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Boris Pasternak

Knowledge Identifier: +Boris_Pasternak

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Boris Pasternak

Russian language poet, novelist, and literary translator add

Category: Literature

Born in 1890.

Countries: Russia (41%), United States (24%), Italy (8%)

Main connections: Doctor Zhivago (novel), KGB, Alexander Scriabin

Linked to: Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, Izvestia, Jews

 

Timeline


 

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Boris Pasternak was born in 1890 add something


1900

Rainer Maria Rilke - Between May and August 1900, a second journey to Russia, accompanied only by Lou, again took him to Moscow and Saint Petersburg , where he met the family of Boris Pasternak and Spiridon Drozhzhin, a peasant poet


1903

His father Leonid was a painter who produced one of the most important portraits of Scriabin, and Pasternak wrote many years later of witnessing with great excitement the creation of Scriabin's Symphony No. 3, "The Divine Poem", in 1903 add something


1905

Doctor Zhivago - Outside Russia, Pasternak is best known as the author of "Doctor Zhivago", a novel which takes place between the Russian Revolution of 1905 and the Second World War add something

 

He attempted to make his poetry more comprehensible by reworking his earlier pieces and starting two lengthy poems on the Russian Revolution of 1905 add something


1909

His single-movement Piano Sonata of 1909 shows a more mature and individual voice add something


1910

Although it contains passages written in the 1910s and 1920s, "Doctor Zhivago" was not completed until 1956 add something

 

In 1910 he abruptly left for the German University of Marburg, where he studied under Neo-Kantian philosophers Hermann Cohen and Nicolai Hartmann add something

 

Most intensely of all my mind was occupied by Christianity in the years 1910-12, when the main foundations of this distinctiveness -- my way of seeing things, the world, life -- were taking shape add something

 

The high achievements of his mother discouraged him from becoming a pianist, but - inspired by Scriabin - he entered the Moscow Conservatory, but left abruptly in 1910 at the age of twenty, to study philosophy in Marburg University add something

 

According to Max Hayward, "In November 1910, when Tolstoy fled from his home and died in the stationmaster's house at Astapovo, Leonid Pasternak was informed by telegram and he went there immediately, taking his son Boris with him, and made a drawing of Tolstoy on his deathbed add something


1912

Russian-American singer and songwriter Regina Spektor recites a verse from "Black Spring", a 1912 poem by Pasternak in her song "Apres Moi" from her album "Begin to Hope" add something

 

She came to Marburg unannounced during the summer of 1912, and he told her of his love, as recounted in the poem "Marburg" add something


1917

Another failed love affair in 1917 inspired the poems in his collection "My Sister, Life" add something

 

Unlike the rest of his family and many of his closest friends, Pasternak chose not to leave Russia after the October Revolution of 1917 add something


1918

He continued to write original work and to translate, but after about the middle of 1918 it became almost impossible to publish add something


1919

In a letter written to Pasternak from abroad in the twenties, Marina Tsvetayeva reminded him of how she had run into him in the street in 1919 as he was on the way to sell some valuable books from his library in order to buy bread add something


1920

In the late 1920s, he participated in the much celebrated tripartite correspondence with Rilke and Tsvetayeva add something


1927

By 1927, Pasternak's close friends Vladimir Mayakovsky and Nikolai Aseyev were advocating the complete subordination of the Arts to the needs of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union add something


1928

Isaak Babel - In a 1928 letter to his White emigre father, Boris Pasternak wrote, "Yesterday, I read "Sunset", a play by Babel, and almost for the first time in my life I found that Jewry, as an ethnic fact, was a phenomenon of positive, unproblematic importance and power


1929

After Joseph Stalin was acclaimed as leader of the CPSU in 1929, Pasternak became further disillusioned with the Party's tightening censorship of literature add something


1930

Abraham Sutzkever - In the 1930s, his work was translated into Russian by Boris Pasternak


1932

By 1932, Pasternak had strikingly reshaped his style to make it acceptable to the Soviet public and printed the new collection of poems aptly titled "The Second Birth" add something


1934

Mandelstam recited his searing indictment of Stalin, the Stalin Epigram, to Pasternak soon after its composition in late April 1934 add something

 

On the night of 14 May 1934, Mandelstam was arrested at his home based on a warrant signed by NKVD boss Genrikh Yagoda add something


1937

According to Pasternak, during the 1937 show trial of General Iona Yakir and Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky, the Union of Soviet Writers requested all members to add their names to a statement supporting the death penalty for the defendants add something


1942

In a 1942 letter, Pasternak declared, "I am completely opposed to contemporary ideas about translation add something


1943

In 1943, Pasternak was finally granted permission to visit the soldiers at the front add something


1945

With the end of the war in 1945, there was a great expectation that the Soviet people would not only see the end of the devastation of Nazism, but the end of Stalin's Purges add something


1946

According to the current Nobel Committee head Lars Gillensten, his nominee was discussed every year from 1946 to 1950, again in 1957 add something

 

In October 1946, the married Pasternak met Olga Ivinskaya, a single mother employed by "Novy Mir" add something


1947

I worked on him a good deal in 1947 and 1948, when I first came to know you add something

 

Pasternak gave his lover a book of Pet?fi with the inscription, "Pet?fi served as a code in May and June 1947, and my close translations of his lyrics are an expression, adapted to the requirements of the text, of my feelings and thoughts for you and about you add something


1948

In memory of it all, B.P., 13 May 1948 add something


1949

On the evening of October 6, 1949, Ivinskaya was arrested at her apartment by the KGB add something


1953

When Stalin died of a stroke on 5 March 1953, Olga Ivinskaya was imprisoned in the Gulag, and Pasternak was in Moscow add something


1956

Resurrection - In a 1956 essay, Pasternak recalled his father's feverish work compiling illustrations for Tolstoy's novel "Resurrection" add something

 

In a 1956 essay, Pasternak wrote, "Translating Shakespeare is a task which takes time and effort add something

 

Grigory Pomerants - Under the impression of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 and the persecution of Boris Pasternak, Pomerants started considering furthering his political resistance


1957

At the instigation of Giangiacomo Feltrinelli, "Doctor Zhivago" was smuggled to Milan and published in 1957 add something

 

In 1957, multi-billionaire Italian publisher, Giangiacomo Feltrinelli announced that the novel would be released by his company add something

 

Helped considerably by the Soviet campaign against the novel, "Doctor Zhivago" became an instant sensation throughout the non-Communist world upon its release in November 1957 add something


1958

Between 1958 and 1959, the English language edition spent 26 weeks at the top of "The New York Times"' bestseller list add something

 

In a 1958 letter to a friend in West Germany, Paternak wrote, "She was put in jail on my account, as the person considered by the secret police to be closest to me, and they hoped that by means of a grueling interrogation and threats they could extract enough evidence from her to put me on trial add something

 

It is possible that the 1958 Nobel Prize prevented Pasternak's imprisonment due to the Soviet State's fear of international protests add something

 

It was released in August 1958, and remained the only edition available for more than fifty years add something

 

On 9 September 1958, the "Literary Gazette" critic Viktor Pertsov retaliated by denouncing, "the decadent religious poetry of Pasternak, which reeks of mothballs from the Symbolist suitcase of 1908-10 manufacture add something

 

On 23 October 1958, Boris Pasternak was announced as the winner of the Nobel Prize add something

 

On 31 October 1958, the Union of Soviet Writers held a trial behind closed doors add something

 

Nobel Prize - All of them were awarded their diplomas and gold medals after World War II. In 1958, Boris Pasternak declined his prize for literature due to fear of what the Soviet Union government might do if he travelled to Stockholm to accept his prize

 

Nikita Khrushchev - In 1958, however, Khrushchev ordered a fierce attack on Boris Pasternak after his novel, "Doctor Zhivago" was published abroad

 

Doctor Zhivago (novel) - On 23 October 1958, Boris Pasternak was announced as the winner of the 1958 Nobel Prize for Literature


1959

During the summer of 1959, Pasternak began writing "The Blind Beauty", a trilogy of stage plays set before and after Alexander II's abolition of serfdom in Russia add something

 

Meanwhile, Bill Mauldin produced a political cartoon which won the 1959 Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning add something

 

Bill Mauldin - In 1959, he won the Pulitzer Prize again for a cartoon depicting "Doctor Zhivago" author Boris Pasternak in a Soviet GULAG with the caption "I won the Nobel Prize for literature

 

Bella Akhmadulina - She was expelled in 1959 as a result of her opposition to the persecution of Boris Pasternak


1960

By the time of his death from lung cancer in 1960, the campaign against Pasternak had severely damaged the international credibility of the U.S.S.R. He remains a major figure in Russian literature to this day add something


Boris Pasternak died in 1960 add something

 

Sviatoslav Richter - In 1960, even though he had a reputation for being "indifferent" to politics, Richter defied the authorities when he performed at Boris Pasternak's funeral


1961

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Ivinskaya sued for the return of the letters and documents seized by the KGB in 1961 add something


1962

The KGB quietly released them, Irina after one year, in 1962, and Olga in 1964 add something


1964

Francis Webb (poet) - In 1964, Angus & Robertson published his fifth collection "The Ghost of the Cock", in 1969 released his well-known "Collected Poems", with an unforgettable foreword by Sir Herbert Read that compared Webb's work on equal footing with that of major European and American poets Pasternak, Lowell, Rilke and Eliot


1965

The first screen adaptation of "Doctor Zhivago", adapted by Robert Bolt and directed by David Lean, appeared in 1965 add something


1980

Meanwhile, Boris Pasternak continued to be pilloried by the Soviet State until Mikhail Gorbachev proclaimed Perestroika during the 1980s add something


1986

Alexandra Sviridova - They dealt with such topics as Boris Pasternak personal letters and manuscripts that were held by the KGB for thirty years, the Central Committee's secret files on the 1986 Chernobyl disaster, and former KGB agents who were serving as President Yeltsin's advisors or were lodged in other high positions


1988

In 1988, after decades of circulating in Samizdat, "Doctor Zhivago" was serialized in the literary journal "Novy Mir" add something

 

Ivinskaya was rehabilitated only in 1988 add something


1989

In December, 1989, Yevgenii Borisovich Pasternak was permitted to travel to Stockholm in order to collect his father's Nobel Medal add something


1995

Olga Ivinskaya died of cancer on 8 September 1995 add something


2002

In 2002, the novel was adapted as a television miniseries add something


2005

Anthony Crivello - In August 2005, he appeared at the La Jolla Playhouse in San Diego, California in a workshop production of "Zhivago", a musicalization of the Boris Pasternak novel by Marsha Norman and Lucy Simon


2006

The Russian TV version of 2006, directed by Alexander Proshkin and starring Oleg Menshikov as Zhivago, is considered more faithful to Pasternak's novel than David Lean's 1965 film add something


2009

A 2009 book by Ivan Tolstoi reasserts claims that British and American intelligence officers were involved in ensuring Pasternak's Nobel victory however another Russian researcher disagrees add something


2010

In October 2010, Random House released Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky's translation of "Doctor Zhivago" add something


 

The issue of whether or not the CIA had a hand in creating the international controversy that led to Pasternak's winning the Nobel Prize was definitively settled on 11 April 2014 when the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency released "nearly 100 declassified documents" confirming that it had, in fact, undertaken a massive propaganda campaign to influence the Nobel Prize committee to consider "Zhivago" for the award, starting as early as 12 December 1957: "Dr add something