Knowledge Identifier: &CERN



International organization whose purpose is to operate the world's largest particle physics laboratory add

Category: Technology

Founded in 1961.

Countries: (35%), United Kingdom (27%), United States (11%)

Main connections: Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, Large Hadron Collider, Carlo Rubbia

Linked to: Association for Computing Machinery, World Wide Web Consortium, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, BBC




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Spain first joined CERN in 1961, withdrew in 1969, and rejoined in 1983 add something


Yugoslavia was a founding member of CERN but left in 1961 add something


European Southern Observatory - The final 1962 version was largely adopted from the CERN convention, due to similarities between the organisations and the dual membership of some members


The smaller accelerators are on the main Meyrin site , which was originally built in Switzerland alongside the French border, but has been extended to span the border since 1965 add something


European Southern Observatory - Because & CERN had sophisticated instrumentation, the astronomy organisation frequently turned to the nuclear-research body for advice and a collaborative agreement between ESO and CERN was signed in 1970


Francium - Further research into francium's structure was carried out by, among others, Sylvain Lieberman and his team at CERN in the 1970s and 1980s


Carlo Rubbia - In 1970 Rubbia was appointed Higgins Professor of Physics at Harvard University, where he spent one semester per year for 18 years, while continuing his research activities at & CERN. In 1989, he was appointed Director-General of the CERN Laboratory


Particle accelerator - The Cornell Electron Synchrotron, built at low cost in the late 1970s, was the first in a series of high-energy circular electron accelerators built for fundamental particle physics, the last being LEP, built at CERN, which was used from 1989 until 2000


Carlo Rubbia - In 1976, he suggested adapting CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron to collide protons and antiprotons in the same ring and the world's first antiproton factory was built


Prior to the Web's development, CERN had been a pioneer in the introduction of Internet technology, beginning in the early 1980s add something


GEC Computers - By 1980, OS4000 was becoming quite popular in the UK academic and research organisations as a multi-user system, with installations at Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Daresbury Laboratory, Harwell Laboratory, NERC, Met Office, CERN, in many university Physics and/or Engineering departments, and as the main central computer service at University College London and Keele University


Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission - During the 1980s, some of the experimental physicists from Pakistan, specialising in the technique of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors , benefited from CERN by exposing the stacks in the beam at the Super Proton Synchrotron


Carlo Rubbia - In addition to the observation of the intermediate vector mesons, the CERN proton-antiproton collider dominated the scene of high energy physics from its first operation in 1981 until its close in 2002, when the Tevatron at Fermilab took over this role


The 1984 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer for the developments that led to the discoveries of the W and Z bosons add something


The World Wide Web began as a CERN project called ENQUIRE, initiated by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989 and Robert Cailliau in 1990 add something


Internaut - Berners-Lee filed his original proposal for the Web on 12 March 1989, while working at CERN, and the project was first publicly announced on 6 August 1991 on the "alt


Website - The World Wide Web was created in 1990 by the British CERN physicist Tim Berners-Lee


The first website went on-line in 1991 add something


The 1992 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to CERN staff researcher Georges Charpak "for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber add something


Georges Charpak - Georges Charpak was awarded the Nobel Prize in $ Physics in 1992 "for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber", with affiliations to both École supérieure de physique et de chimie industrielles and CERN. This was the last time a single person was awarded the physics prize


On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to anyone add something


Website - On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to use for anyone


Berners-Lee and Cailliau were jointly honoured by the Association for Computing Machinery in 1995 for their contributions to the development of the World Wide Web. add something


Atom - However, in 1996 the antimatter counterpart of the hydrogen atom was synthesized at the CERN laboratory in Geneva


Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission - In 2000, CERN signed another agreement which doubled the Pakistani contribution from one to two million Swiss francs


It uses the 27 km circumference circular tunnel previously occupied by LEP which was closed down in November 2000 add something


Large Hadron Collider - However, cost overruns, estimated in a major review in 2001 at around SFr 480M for the accelerator, and SFr 50M for the experiments, along with a reduction in CERN's budget, pushed the completion date from 2005 to April 2007


Francois-Xavier Poizat - Poizat begun to study the piano at the age of 4, and by 2001 he had given his first recital at the CERN in Geneva at the age of eleven


Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission - In 2006 PAEC and CERN agreed on expanded cooperation, including contributions by PAEC valued at 5 million Swiss francs


Martha Jones - Set between the events of the 2008 series of "Torchwood" but prior to the "Doctor Who" finale that year, Martha recruits Jack, Ianto and Gwen on Torchwood's first international adventure, as part of Radio 4's special celebration of the Large Hadron Collider being switched on at CERN in Geneva


The initial particle beams were injected into the LHC August 2008 add something


Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission - The PAEC, partnered with country's leading universities, send a large team of scientists and engineers to CERN to participate in Large Hadron Collider on 10 September 2008


Large Hadron Collider - CERN released an interim technical report and preliminary analysis of the incident on 15 and 16 October 2008 respectively, The analysis of the incident by CERN confirmed that an electrical fault had indeed been the cause


Large Hadron Collider - Despite the delay, LHC was officially inaugurated on 21 October 2008, in the presence of political leaders, science ministers from CERN's 20 Member States, CERN officials, and members of the worldwide scientific community


The LHC resumed operation on Friday 20 November 2009 by successfully circulating two beams, each with an energy of 3,5 trillion electron volts add something


Climate change - In an Aug 2011 Press Release, CERN announced the publication in the Nature journal the initial results from its CLOUD experiment


Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission - In 27 June 2011, PAEC and & CERN reached an agreement for extending the technical cooperation with CERN's upcoming programmes


At the end of 2012 the LHC will be shut down for maintenance for up to two years, to strengthen the huge magnets inside the accelerator add something


Maria Spiropulu - Spiropulu was a senior research physicist at CERN until 2012, and has been a professor at the California Institute of Technology since 2009


Large Hadron Collider - The Large Hadron Collider was the focus of the 2012 student film Decay, with the movie being filmed on location in CERN's maintenance tunnels


When the 7 TeV experimental period ended, the LHC revved up to 8 TeV in March 2012, and will begin particle collisions at that rate in early April 2012 add something


Hamilton (musician) - It was screened at CERN in March 2012 as part of the Cineglobe International Film Festival


Wood (musician) - It was screened at CERN in March 2012 as part of the Cineglobe International Film Festival


Noble (musician) - It was screened at CERN in March 2012 as part of the Cineglobe International Film Festival


In July 2012, CERN scientists claimed to have discovered a new sub-atomic particle that could be the much sought after Higgs boson believed to be essential for formation of the Universe add something


Physics - In July 2012 CERN, the European laboratory for particle physics, announced the detection of a particle consistent with the Higgs boson, an integral part of a Higgs mechanism


Peter Higgs - On 4 July 2012, CERN announced the ATLAS and CMS experiments had seen strong indications for the presence of a new particle, which could be the Higgs boson, in the mass region around 126 gigaelectronvolts


In early 2013 the LHC was shut down for a two-year maintenance period, to strengthen the huge magnets inside the accelerator add something


CERN voted on December 12, 2013 to allow Israel to join its membership, becoming the first non-European member add something


John Ellis (physicist) - Starmus Festival - In 2014, Ellis delivered an address about his experiences at CERN at the second Starmus Festival in the Canary Islands


Israel joined CERN as a full member on 6 January 2014, becoming the first non-European member add something


Sally Field - On a "Late Show with David Letterman" appearance in April 2014, she revealed that her brother, Dr. Rick Field, is a high energy particle physicist whom she visited recently at CERN in Switzerland


Unbinilium - Radioactive rubidium beams can be produced since 2015 at CERN's HIE-ISOLDE apparatus with sufficient intensity to consider the production of element 120 in the reaction of rubidium beams with a bismuth-209 target in a cold fusion reaction


Will Self - In January 2015, Self began a 50 km walking tour of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN near Geneva for BBC Radio 4, invited by Physicist Akram Khan to 'feel the wonder' of particle physics


On 5 April 2015 and after two years of maintenance and consolidation, the LHC restarted for a second run add something


The first ramp to the record-breaking energy of 6,5 TeV was performed on 10 April 2015 add something


In June 2015 Romania became a full member of CERN, after an unanimous vote in favor add something


On 15 December 2015, two teams of physicists, working independently at CERN, reported preliminary hints of a possible new subatomic particle: if real, the particle could be either a heavier version of a Higgs boson or a graviton add something


World Wide Web - In March 2016 Tim Berners-Lee issued a proposal to the management at CERN for a system called "Mesh" that referenced ENQUIRE, a database and software project he had built in 1980, which used the term "web" and described a more elaborate information management system based on links embedded in readable text: "Imagine, then, the references in this document all being associated with the network address of the thing to which they referred, so that while reading this document you could skip to them with a click of the mouse


On 1 April 2016, following the official ratification by the Republic of Cyprus Cyprus became an Associate Member add something


The agreement was ratified on 5 October 2016 add something


The agreement was ratified on 16 January 2017 add something


The association agreement was signed on 27 June 2017 add something


The agreement was ratified on 4 July 2017 add something


A second two-year period of shutdown is scheduled to begin at the end of 2018 add something