Christiaan Huygens
George Eliot
Albert Einstein

See also

Baruch Spinoza

Knowledge Identifier: +Baruch_Spinoza


Baruch Spinoza

Dutch Jewish philosopheradd

Category: Philosophy

Born in 1632.

Countries: Netherlands (44%), Germany (22%), Portugal (11%)

Education: undef.

Main connections: Isaac Aboab da Fonseca, Christiaan Huygens, God

Linked to: Chicago Tribune, Jews, Presses Universitaires de France, Princeton University Press




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Spinoza is a character in the 1632 Ring Of Fire book series by Eric Flint. add something


On 27 July 1656, the Jewish community issued him the writ of cherem (Hebrew: ???, a kind of excommunication). add something


Isaac Aboab da Fonseca - In 1656, he was one of several elders within the Portuguese-Israelite community in the Netherlands who excommunicated Baruch Spinoza for the statements this philosopher made concerning the nature of God


Isaac Aboab da Fonseca - In 1656, he was one of several scholars who excommunicated the famous philosopher Baruch Spinoza


Spinoza relocated from Amsterdam to Rijnsburg (near Leiden) around 1661 and later lived in Voorburg and The Hague . add something


From December 1664 to June 1665, Spinoza engaged in correspondence with Blyenbergh, an amateur Calvinist theologian, who questioned Spinoza on the definition of evil. add something


Later in 1665, Spinoza notified Oldenburg that he had started to work on a new book, the Theologico-Political Treatise, published in 1670. add something


Only a year earlier, Spinoza had met with Leibniz at The Hague for a discussion of his principal philosophical work, Ethics, which had been completed in 1676. add something


Baruch Spinoza died in 1677 add something


Opera posthuma Amsterdam 1677. add something


Spinoza earned a modest living from lens-grinding and instrument making, yet while living in Voorburg through correspondence and friendships with scientist Christiaan Huygens and mathematician Johannes Hudde he was involved in important optical investigations of the day including debate over microscope design with Huygens, favoring small objectives and collaborating on calculations for a prospective 40 ft telescope which would have been one of the largest in Europe at the time The quality of Spinoza's lenses was much praised by Christiaan Huygens among others in fact his technique a add something


In 1785, Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi published a condemnation of Spinoza's pantheism, after Lessing was thought to have confessed on his deathbed to being a "Spinozist", which was the equivalent in his time of being called an atheist add something


During this time in Amsterdam, Spinoza wrote his "Short Treatise on God, Man, and His Well-Being", "of which two Dutch translations survive, discovered about 1810 add something


George Eliot - Before going to Germany, Evans continued her interest in theological work with a translation of Feuerbach's Essence of Christianity, and while abroad she wrote essays and worked on her translation of Baruch Spinoza's Ethics, which she completed in 1856, but which was not published in her life-time.


In the final part of the "Ethics", his concern with the meaning of "true blessedness", and his explanation of how emotions must be detached from external cause and so master them, foreshadow psychological techniques developed in the 1900s add something


In 1929, Einstein was asked in a telegram by Rabbi Herbert S. Goldstein whether he believed in God. Einstein responded by telegram: "I believe in Spinoza's God who reveals himself in the orderly harmony of what exists, not in a God who concerns himself with the fates and actions of human beings add something


Deleuze's doctoral thesis, published in 1968, refers to him as "the prince of philosophers add something


The 2008 play "New Jerusalem," by David Ives, is based on the cherem issued against Spinoza by the Talmud Torah congregation in Amsterdam in 1656, and events leading to it add something


In September 2012, the Portugees-Israƫlietishce Gemeente te Amsterdam asked the chief rabbi of their community Haham Pinchas Toledano to reconsider the cherem after consulting several Spinoza experts add something