Baltic states

Knowledge Identifier: $Baltic_states

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Baltic states

The Baltic states are three northern European countries east of the Baltic Sea â?? Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, which gained independence from the Russian Empire in the wake of World War I add

Category: Politics

Launched in 1713.

Countries: Russia (16%), (16%), Lithuania (10%)

Main connections: Soviet Union, European Union, Dissolution of the Soviet Union

Linked to: NATO, United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names, Riigikogu, Saeima

 

Timeline


 

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1721

During the Great Northern War the Dominions of Sweden of Swedish Estonia and Swedish Livonia were conquered by Russia and ceded by Sweden in the Treaty of Nystad in 1721 add something


1840

Simultaneously, in 1840s the usage "Ostsee" was superseded by "Baltic" in Russian add something

 

Thus the usage of "Baltic" and similar terms to denote this region dates back not earlier than 1840s add something


1918

Each of the three countries has declared itself to be the restoration of the sovereign nations that had existed from 1918 to 1940, emphasizing their contention that Soviet domination over the Baltic nations during the Cold War period had been an illegal occupation and annexation add something

 

Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania became sovereign nations in the aftermath of World War I. They declared independence in 1918, fought independence wars against German Freikorps and Bolshevist Russia, and were recognized as independent countries in 1920 add something

 

Only after Lietuvos Taryba proclaimed its independence in 1918, Lithuania began to be mentioned in the same list with her two northern neighbours add something

 

Rudiger von der Goltz - After the November 11, 1918, armistice, the Inter-Allied Commission of Control insisted that the German troops remain in the Baltic states to prevent the region from being re-occupied by the Red Army


1920

In the 1920s, the newly established countries of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Finland, formerly territories of the Russian empire, were referred to as the Baltic states add something


1939

Ivan Serov - Serov became the Ukrainian Commissar of the NKVD in 1939, and from this point onwards he played a major role in many of the actions of the Soviet secret police in World War II, helping to organize the deportation of the Chechens and the peoples of the Baltic States, becoming Beria's primary lieutenant in 1941

 

Sumner Welles - In the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact of August 23, 1939, Germany agreed to allow the Soviet Union to annex the three Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania


1940

More than 200,000 people were deported by the Soviet government from the Baltic in 1940-1953 to remote, inhospitable areas of the Soviet Union add something

 

Dissolution of the Soviet Union - The Baltic states, incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1940, pressed their claims to the restoration of their independence, beginning with Estonia in November 1988 when the Estonian legislature passed laws resisting the control of the central government

 

In June 1940, the Red Army occupied all of the territory of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, and the Red Army installed new, pro-Soviet governments in all three countries add something

 

Following rigged elections, in which only pro-communist candidates were allowed to run, the newly "elected" parliaments of the three countries formally applied to "join" the Soviet Union in August 1940 and were incorporated into it as the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic, the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic, and the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic add something


1941

The Soviet control of the Baltic states was interrupted by Nazi German invasion of this region in 1941 add something

 

Destruction battalions - As Germany attacked the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941, a state of war was declared in the western regions of the country and in the occupied and illegally annexed Baltic states


1943

Aleksandr Vasilevsky - At the start of the 1943 Soviet counteroffensive of World War II, Vasilevsky coordinated and executed the Red Army's offensive on the upper Don, in the Donbass, Crimea, Belarus and Baltic states, ending the war with the capture of Königsberg in April 1945


1944

The German occupation lasted until late 1944 , when the countries were reoccupied by the Red Army and Soviet rule was re-established, with the passive agreement of the United States and Britain add something


1947

The forced collectivisation of agriculture began in 1947, and was completed after the mass deportation in March 1949 add something


1974

Australia was a brief exception to this support of Baltic freedom: in 1974, the Labor government of Australia did recognize Soviet dominion, but this decision was reversed by the next Australian Parliament add something


1976

Bergsala - "'Bergsala AB"', from Kungsbacka, Sweden, was established in 1976 and has operated as the Nordic and, later Baltic, agent and distributor of Nintendo products since 1981


1980

Singing revolution - In the late 1980s a massive campaign of civil resistance against Soviet rule, known as the Singing Revolution, began add something

 

Common starling - Major declines in populations have been observed from 1980 onward in Sweden, Finland, northern Russia and the Baltic States, and smaller declines in much of the rest of northern and central Europe

 

Matti Vanhanen - Matti Vanhanen was against the independence movement in the Baltic States during 1980s


1982

Ivan Dias - Returning to the Secretariat of State in Vatican City, he was head of the section for the Soviet Union, the Baltic states, Belarus, Ukraine, Poland, Bulgaria, China, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, South Africa, Namibia, Lesotho, Swaziland, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Zambia, Kenya and Tanzania until 1982


1986

Dissolution of the Soviet Union - In 1986 and 1987 Latvia had been in the vanguard of the three Baltic states in pressing for reform


1988

Dissolution of the Soviet Union - In 1988 Gorbachev started to lose control in two small but troublesome regions of the Soviet Union, as the Baltic states were captured by their Popular Fronts, and the Caucasus descended into violence and civil war


1989

Economy of Europe - After the Revolutions of 1989, states in Central Europe and the Baltic states dealt with change, former Yugoslavian republics descended into war and Russia, Ukraine and Belarus are still struggling with their old systems


1990

World ORT - In the early 1990s ORT returned to the former Soviet Union and the Baltic States, where it now serves 27,000 students in 58 schools and educational institutions every year

 

YX Energi - In the mid of 1990s Hydro & Texaco started business in the Baltic countries under brands of Hydro Texaco and later Uno-X. Texaco's ownership in Hydro Texaco was transferred to Chevron as a result of the two companies merger in 2001

 

Dissolution of the Soviet Union - On 11 March 1990 Lithuania was the first of the Baltic states to declare restoration of their independence, on the basis of state continuity


1991

Sergey Lavrov - In October 1991, the foreign ministers of all Soviet republics except Georgia and the Baltic states, held a meeting where they delt with the Union of Foreign Ministries

 

On 8 November 1991, the Baltic Assembly was established for cooperation among parliaments add something

 

Dissolution of the Soviet Union - On 17 December 1991, alongside 28 European countries, the European Community, and four non-European countries, the three Baltic states and nine of the other 12 former republics signed the European Energy Charter in the Hague as sovereign states


1992

This friendship led to the creation of the Council of the Baltic Sea States in 1992, and the EuroFaculty in 1993 add something


1993

Economy of Lithuania - The Vilnius Stock Exchange , now renamed the NASDAQ OMX Vilnius, started its activity in 1993 and was the first stock exchange in the Baltic states

 

There was a subsequent withdrawal of troops from the region in August 1993 add something


1994

Itera - In 1994, it obtained the rights to sell Turkmeni natural gas as payment for its sugar transaction and started implementing gas-related projects within its subsidiary Itera Oil & Gas Company, LLC. In 1995, Itera began selling Turkmeni gas to Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, and Georgia, as well as to the Baltic States

 

For cooperation among governments Baltic Council of Ministers was established on 13 June 1994 add something

 

The last Russian troops were withdrawn from there in August 1994 add something


1998

Skrunda-1, the last Russian military radar in the Baltics, officially suspended operations in August 1998 add something


1999

Endre Bojtár argues that it was around 1840s when the German gentry of the Governorate of Livonia devised the term "Balts" to mean themselves, the German upper classes of Livonia, excluding the Latvian and Estonian lower classes add something


2000

The Baltic states had the highest growth rates in Europe between 2000 and 2006, and this continued in 2007 add something

 

Today the three countries are liberal democracies and their market economies in recent years have undergone rapid expansion in early 2000s add something


2002

In 2002 the Baltic nations applied to become members of the &North_Atlantic_Treaty_Organization and the European Union add something

 

Dmitry Rogozin - In 2002 he was appointed a Special Representative of Russian president to deal with Kaliningrad problems that have arosen due to Baltic states joining the European Union

 

Destruction battalions - In 2002 the Riigikogu declared that the destruction battalions in the annexed Baltic states were a collaborators' organisation, which assisted the implementation of the criminal policy of the Soviet regime, and was thus a criminal organisation


2003

Since 2003 Baltic Assembly is coordinated with the Baltic Council of Ministers add something


2004

Comecon - The Baltic States Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia joined the EU in 2004, followed by Bulgaria and Romania in 2007 and recently, Croatia in 2013

 

Baltic Basketball League - "'Baltic Basketball League"' is a Baltic states basketball league founded in 2004

 

Membership of NATO was duly achieved on 29 March 2004, and accession to the EU took place on 1 May 2004 add something

 

All three are Parliamentary republics and joined EU on 1 May 2004 and share EET time zone and EEST schedules add something


2005

Philippe Jean-Charles Jourdan - He was consecrated to the episcopate and installed as ordinary of Estonia on 10 September 2005 in Tallinn by Archbishop Peter Stephan Zurbriggen, Apostolic Nuncio to the Baltic states


2006

Voom HD International - A deal between Rainbow Networks and the Stockholm-based company NonStop Television was made in 2006 that would allow NonStop to distribute the channel in Scandinavia, Finland, Iceland and the Baltic states

 

Visaginas Nuclear Power Plant - On 26 January 2006, in the conference in Vilnius the representatives of all three Baltic states discussed the realization study for construction of a new Power station in the region

 

All three countries saw their rates of unemployment fall below the EU average by February 2006 add something

 

PKN Orlen - During May 2006, the company announced its largest investment ever when it took over a majority share of Lithuania's Ma?eiki? Nafta, the largest company in the Baltic States, from Yukos


2007

Mediafon - In 2007 "'Mediafon"' became part of MG Baltic group that is one of the largest corporations in the Baltic States


2008

Economy of Lithuania - Lithuania was the last among the Baltic states to be hit by the economic crisis because its GDP growth rate in 2008 was still positive

 

Economy of Lithuania - Lithuania was the last among the Baltic states to be hit by the economic crisis because its GDP growth rate in 2008 was still positive


2011

Over the course of 2011, the unemployment rates are expected to rise even further, despite an expected recovery in output add something

 

Estonia adopted the euro in January 2011 and Latvia in January 2014, whilst Lithuania aims for Euro adoption in 2015 add something

 

CTC Media - In October 2011, CTC International increased its footprint in North America and began broadcasting in the Baltic states


2013

IKEA - In 2013, IKEA plans to open its first shopping centre in Vilnius, Lithuania that will be the biggest furniture-selling mall in Baltic states


2014

Latvia national football team - The following players have been called up for the 2014 Baltic Cup matches held on 29-31 May 2014


2016

An essay competition on the topic "Is Estonia Nordic-" was held in 2016, by public activists and school students add something

 

A conference including the Nordic Council was held in September 2016, discussing Estonia's identity as a Nordic country add something


2018

Euro Truck Simulator 2 - The "Beyond the Baltic Sea" DLC was announced by SCS Software on 2 March 2018, consisting countries within the Baltics including portions of Finland and Russia

 

Kaunas - On 23 September 2018, Pope Francis visited Kaunas' Santakos Park as part of a tour of the Baltic states