not until 1989 that the League re-admitted Egypt as a member and returned its headquarters to Cairo add something


2000

His brother Muhammad al-Zawahiri was imprisoned from 2000 until 17 March 2011, and re-arrested on 20 March 2011 add something


2006

On 31 October 2006, he was sentenced to a year in prison for defaming Egypt's armed forces, less than a month after he gave the interview accusing Egyptian generals of masterminding his uncle's assassination add something


2012

However, in 2012, that repudiation cannot be accomplished swiftly without grave geopolitical and economic repercussions to Egypt's fragile economy add something


2015

Abdel Hakim Amer - Also, in a statment translated from "Al-Masry Al-Youm" published on May 5, 2015, the family lawyer cited reports confirming that Amar's death was not self-inflicted, including an interview with Anwar Sadat's widow published on April 26 of that year