Cecil Rhodes

Knowledge Identifier: +Cecil_Rhodes

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Cecil Rhodes

English-born South African businessman, mining magnate, and politician add

Category: Business

Born in 1853.

Countries: United Kingdom (46%), UK (15%), (15%)

Main connections: England, De Beers, Brown's Hotel

Linked to: British South Africa Company, Rhodes University, De Beers, Grammar School

 

Timeline


 

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Cecil Rhodes was born in 1853 add something


1869

Rhodes attended the Bishop's Stortford Grammar School from the age of nine, but, as a sickly, asthmatic adolescent, he was taken out of grammar school in 1869 and, according to Basil Williams, "continued his studies under his father's eye add something


1870

The voyage to Durban took him seventy days, and on 1 September 1870 he first set foot on African soil, a tall, lanky, anaemic, fair-haired boy, shy and reserved in bearing add something


1871

In October 1871, 18-year-old Rhodes and his brother Herbert left the colony for the diamond fields of Kimberley, Northern Cape add something


1872

On returning to England in 1872 his health again deteriorated with heart and lung problems, to the extent that his doctor believed he would only survive six months add something


1873

He was admitted to Oriel College, Oxford, but stayed for only one term in 1873 add something

 

In 1873, Rhodes left his farm field in the care of his business partner, Rudd, and sailed for England to complete his studies add something


1874

In 1874 and 1875, the diamond fields were in the grip of depression, but Rhodes and Rudd were among those who stayed to consolidate their interests add something


1876

He returned to South Africa and did not return for his second term at Oxford until 1876 add something


1877

In his first will, written in 1877 before he had accumulated his wealth, Rhodes wanted to create a secret society that would bring the whole world under British rule add something

 

With the earlier incorporation of Griqualand West into the Cape Colony under the Molteno Ministry in 1877, the area had obtained six seats in the Cape House of Assembly add something


1880

Gun War - The ministry of Sir Gordon Sprigg was trying to restore order after the 1880 rebellion known as the Gun War add something

 

During the 1880s Cape vineyards had been devastated by a phylloxera epidemic add something

 

In 1880, Rhodes prepared to enter public life at the Cape add something


1882

Rhodes was close to Pickering; he returned from negotiations for Pickering's 25th birthday in 1882 add something


1884

His successor was Henry Latham Currey, the son of an old friend, who had become Rhodes's private secretary in 1884 add something


1886

Julius Wernher - With the discovery in 1886 of gold on the Witwatersrand, the firm appointed Hermann Eckstein as their representative in Johannesburg, while Cecil Rhodes and Beit effectively amalgamated the Kimberley, Northern Cape diamond mines by 1888 and enabled "Wernher, Beit & Co." to acquire a controlling interest in De Beers Consolidated Mines


1888

On 13 March 1888, Rhodes and Rudd launched De Beers Consolidated Mines after the amalgamation of a number of individual claims add something

 

De Beers - De Beers Consolidated Mines was formed in 1888 by the merger of the companies of Barney Barnato and Cecil Rhodes, by which time the company was the sole owner of all diamond mining operations in the country

 

De Beers - The company was founded in 1888 by British businessman Cecil Rhodes, who was financed by the South African diamond magnate Alfred Beit and the London-based N M Rothschild & Sons bank


1889

Armed with the Rudd Concession, in 1889 Rhodes obtained a charter from the British Government for his British South Africa Company to rule, police, and make new treaties and concessions from the Limpopo River to the great lakes of Central Africa add something

 

His monopoly of the world's diamond supply was sealed in 1889 through a strategic partnership with the London-based Diamond Syndicate add something

 

Mercenary - An example of this was the British South Africa Police , a paramilitary, mounted infantry force formed by the British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes in 1889/1890 that evolved and continued until 1980


1890

France had a rival strategy in the late 1890s to link its colonies from west to east across the continent add something

 

In 1890, Rhodes became Prime Minister of the Cape Colony and implemented laws that would benefit mine and industry owners add something

 

Joseph Thomson (explorer) - In 1890, Cecil Rhodes employed Thomson to explore north of the Zambezi and gain treaties and mining concessions from chiefs on behalf of his British South Africa Company which had been chartered by the British Government to claim the territory known as Zambezia as far north as the African Great Lakes

 

Frederick Selous - In 1890, Selous entered the service of the British South Africa Company, at the request of magnate Cecil Rhodes, acting as guide to the pioneer expedition to Mashonaland


1892

In 1892, Rhodes financed The Pioneer Fruit Growing Company at Nooitgedacht, a venture created by Harry Pickstone, an Englishman who had experience with fruit-growing in California add something

 

The growing number of enfranchised Black people in the Cape led him to raise the franchise requirements in 1892 to counter this preponderance, with drastic effects on the traditional Cape Qualified Franchise add something

 

Herbert Baker - He embarked for South Africa in 1892 ostensibly to visit his brother, and was commissioned in 1893 by Cecil Rhodes to remodel Groote Schuur, Rhodes' house on the slopes of Table Mountain in Cape Town , and the residence of South African prime ministers


1893

Frederick Russell Burnham - When he heard of the work of Cecil Rhodes and his pioneers in building the Cape to Cairo railway in Africa, Burnham sold what little he owned and, in 1893, set sail to Cape Town, South Africa, with his wife and young son


1894

By the end of 1894, the territories over which the BSAC had concessions or treaties, collectively called "Zambesia" after the Zambezi River flowing through the middle, comprised an area of 1,143,000 kmĀ² between the Limpopo River and Lake Tanganyika add something

 

When Currey was engaged in 1894, Rhodes was deeply mortified and their relationship split add something

 

Edward Frederick Knight - In 1894 he had visited the new territory of Rhodesia just as Cecil Rhodes was conquering Matabeleland in south-western Rhodesia and his assessment of the country, presented in a series of articles written for "The Times", later appeared in book form under the title of "Rhodesia of Today"


1895

In 1895, Rhodes supported an attack on the Transvaal, the infamous Jameson Raid, which proceeded with the tacit approval of Secretary of State for the Colonies Joseph Chamberlain add something

 

In May 1895, its name was officially changed to "Rhodesia", reflecting Rhodes' popularity among settlers who had been using the name informally since 1891 add something


1896

In 1896 Earl Grey came to give Rhodes bad news add something

 

Percy Molteno had just undertaken the first successful refrigerated export to Europe and in 1896, after consulting with Molteno, Rhodes began to pay more attention to export fruit farming and bought farms in Groot Drakenstein, Wellington and Stellenbosch add something


1897

Common starling - In South Africa, the common starling was introduced in 1897 by Cecil Rhodes


1898

The designation Southern Rhodesia was officially adopted in 1898 for the part south of the Zambezi, which later became Zimbabwe; and the designations North-Western and North-Eastern Rhodesia were used from 1895 for the territory which later became Northern Rhodesia, Zambia add something


1902

After his death in the Cape in 1902, his body was transported by train to Bulawayo add something

 

Although initially he did not approve of the organisation, he continued to be a Freemason until his death in 1902 add something

 

From age 40 his heart condition returned with increasing severity until his death from heart failure in 1902, aged 48, at his seaside cottage in Muizenberg add something

 

He died shortly after the trial in 1902 add something


Cecil Rhodes died in 1902 add something


1904

Rhodes University College, now Rhodes University, in Grahamstown, was established in his name by his trustees and founded by Act of Parliament on 31 May 1904 add something


1907

The residents of Kimberley, Northern Cape elected to build a memorial in Rhodes' honour in their city, which was unveiled in 1907 add something


1917

Jameson died in England in 1917, but after the war in 1920 his body was transferred to a grave beside that of Rhodes on Malindidzimu Hill or World's View, a granite hill in the Matopo National Park 40 km south of Bulawayo add something


1938

His birthplace was established as a museum in 1938, now known as Bishops Stortford Museum add something


1964

In 1964, Northern Rhodesia became the independent state of Zambia and Southern Rhodesia was thereafter known simply as Rhodesia add something


1965

Brown's Hotel - Other notable people who have stayed at Brown's include Cecil Rhodes, founder of Rhodesia, Rudyard Kipling and Agatha Christie, who is popularly believed to have based her 1965 mystery "At Bertram's Hotel" on Brown's


1980

In 1980, Rhodesia, which had been de facto independent since 1965, became independent from Britain and was renamed Zimbabwe add something


2004

In 2004, he was voted 56th in the SABC3 television series "Great South Africans" add something


2010

In December 2010 Cain Mathema, the governor of Bulawayo, branded Rhodes' grave outside the country's second city of Bulawayo an "insult to the African ancestors" and said he believed its presence had brought bad luck and poor weather to the region add something


2012

In February 2012, Mugabe loyalists and ZANU-PF activists, visited the grave site demanding permission from the local chief to exhume Rhodes' remains and return them to Britain add something


2015

In March 2015 the statue was at the centre of controversy with University of Cape Town students arguing it remains a symbol of ://www add something