Bosnian War

Knowledge Identifier: !Bosnian_War

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Bosnian War

International armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1 March 1992 and 14 December 1995 add

Category: Military

Activity starting in 1992.

Countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina (39%), United States (11%), (11%)

Main connections: United Nations, NATO, Islam

Linked to: International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, Serbian Democratic Party, United Nations Protection Force, NATO

 

Timeline


 

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1992

Inter Services Intelligence played active role during 1992-1995 and secretly supplied the Muslim fighters with arms, ammunition and guided anti tank missiles to give them a fighting chance against the aggression add something

 

On 7 January 1992, the Serb members of the Prijedor Municipal Assembly and the presidents of the local Municipal Boards of the SDS proclaimed the Assembly of the Serbian People of the Municipality of Prijedor and implemented secret instructions that were issued earlier on 19 December 1991 add something

 

On 9 January 1992, the Assembly of the Serb People of Bosnia and Herzegovina adopted a declaration proclaiming the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina add something

 

The Arbitration Commission of the Peace Conference on Yugoslavia in its 11 January 1992 Opinion No. 4 on Bosnia and Herzegovina stated that the independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina should not be recognized because the country had not yet held a referendum on independence add something

 

On 17 January 1992, the Prijedor Serb Assembly endorsed joining the Serbian territories of the Municipality of Prijedor to the Autonomous Region of Bosnian Krajina in order to create a separate Serbian state in ethnic Serb territories add something

 

On 25 January 1992, an hour after the session of parliament was adjourned, the parliament called for a referendum on independence on 29 February and 1 March add something

 

The Croatian War of Independence would result in U.N. Security Council Resolution 743 on 21 February 1992, which created the United Nations Protection Force in accordance with the Secretary-General's report S/23592 of 15 February 1992 add something

 

World War II - On 28 February 1992, the Constitution of the SR BiH declared that the territory of that Republic included "the territories of the Serbian Autonomous Regions and Districts and of other Serbian ethnic entities in Bosnia and Herzegovina, including the regions in which the Serbian people remained in the minority due to the genocide conducted against it in World War II", and it was declared to be a part of Yugoslavia add something

 

The Sijekovac killings happened in late March 1992 add something

 

The Bosnian Serbian assembly members invited the Serb population to boycott the referendums held on 29 February and 1 March 1992 add something

 

Bosnia and Herzegovina national football team - Bosnian War - After Bosnia and Herzegovina gained independence from Yugoslavia on 1 March 1992, the national football team was soon formed but could not enter qualifying for 1994 & FIFA World Cup as was not yet a member of FIFA due to Bosnian War that lasted from March 1992 to December 1995

 

In his decision, he characterized the Bosnian War to have been an international armed conflict, since Bosnia declared independence on 3 March 1992 add something

 

Independence was formally declared by the Bosnian parliament on 3 March 1992 and received international recognition the following month on 6 April 1992 add something

 

In the night of the 29/30 April 1992, the takeover of power took place add something

 

The Siege of Sarajevo started in early April 1992 add something

 

Muhamed Sacirbey - Bosnian War - When the Bosnian War began in April 1992, Sacirbey was asked to assist the fledgling state gain admission to the United Nations

 

On 12 February, Sarajevo enjoyed its first casualty free day since April 1992; the war is widely considered to have begun on 6 April 1992 add something

 

On 23 April 1992, the SDS decided "inter alia" that all Serb units immediately start working on the takeover of the Prijedor municipality in co-ordination with JNA. By the end of April 1992, a number of clandestine Serb police stations were created in the municipality and more than 1,500 armed Serbs were ready to take part in the takeover add something

 

In May 1992, the 1992 Yugoslav People's Army column incident in Sarajevo happened add something

 

The Graz agreement of May 1992 caused deep division inside the Croat community and strengthened the separation group, which led to the conflict with Bosniaks add something

 

The Graz agreement was signed between the Bosnian Serb and Bosnian Croat leaders in early May 1992 add something

 

The La?va Valley ethnic cleansing campaign against Bosniak civilians was planned by the Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia's political and military leadership from May 1992 to March 1993 add something

 

The first detainees were taken to the camp sometime in late May 1992 add something

 

The Yugoslav People's Army officially left Bosnia and Herzegovina on 12 May 1992 shortly after independence was declared in April 1992 add something

 

The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was admitted as a member State of the United Nations on 22 May 1992 add something

 

In June 1992 the focus switched to Novi Travnik and Gornji Vakuf where the Croat Defence Council efforts to gain control were resisted add something

 

In June 1992, the United Nations Protection Force originally deployed in Croatia had its mandate extended into Bosnia and Herzegovina, initially to protect the Sarajevo International Airport add something

 

The Croat-Bosniak war started in June 1992 add something

 

On 18 June 1992 the Bosnian Territorial Defence in Novi Travnik received an ultimatum from the HVO that included demands to abolish existing Bosnia and Herzegovina institutions, establish the authority of the Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia and pledge allegiance to it, subordinate the Territorial Defense to the HVO and expel Muslim refugees, all within 24 hours add something

 

Gornji Vakuf was initially attacked by Croats on 20 June 1992, but the attack failed add something

 

Margaret Thatcher - In August 1992, Thatcher called for NATO to stop the Serbian assault on Gorajde and Sarajevo to end ethnic cleansing during the Bosnian War

 

On 12 August 1992, the name of the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was changed to Republika Srpska add something

 

According to the Serb authorities documents from Prijedor, there were a total of 3,334 persons held in the camp from 27 May to 16 August 1992 add something

 

In October 1992 the Serbs captured the town of Jajce and expelled the Croat and Bosniak population add something

 

The situation became more serious in October 1992 when Croat forces attacked Bosniak civilian population in Prozor burning their homes and killing civilians add something


1993

A trial took place before the International Court of Justice, following a 1993 suit by Bosnia and Herzegovina against Serbia and Montenegro alleging genocide add something

 

Much of 1993 was dominated by the Croat-Bosniak war add something

 

The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia was established in 1993 as a body of the UN to prosecute war crimes committed during the wars in the former Yugoslavia, and to try their perpetrators add something

 

Up until 1993 the Croatian Defence Council and Army of Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina had been fighting side by side against the superior forces of the Army of Republika Srpska in some areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina add something

 

On January 1993 Croat forces attacked Gornji Vakuf, again to connect Herzegovina with Central Bosnia add something

 

Fighting broke out in Gornji Vakuf on 11 January 1993, sparked by a bomb Croats placed in a Bosniak-owned hotel used as a military headquarters add something

 

On 22 February 1993, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 808 that decided "that an international tribunal shall be established for the prosecution of persons responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law" add something

 

In April 1993, the United Nations Security Council issued Resolution 816, calling on member states to enforce a no-fly zone over Bosnia-Herzegovina add something

 

On 12 April 1993, NATO commenced Operation Deny Flight to enforce this no-fly zone add something

 

The larger HVO offensive on Jablanica had already started on 15 April 1993 add something

 

In the early hours of 9 May 1993, the Croatian Defence Council attacked Mostar using artillery, mortars, heavy weapons and small arms add something

 

On 25 May 1993 the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia was formally established by Resolution 827 of the United Nations Security Council add something

 

On 4 June 1993 the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 836 authorized the use of force by UNPROFOR in the protection of the safe zones add something

 

On 15 June 1993, Operation Sharp Guard, a naval blockade in the Adriatic Sea by NATO and the Western European Union, began but was lifted on 18 June 1996 on termination of the UN arms embargo add something

 

The ARBiH launched an operation known as Operation Neretva '93 against the HVO and Croatian Army in September 1993 to end the siege of Mostar, and recapture areas of Herzegovina that were included in the self-proclaimed Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia add something

 

According to a session taped on 14 October 1993, it is stated that: add something


1994

Between 1994 and 1995, the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was supported by, and was representative of, both ethnic Bosniaks and ethnic Bosnian Croats add something

 

The Serbs, although initially superior due to the vast amount of weapons and resources provided by the JNA, eventually lost momentum as the Bosniaks and Croats allied themselves against the Republika Srpska in 1994 with the creation of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina following the Washington agreement add something

 

The death toll was originally estimated in 1994 at around 200,000 by Cherif Bassouni, head of the UN expert commission investigating war crimes add something

 

Warren Zimmermann - Bosnian War - Zimmermann resigned from the diplomatic service in 1994 in protest at President Bill Clinton's reluctance to intervene in the Bosnian War

 

Travnik - Washington Agreement - During the Bosnian War, the town mostly escaped damage from conflict with Serbian forces, but the area experienced fighting between local Bosniak and Croat factions before the Washington Agreement was signed in 1994

 

On 5 February 1994 Sarajevo suffered its deadliest single attack during the entire siege with the first Markale massacre, when a 120 millimeter mortar shell landed in the center of the crowded marketplace, killing 68 people and wounding another 144 add something

 

A telegram sent to the White House on 8 February 1994 and penned by US Ambassador to Croatia Peter W. Galbraith stated that genocide was occurring add something

 

NATO became actively involved, when its jets shot down four Serb aircraft over central Bosnia on 28 February 1994 for violating the UN no-fly zone add something

 

On 12 March 1994, the United Nations Protection Force made its first request for NATO air support, but close air support was not deployed, however, owing to a number of delays associated with the approval process add something

 

On 10 and 11 April 1994 UNPROFOR called in air strikes to protect the Gora?de safe area, resulting in the bombing of a Serbian military command outpost near Gora?de by 2 US F-16 jets add something

 

NATO - On 10 and 11 April 1994, during the Bosnian War, the United Nations Protection Force called in air strikes to protect the Gora?de safe area, resulting in the bombing of a Bosnian Serb military command outpost near Gora?de by two US F-16 jets acting under NATO direction

 

On 22 September 1994 NATO aircraft carried out an air strike against a Bosnian Serb tank at the request of UNPROFOR. add something


1995

After the Srebrenica and Markale massacres, NATO intervened in 1995 with Operation Deliberate Force targeting the positions of the Army of the Republika Srpska, which proved key in ending the war add something

 

VRS forces committed several major massacres during 1995: the Tuzla massacre on 25 May, the Srebrenica massacre and the second Markale massacre on 28 August add something

 

Nawaf al-Hazmi - Bosnian War - A Saudi, Nawaf and childhood friend, Khalid al-Mihdhar, left their homes in 1995 to fight in the Bosnian War

 

Ibrahim Rugova - Dayton Agreement - However, the Dayton Agreement of 1995, which ended the Bosnian War, seriously weakened Rugova's position

 

Nawaf al-Hazmi - In 1995, he and his childhood friend, Khalid al-Mihdhar, joined a group that went to fight alongside Bosnian Muslims in the Bosnian War

 

Nezavisne novine - In 1995, shortly after the Dayton Agreement which ended the Bosnian War, ?eljko Kopanja co-founded "Nezavisne Novine", a weekly independent newspaper, in order to "foster improved relationships among Serbs, Muslims and Croats in Bosnia"

 

Sarajevo Film Festival - It was founded in Sarajevo in 1995 during the siege of Sarajevo in the Bosnian Independence War, and brings international and local celebrities to Sarajevo every year

 

Oxfam - The Bosfam NGO was founded in May 1995 by women participating in an Oxfam GB psycho-social 'radionice' project to support internally displaced women during the Bosnian war

 

On 14 September 1995, the NATO air strikes were suspended to allow the implementation of an agreement with Bosnian Serbs for the withdrawal of heavy weapons from around Sarajevo add something

 

Sanski Most - During the Bosnian War, the town was controlled by the Army of Republika Srpska and remained under its control until October 1995 when the Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina took over it shortly before the end of the war

 

Warren Christopher - Bosnian War - The result was the November 1995 Dayton, Ohio Agreement, which put an end to the Bosnian War

 

The war ended with the Dayton Peace Agreement signed on 21 November 1995; the final version of the peace agreement was signed 14 December 1995 in Paris add something

 

Bosnia and Herzegovina national football team - The team's first FIFA recognized friendly match, coming just nine days after the Dayton Peace Agreement brought an end to the Bosnian War, was played in Tirana against Albania on 30 November 1995

 

Peace negotiations were held in Dayton, Ohio, and were finalized on 21 December 1995 add something


1997

"Love Thy Neighbor: A Story of War" by Peter Maas, published in 1997 is his account as a reporter at the height of the Bosnian War. This book examines, with scathing inquiry, the horrors and desperation suffered by the Bosnian people add something


1998

Many of the war events were depicted in the Pakistani drama series, "Alpha Bravo Charlie", written and directed by acclaimed producer Shoaib Mansoor in 1998 add something

 

Shot Through the Heart is a 1998 TV film directed by David Attwood, shown on the BBC and HBO in 1998, which covers the Siege of Sarajevo during the Bosnian War from the perspective of two Olympic-level Yugoslavian marksmen, one whom becomes a sniper add something


 

Bosnian-British film "Beautiful People" directed by Jasmin Dizdar portrays the encounter between English families and arriving Bosnian refugees at the height of the Bosnian War. The film was awarded the Un Certain Regard at the 1999 Cannes Festival add something

 

There are a number of British films such as "Welcome to Sarajevo", which is about the life of Sarajevo citizens during the siege, and the award-winning British television drama, "Warriors", aired on BBC One in 1999 about the La?va Valley ethnic cleansing add something

 

Charlotte Coleman - Bosnian War - Her last major film was Jasmin Dizdar's "Beautiful People" , set in London in 1993, at the time of the Bosnian War, playing the role of Portia Thornton


2000

Dassault Mirage 2000 - French Mirage 2000s were used during the Gulf War as well as in UN and NATO air operations during the Bosnian War and the Kosovo War


2001

Sejo Sexon - They had organized more than 80 benefit concerts across in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Denmark, Germany and Slovenia to raise awareness about refugees of Bosnian War. In 2001, Sejo Sexon and his fellow band members from Zabranjeno pu?enje took a part in a social responsibility project in which they organized music workshops for children and youth who were victims of land mines


2003

Serbian Radical Party - Bosnian War - Vojislav ?e?elj has led the party since its foundation until his voluntary extradition to the ICTY in 2003, on charges of alleged involvement in war crimes during the Bosnian War

 

He was sentenced to 18 years by the ICTY Appeals Chamber on 8 April 2003 for murder and torture of the prisoners and for raping two Serbian women add something


2005

In 2005, the United States Congress passed a resolution declaring that "the Serbian policies of aggression and ethnic cleansing meet the terms defining genocide" add something


2006

The Court further decided that, following Montenegro's declaration of independence in May 2006, Serbia was the only respondent party in the case, but that "any responsibility for "past" events involved at the relevant time the composite State of Serbia and Montenegro" add something


2007

Paramilitary leader Vojislav ?e?elj has been on trial since 2007 accused of being a part of a joint criminal enterprise to ethnically cleanse large parts of Bosnia of non-serbs add something

 

The International Court of Justice ruling of 26 February 2007 indirectly determined the war's nature to be international, though clearing Serbia of direct responsibility for the genocide committed by the forces of Republika Srpska add something


2008

According to legal experts, as of early 2008, 45 Serbs, 12 Croats and 4 Bosniaks were convicted of war crimes by the ICTY in connection with the Balkan wars of the 1990s add something


2009

In his book "The Clinton Tapes: Wrestling History with the President" from 2009, historian and author Taylor Branch, a long-time friend of former United States president Bill Clinton, made public more than 70 recorded sessions with the president during his presidency from 1993 through 2001 add something

 

Srebrenica massacre - In 2009, Stavros Vitalis announced that the volunteers were suing the writer Takis Michas for libel over allegations in his book "Unholy Alliance", in which Michas described aspects of the Greek state's tacit support for the Serbs during the Bosnian War. Insisting that the volunteers had simply taken part in what he described as the "re-occupation" of the town, Vitalis acknowledged that he himself was present with senior Serb officers in "all operations" for Srebrenica's re-occupation by the Serbs


2010

An ICRC book published in 2010 cites the total number killed in all of the Balkan wars in the 1990s as about 140,000 people add something

 

On 31 March 2010, the Serbian parliament adopted a declaration "condemning in strongest terms the crime committed in July 1995 against Bosniak population of Srebrenica" and apologizing to the families of the victims, the first of its kind in the region add something


2011

It opened in the United States on 23 December 2011 in a limited theatrical release add something


2014

Doboj - On 26 May 2014, it was announced that the floods and landslides had uncovered mass graves with the skeletal remains of Bosniak victims of the Bosnian War of the 1990s

 

In July 2014 the remains of 284 victims, unearthed from the Tomasica mass grave near the town of Prijedor, were laid to rest in a mass ceremony in the northwestern town of Kozarac, attended by thousands of relatives from Bosnia and across Europe add something


2016

Semiha Borovac - On 26 January 2016, Borovac signed an agreement with mayors from cities throughout the country and ministers of both entities, promising to have 438 homes built for families displaced by the Bosnian War of the 1990s