Knowledge Identifier: +Baruch_Spinoza
Isaac Aboab da Fonseca - In 1656, he was one of several scholars who excommunicated the famous philosopher Baruch Spinoza
Only a year earlier, Spinoza had met with Leibniz at The Hague for a discussion of his principal philosophical work, Ethics, which had been completed in 1676.
Spinoza earned a modest living from lens-grinding and instrument making, yet while living in Voorburg through correspondence and friendships with scientist Christiaan Huygens and mathematician Johannes Hudde he was involved in important optical investigations of the day including debate over microscope design with Huygens, favoring small objectives and collaborating on calculations for a prospective 40 ft telescope which would have been one of the largest in Europe at the time The quality of Spinoza's lenses was much praised by Christiaan Huygens among others in fact his technique a
In 1785, Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi published a condemnation of Spinoza's pantheism, after Lessing was thought to have confessed on his deathbed to being a "Spinozist", which was the equivalent in his time of being called an atheist
During this time in Amsterdam, Spinoza wrote his "Short Treatise on God, Man, and His Well-Being", "of which two Dutch translations survive, discovered about 1810
George Eliot - Before going to Germany, Evans continued her interest in theological work with a translation of Feuerbach's Essence of Christianity, and while abroad she wrote essays and worked on her translation of Baruch Spinoza's Ethics, which she completed in 1856, but which was not published in her life-time.
In 1929, Einstein was asked in a telegram by Rabbi Herbert S. Goldstein whether he believed in God. Einstein responded by telegram: "I believe in Spinoza's God who reveals himself in the orderly harmony of what exists, not in a God who concerns himself with the fates and actions of human beings
The 2008 play "New Jerusalem," by David Ives, is based on the cherem issued against Spinoza by the Talmud Torah congregation in Amsterdam in 1656, and events leading to it
In September 2012, the Portugees-Israëlietishce Gemeente te Amsterdam asked the chief rabbi of their community Haham Pinchas Toledano to reconsider the cherem after consulting several Spinoza experts