Georges Pompidou
Francois Mitterrand
Philippe de Gaulle
Vichy regime
Maurice Papon
Vichy France

See also

Charles de Gaulle

Knowledge Identifier: +Charles_de_Gaulle


Charles de Gaulle

French general and statesman who led the Free French Forces during World War IIadd

Category: Politics

Born in 1890.

Countries: France (52%), United States (8%), (8%)

Education: undef.

Main connections: French Fifth Republic, Georges Pompidou, Francois Mitterrand

Linked to: Vichy France, Labour Party, Lublin Committee, European Coal and Steel Community




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Charles de Gaulle was born in 1890 add something


Philippe Petain - As colonel, he commanded the 33rd Infantry Regiment at Arras from 1911; the young lieutenant Charles de Gaulle, who served under him, later wrote that his "first colonel, Pétain, taught the Art of Command


When war finally broke out in late July 1914, the 33rd Regiment, considered one of the best fighting units in France was immediately thrown into checking the German advance at Dinant, however, the traditionally minded French Fifth Army commander, General Charles de Lanrezac threw his units into pointless bayonet charges with bugles and full colours flying against the German artillery, incurring heavy losses. add something


Returning to find many of his former comrades dead, de Gaulle's unit gained recognition for repeatedly crawling out into no-mans-land to listen to the conversations of the enemy in their trenches, and the information he brought back was so valuable that in January 1915 he received a citation for his bravery. add something


After a more serious wound which incapacitated him for 4 months, he was promoted to capitaine in September 1915. add something


At the Battle of Verdun in March 1916, while leading a charge to try to break out of a position which had become surrounded by the enemy, he received a bayonet wound to the leg and, passing out from the effects of poisoned gas, was captured at Douaumont, one of the few survivors of his battalion. add something


On 1 December 1918, three weeks after the armistice, he returned to his father's house in the Dordogne to be reunited with his three brothers, who had all served in the army yet somehow survived the war. add something


Charles de Gaulle married Yvonne Vendroux on 7 April 1921. add something


While being held as a prisoner of war, de Gaulle wrote his first book, co-written by Matthieu Butler, L'Ennemi et le vrai ennemi ("The Enemy and the True Enemy"), analysing the issues and divisions within the German Empire and its forces; the book was published in 1924. add something


In 1934 he wrote Vers l’Armee de Metier ("Toward a Professional Army"), which advocated a professional army based on mobile armoured divisions. add something


Gaston Palewski - Through Reynaud, in 1934, he first met Charles de Gaulle, and became a supporter of his political and military views


The black market pushed real prices to four times the level of 1939, causing the government to print money to try to improve the money supply, which only added to inflation. add something


Indochina, (now Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia) colonised by France during the mid nineteenth century had been lost to the Japanese after the defeat of 1940. add something


Mary’s husband was General Edward Spears, the British liaison to the Free French who had personally spirited de Gaulle to safety in Britain in 1940. add something


On 4 July 1940, a court-martial in Toulouse sentenced de Gaulle in absentia to four years in prison. add something


Michel Arnaud - Arnaud had chosen to enter in the colonial infantry, and when Charles de Gaulle issued the Appeal of June 18 in 1940 for resistance against the Axis, he was a lieutenant stationed at Faya-Largeau in Chad and attached to the Régiment de Tirailleurs Sénégalais du Tchad , and on 26 August sided with de Gaulle, like all soldiers of the RTST.


Jean-Hilaire Aubame - Following the speech given by Charles de Gaulle on the Appeal of 18 June 1940, Aubame sided with the Free French, and in November was sent by Libreville authorities to rally Fangs for the cause


Jacques Chirac - Although Chirac was well-situated in de Gaulle's entourage, being related by marriage to the general's sole companion at the time of the Appeal of 18 June 1940, he was more of a "Pompidolian" than a "Gaullist".


Gaullist Party - Author of the L'Appel of 18 June 1940, and founder and leader of the Free French Forces, General Charles de Gaulle is the symbol of the French Resistance to the Nazi occupation and the Vichy government


Barthelemy Boganda - On many occasions, General Charles de Gaulle expressed his sympathy for Oubangui-Chari, which had supported de Gaulle's Free French Forces as early as August 1940, and refused to support the violent intrigues of the RPF against Boganda and his men


With British support, the de Gaulle family settled in Berkhamsted from October 1941 to September 1942. add something


Taj al-Din al-Hasani - The ex-Prime Minister remained on the margins of political life until 1941, when following the Bloc downfall, General Charles de Gaulle appointed him President of Syria on September 12, 1941, after having failed to prevail upon Hashim al-Atassi to return to office


Adrien Tixier - He joined General de Gaulle, who charged him in November 1941, to represent the Free France in Washington, where he is appreciated by the Roosevelt administration


Leonard W. Murray - On return from Halifax, Muselier took the vessels to Vichy-controlled St Pierre and Miquelon, and on 24 December 1941 raised the Free French flag to claim the islands for General Charles de Gaulle, thereby creating a diplomatic incident between France, Canada and the USA. Murray was later asked to account for his role in this adventure - but steadfastly claimed that he had no part in it


Jean Pierre-Bloch - He joined General de Gaulle in London , heading the civilian section of the central bureau of intelligence and action from 1942 to 1943


Marcel Carpentier - In 1942 Carpentier joined General Charles de Gaulle's Free French forces, becoming chief of staff of the French Expeditionary Corps in 1943


Simone Signoret - In 1942, she began appearing in bit parts and was able to earn enough money to support her mother and two brothers as her father, who was a French patriot, had fled the country in 1940 to join General De Gaulle in England


Jerauld Wright - Finally, Admiral Darlan was assassinated on December 24, 1942, and Charles de Gaulle would ultimately outmaneuver and marginalize Henri Giraud to become the sole leader of the Free French movement


In Algiers in 1943, Eisenhower gave De Gaulle the assurance in person that a French force would liberate Paris and arranged that the army division of French General Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque would be transferred from North Africa to England to carry out that liberation. add something


As early as May 1943, the US Secretary of State Cordell Hull had written to Roosevelt urging him of need to take action to attempt to kerb the rise of Communism in France. add something


Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber - Having been accepted by the École polytechnique, France's top engineering school in 1943, he joined Charles de Gaulle's Free French Forces with his father and went to Alabama for training as a fighter pilot; however, he never entered combat


Francois Mitterrand - In 1943 Giraud was contesting with General Charles de Gaulle for the leadership of the French Resistance


Robert Carrier (chef) - Speaking fluent French and understanding German thanks to his parentage, Carrier arrived in England in 1943, and served in Paris post D-Day as a cryptographer in General Charles de Gaulle's headquarters


with the president, de Gaulle became angry, demanding to know why he should "lodge my candidacy for power in France with Roosevelt; the French government exists". add something


He began seeking an audience with Stalin to press his ‘facing both ways’ policy, and finally received an invitation in late 1944. add something


Speech by Charles de Gaulle after the liberation of Paris, August 1944. add something


On 10 September 1944, the Provisional Government of the French Republic, or Government of National Unanimity was formed. add something


Maurice Thorez - When General Charles de Gaulle's Free French Forces liberated France in 1944, Thorez received a pardon


French Communist Party - With the liberation of France in 1944, the PCF, along with other resistance groups, entered the government of Charles de Gaulle


John J. Pershing - In July 1944, Pershing was visited by Free French leader General Charles de Gaulle


Raymond Aubrac - In August 1944, Charles de Gaulle appointed Aubrac to the post of "commissaire de la république" in Marseille


Adrien Tixier - He was appointed interior minister in September 1944, in the Provisional Government of the French General de Gaulle, a post he held until January 1946


Georges Catroux - Officially honored as a French liberation fighter, Catroux was Minister for North Africa in the first government of Charles de Gaulle from 9 September 1944 to 21 October 1945, and became ambassador to the USSR in 1945-48


One World Divisible: A Global History Since 1945. add something


Trois Études (Rôle Historique des Places Fortes; Mobilisation Economique à l’Étranger; Comment Faire une Armee de Metier) followed by the Memorandum of 26 January 1940. add something


At the Yalta Conference in February 1945, Churchill and Roosevelt agreed that Poland should be ruled by the Lublin Committee and that she should give Russia her eastern lands in return for German territory. add something


Soon after, on 12 April 1945, Roosevelt died, and despite their uneasy relationship de Gaulle declared a week of mourning in France and forwarded an emotional and concillitory letter to the new American President Harry S. Truman, in which he said of Roosevelt, "all of France loved him". add something


He was found guilty of treason in May 1945 and de Gaulle was adamant that there would be no commuting the death sentence, saying that Laval’s execution was "an indispenable symbolic gesture required for reasons of state". add something


Soon after the surrender of Japan in August 1945, de Gaulle sent the French Far East Expeditionary Corps to re-establish French sovereignty in French Indochina, making Admiral d'Argenlieu High Commissioner and General Leclerc commander-in-chief and commander of the expeditionary corps. add something


France had carried out important work in the early development of atomic energy and in October 1945 he established the French Atomic Energy Commission Commissariat à l'energie atomique, responsible for all scientific, commercial, and military uses of nuclear energy. add something


In all, three Vichy leaders were executed; Joseph Darnand, who became an SS officer and led the Milice paramilitaries who hunted down members of the Resistance was executed in October 1945, while Fernand de Brinon, the third ranking Vichy official was found guilty of war crimes and executed in April 1947. add something


Since the liberation, the only parliament in France had been an enlarged version of the Algiers Consultative Assembly, and at last, in October 1945, elections were held for a new Constituent Assembly whose main task was to provide a new constitution for the Fourth Republic. add something


On 13 November 1945, the new assembly unanimously elected Charles de Gaulle head of the government, but problems immediately arose when it came to selecting the cabinet, due to his unwillingness once more to allow the Communists any important ministries. add something


George S. Patton - General Henri Giraud was incredulous when he heard of Patton's dismissal by Eisenhower in late 1945, and invited him to Paris to be decorated by President Charles de Gaulle at a state banquet


Renault - On 1 January 1945, by decree of General Charles de Gaulle based on the untried accusations of collaboration, the company was expropriated from Louis Renault posthumously and on 16 January 1945 it was formally nationalised as "Régie Nationale des Usines Renault"


Adrien Tixier - He supported the General de Gaulle, along with Robert Lacoste, the Minister of Production, during his visit to Oradour-sur-Glane on 5 March 1945


Francois Mitterrand - " On the orders of de Gaulle, in April 1945 Mitterrand accompanied General Lewis as the French representative at the liberation of the camps at Kaufering and Dachau


Although de Gaulle had moved quickly to reclaim the territory during his brief tenure as president, the communist Vietminh, under Ho Chi Minh began a determined campaign for independence from 1946 onwards. add something


Barely two months after forming the new government, de Gaulle abruptly resigned on 20 January 1946. add something


Edmond Michelet - He was made minister of the Army by Charles de Gaulle in 1946


Alain de Boissieu - In 1946, Alain de Boissieu married Élisabeth de Gaulle, the daughter of general Charles de Gaulle


Jean Monnet - The plan was adopted by Charles de Gaulle in early 1946


In April 1947 de Gaulle made a renewed attempt to transform the political scene by creating a Rassemblement du Peuple Français, which he hoped would be able to move above the familiar party squabbles of the parliamentary system. add something


Jacques Peyrat - In 1947 at the age of 16 he joined the Rally of the French People , the political party that General Charles de Gaulle created that year


In 1948 he made a speech in Edinburgh regarding France's historical alliance with Scotland; Charles de Gaulle described the alliance between Scotland and France as "the oldest alliance in the world". add something


In May 1953, he withdrew again from active politics, though the RPF lingered until September 1955. add something


The Battle of the Casbah: Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism in Algeria, 1955–1957. add something


Konrad Adenauer - Plaque commemorating the restoration of relations between Germany and France, showing Adenauer and Charles de Gaulle.


By 1956, Morocco and Tunisia had all but won their independence, while in Algeria, some 350,000 French troops were fighting 150,000 members of the Algerian Liberation Movement, a conflict which was to become increasingly savage and bloody over the next few years, and threaten mainland France itself. add something


It did, however, pass the 1956 loi-cadre Deferre which granted independence to Tunisia and Morocco, while the Premier Pierre Mendès-France put an end to the Indochina War through the Geneva Conference of 1954. add something


Otto Hahn - In 1956 he received the Gold Cross of Greek Order of the Redeemer, in 1957 he was awarded the Order of the British Empire and in 1959 President Charles de Gaulle of France appointed him an Officer of the Légion d'Honneur


A constitutionalist by conviction, he maintained throughout the crisis that he would accept power only from the lawfully constituted authorities. add something


Debray continued that he could not say if the general ever loved Britain, but that ironically, as a result of reading his account of his time in exile in his autobiography, “Probably no Frenchman since Hastings has done more to create a familiar, attractive and romantic image of the hereditary enemy Britain in the minds of Frenchmen of a certain age than this champion of the French self-interest”. add something


There the General, who often described old age as a "shipwreck," continued his memoirs, dictated to his secretary from notes. add something


Under the inspiration of the French statesmen Jean Monnet and Robert Schuman, together with the German leader Konrad Adenauer, the rift between the two nations had begun to heal and along with Italy and the Benelux countries, they formed the European Coal and Steel Community, which following the Treaty of Rome of 1957 became the European Economic Community, known as the Common Market, beginning around the same time as de Gaulle's presidency. add something


Pierre Lagaillarde - He took the presidency of the "Association générale des étudiants d'Alger" in 1957, and took part in the Alger insurrection of May 1958, which brought Charles de Gaulle back to power


De Gaulle's birth house in Lille, now a national museum. add something


Dimitri Kitsikis, L'attitude des Etats-Unis à l'egard de la France, de 1958 à 1960. add something


On 13 May 1958, settlers seized the government buildings in Algiers , attacking what they saw as French government weakness in the face of demands among the Arab majority for Algerian independence. add something


On 1 June 1958, de Gaulle became Premier and was given emergency powers for six months by the National Assembly, fulfilling his desire for parliamentary legitimacy. add something


On 28 September 1958, a referendum took place and 79.2 percent of those who voted supported the new constitution and the creation of the Fifth Republic. add something


Guy Mollet - First Indochina War - The Algiers coup of 1958 led by First Indochina War and Suez Crisis veterans brought Charles de Gaulle to power from retirement and in effect seized power


Renault Fregate - At the end of the decade Charles de Gaulle returned to power as president in 1958, and he was an unapologetically partisan fan of the Citroën DS, as newsreels of the period attest


Constitutional Council of France - From 1958 to 1970, under Charles de Gaulle's presidency, the Constitutional Council was sometimes described as a "cannon aimed at Parliament", protecting the executive branch against encroachment by statute law voted by Parliament


Vincent Badie - He did not support Charles de Gaulle in 1958 and opposed the creation of the Fifth French Republic


Alain Savary - He left the SFIO in 1958, because of the party's support for Charles de Gaulle's comeback and for the new Constitution elaborating a presidential regime


Vincent Auriol - He unsuccessfully lobbied against the constitution in the 1958 national referendum, and resigned from his position on the Constitutional Council in 1960 to protest the growing power of Charles de Gaulle's presidency


Paul Bacon - He was Minister of Labour in De Gaulle, Debré and Pompidou governments from 1958 to 1962


Saadi Yacef - He was ultimately pardoned by the French government after Charles de Gaulle's 1958 return to power


Francois Mitterrand - In 1958, Mitterrand was one of the few to object to the nomination of Charles de Gaulle as head of government, and to de Gaulle's plan for a French Fifth Republic


Fulbert Youlou - In 1958, Opangault and Youlou both supported political autonomy, which French President Charles de Gaulle considered giving to the Franco-African Community


Barthelemy Boganda - In 1958, after the French Fourth Republic began to consider granting independence to most of its African colonies, Boganda met with Prime Minister Charles de Gaulle to discuss terms for the independence of Oubangui-Chari


Michel Poniatowski - In 1958, he became the chief of staff for Pierre Pflimlin, the last president of the Council of the Fourth Republic before Charles de Gaulle


Henri Caillavet - In 1958, he opposed General Charles de Gaulle in voting against his investiture and against the new Constitution


French Communist Party - In 1958, the PCF was the only major party which was homogeneous in its opposition to Charles de Gaulle's return to power and the foundation of the French Fifth Republic


Edwin Newman - Newman covered the accession to power of President Charles de Gaulle in 1958


Cold War - The unity of NATO was breached early in its history, with a crisis occurring during Charles de Gaulle's presidency of France from 1958 onwards


Raoul Salan - On 13 May 1958 as part of the "Résurrection" operation, Salan led an insurrection of the French military fighting in Algeria which called for the return to power of Charles De Gaulle


Reginald Maudling - On 14 November 1958, six months after the election of General de Gaulle, Jacques Soustelle, the French Minister of Information, confirmed to the Press that France would reject the Maudling plan


Oui, c’est l’Europe, depuis l’Atlantique jusqu’à l’Oural, c’est toute l’Europe, qui decidera du destin du monde. add something


This was not forthcoming, and so in March 1959 France, citing the need for it to maintain its own independent military strategy, withdrew its Mediterranean fleet from NATO, and a few months later de Gaulle demanded the removal of all US nuclear weapons from French territory. add something


Elysee Palace - Between 1959 and 1969, the Élysée was occupied by Charles de Gaulle, the first President of the Fifth Republic


Jack Drummond - Coty was succeeded in 1959 by President Charles de Gaulle, who ordered Dominici's release on humanitarian grounds, but did not pardon him, nor grant his request for a retrial


Robert B. Silvers - From 1959 to 1963, Silvers was associate editor of "Harper's Magazine", editor of the book "Writing in America" and translator of "La Gangrene", which describes the brutal torture of seven Algerian men by the Paris Security Police in 1958, shortly after Charles de Gaulle came to power


Leon M'ba - After M'ba openly declared for the departmentalization of Gabon in November 1959, Jacques Foccart, Charles de Gaulle's spin-doctor for African policy, told him that this solution was unthinkable


Relations between France and Nigeria had been under strain since the third French nuclear explosion in the Sahara in December 1960. add something


William H. Milliken, Jr. - Also, the collapse of the 1960 summit between Eisenhower, Soviet Premier Nikita Khruschev, French President Charles de Gaulle and British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan, over the downing of an American U-2 spy plane over Soviet territory provided Democrats with ample ammunition


Brigitte Bardot - Bardot expressed support for President Charles de Gaulle in the 1960s


Jacques Foccart - From 1960 to 1974, he was the President of France's chief of staff for African and Madagascar matters for both Charles de Gaulle and Georges Pompidou


Francois Mitterrand - Mitterrand thus continued with the African policy of de Gaulle inaugurated in 1960, which followed the relative failure of the 1958 creation of the French Community


Pierre Beuffeuil - Pierre Beuffeuil was riding the Tour de France in 1960 for the regional Centre-Midi team when news came that Charles de Gaulle, the president, would be by the route at Colombey-les-deux-Églises, where he lived


After a referendum on Algerian self-determination carried out in 1961, de Gaulle arranged a cease-fire in Algeria with the March 1962 $Evian_Accords (Évian_Accords), legitimated by another referendum a month later. add something


De Gaulle in 1961 at the Köln/Bonn airport. add something


De Gaulle's government covered up the Paris massacre of 1961, issued under the orders of the police prefect Maurice Papon, who had begun his career as a Vichy functionary deporting Jews from south-west France. add something


Over the years, Papon remained in high official positions but would continue to be implicated in controversial events such as the Paris Massacre of 1961, eventually being convicted of crimes against humanity in 1998. add something


Harold Wilson - An entry attempt had been issued in July 1961 by the Macmillan government, and negotiated by Edward Heath as Lord Privy Seal, but was vetoed in 1963 by French President Charles de Gaulle


A banker by profession, Pompidou is widely credited, as de Gaulle's Prime Minister from 1962 - 1968, with putting in place the reforms which provided the impetus for the economic growth which followed. add something


After 5 July, the exodus accelerated in the wake of the French deaths during the Oran massacre of 1962. add something


Although the Algerian issue was settled, Prime Minister Michel Debre resigned over the final settlement and was replaced with Georges Pompidou on 14 April 1962. add something


France recognised Algerian independence on 3 July 1962, while an amnesty was belatedly issued covering all crimes committed during the war, including the genocide against the Harkis. add something


De Gaulle is a presence in the Frederick Forsyth novel The Day of the Jackal, in which the OAS – after the failure of the actual August 1962 Petit Clamart assassination attempt – hire an English professional assassin to kill him on Liberation Day 1963. add something


He was targeted by the settlers' resistance group Organisation de l'armee secrète and several assassination attempts were made on him; the most famous is that of 22 August 1962, when he and his wife narrowly escaped an assassination attempt when their Citroen DS was targeted by machine gun fire arranged by Colonel Jean-Marie Bastien-Thiry at Petit-Clamart. add something


In September 1962, de Gaulle sought a constitutional amendment to allow the president to be directly elected by the people and issued another referendum to this end. add something


After a motion of censure voted by the Parliament on 4 October 1962, de Gaulle dissolved the National Assembly and held new elections. add something


De Gaulle's proposal to change the election procedure for the French presidency was approved at the referendum on 28 October 1962 by more than three-fifths of voters despite a broad "coalition of no" formed by most of the parties, opposed to a presidential regime. add something


National Assembly (France) - Since the beginning of the Fifth Republic, there has only been one single successful "motion de censure", in 1962 in hostility to the referendum on the method of election of the President, and president Charles de Gaulle dissolved the Assembly within a few days


Constitutional Council of France - The only remaining referral came from the President of the Senate, Gaston Monnerville, against the 1962 referendum on the direct election of the President of the Republic, which Charles de Gaulle supported; and the Council ruled itself "incompetent" to cancel the direct expression of the will of the French people


Georges Pompidou - He served as prime minister under de Gaulle after Michel Debre resigned, from 16 April 1962 to 21 July 1968, and to this day is the longest serving French prime minister under the Fifth Republic.


Paul Bacon - With the other MRP ministers, he resigned in protest after De Gaulle's press conference about European integration in May 1962


Alain de Boissieu - On 22 August 1962 he was in the same car as his father-in-law during the terrorist attack of Petit-Clamart planned by the Organisation armée secrète, when he saved the life of Charles de Gaulle


Pierre Sudreau - He announced his resignation as French Education Minister in October 1962 in protest against a proposal by Charles de Gaulle to amend the constitution


Georges Pompidou - In October 1962, he was defeated by a vote of non-confidence, but de Gaulle dissolved the National Assembly.


Also in the congregation were David Ben-Gurion, Anthony Eden, Harold Macmillan, Harold Wilson, former West German Chancellors Ludwig Erhard and Kurt-Georg Kiesinger, Marlene Dietrich and US Senator Edward Kennedy, who remembered De Gaulle's immediate decision to attend the funeral of his brother John following his assassination in 1963. add something


De Gaulle vetoed the British application to join the &European_Economic_Community in 1963, famously uttering the single word 'non' into the television cameras at the critical moment, a statement used to sum up French opposition and belligerence towards Britain for many years afterwards. add something


In January 1963, Germany and France signed a treaty of friendship, the Élysee Treaty. add something


Conservative Party (UK) - Macmillan's bid to join the European Economic Community in early 1963 was blocked by French President Charles de Gaulle, and the period saw the decline of the UK as a prominent world leader, with the loss of practically the entire empire and a laggard economy


Marthe Bibesco - Now a "grande dame", she enjoyed her last great friendship with a powerful leader, Charles de Gaulle, who invited her in 1963 to an Élysée Palace reception in the honour of the Swedish Sovereigns


Haile Selassie - On 25 November 1963, the emperor was among other heads of state, including France's President Charles de Gaulle, who traveled to Washington D.C. and attended the funeral of assassinated President John F. Kennedy.


In 1964 de Gaulle visited Russia, where he hoped to establish France as an alternative influence in the Cold War. Later, he proclaimed a new alliance between the nations, but although the Soviet statesman Alexei Kosygin made a return visit to France, the Russians did not accept France as a super power, knowing that in any future conflict they would have to rely on the overall protection of the Western Alliance. add something


In 1964, for the first time in nearly 100 years France's GDP overtook that of the United Kingdom, a position it held until the 1990s. add something


In January 1964, France established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China—the first step towards formal recognition. add something


In September and October 1964, despite a recent operation for prostate cancer and fears for his security, he set out on a punishing 20,000-mile tour of Latin America. add something


HEC Paris - In 1964, French President Charles de Gaulle inaugurated a new wooded campus in Jouy-en-Josas


In 1965, de Gaulle pulled France out of SEATO, the Southeast Asian equivalent of NATO and refused to participate in any future NATO manoeuvres. add something


Speaking in 1965 he told a journalist; First things first, before a united Europe and an Atlantic partnership there had to be a united France, strong, mobilized and able to assume a leading role among the Western allies. add something


In June 1965, after France and the other five members could not agree, de Gaulle withdrew France's representatives from the EC. Their absence left the organisation essentially unable to run its affairs until the Luxembourg compromise was reached in January 1966. add something


Charley Attali - Charley worked in Sereb, and in 1965 he received a légion d'honneur from Charles de Gaulle


European Commission - However, in 1965 accumulating differences between the French government of Charles de Gaulle and the other member states triggered the "empty chair" crisis ostensibly over proposals for the Common Agricultural Policy


Francois Mitterrand - Years later in 1965, when Mitterrand emerged as the challenger to de Gaulle in the second round of the presidential elections, de Gaulle was urged by an aide to use the Observatory Affair to discredit his opponent


France continued to carry out tests at the Algerian site until 1966, despite the independence of Algeria in 1962. add something


Their absence left the organisation essentially unable to run its affairs until the Luxembourg compromise was reached in January 1966. add something


In February 1966, France withdrew from NATO military command, but remained within the organisation. add something


In September 1966, in a famous speech in Phnom Penh , he expressed France's disapproval of the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, calling for a U.S. withdrawal from Vietnam as the only way to ensure peace. add something


De Gaulle and Lyndon B. Johnson meeting at' Konrad Adenauer's funeral en 1967, with President of Germany Heinrich Lübke. add something


General de Gaulle's position in 1967 at the time of the Six Day War played a part in France's newfound popularity in the Arab world. add something


With tension rising in the Middle East in 1967, de Gaulle on 2 June declared an arms embargo against Israel, just three days before the outbreak of the Six-Day War. This, however, did not affect spare parts for the French military hardware with which the Israeli armed forces were equipped. add something


The Eastern Region of Nigeria declared itself independent under the name of The Independent Republic of Biafra on 30 May 1967. add something


He vetoed Britain's entry into the EEC a second time, in June 1967. add something


A day after his Vive le Quebec Libre/ speech, Charles de Gaulle attracts a crowd at Montreal's Expo 67 on 25 July 1967. add something


In July 1967, de Gaulle visited Canada, which was celebrating its centennial with a world fair in Montreal, Expo 67. add something


In November 1967, an article by the French Chief of the General Staff in the Revue de la Defense Nationale caused international consternation. add something


In a televised news conference on 27 November 1967, de Gaulle described the Jewish people as "this elite people, sure of themselves and domineering". add something


Claiming continental European solidarity, de Gaulle again rejected British entry when they next applied to join the community in December 1967 under the Labour leadership of Harold Wilson. add something


Lester B. Pearson - Also in 1967, the President of France, Charles de Gaulle, made a visit to Quebec


De Gaulle's government was criticised within France, particularly for its heavy-handed style. add something


In 1968, shortly before leaving office, de Gaulle refused to devalue the Franc on grounds of national prestige, but upon taking over Pompidou reversed the decision almost straight away. add something


It was ironic, that during the financial crisis of 1968, France had to rely on American financial aid to help shore up the economy. add something


In his letter to David Ben-Gurion dated 9 January 1968, he explained that he was convinced that Israel had ignored his warnings and overstepped the bounds of moderation by taking possession of Jerusalem, and so much Jordanian, Egyptian, and Syrian territory by force of arms. add something


De Gaulle had said it first in Bucharest while on an official visit from which he returned on 19 May 1968. add something


Furthermore, in May 1968, the executive was 100 per cent male. add something


Many factors contributed to a general weariness of sections of the public, particularly the student youth, which led to the events of May 1968. add something


The huge demonstrations and strikes in France in May 1968 severely challenged de Gaulle's legitimacy. add something


From August 1968, when its embargo was lifted, France provided limited and covert support to the breakaway province. add something


Paul Morand - Morand made four bids for admission to the prestigious Académie française and was finally accepted in 1968, over the protest of Charles de Gaulle


Pantheon-Assas University - After the tumultuous events of May 1968, the President of France, Charles de Gaulle, proposed various drastic reforms about the French university system


Daniel Singer (journalist) - He wrote critically of Charles De Gaulle, François_Mitterrand, and the French Communist Party, but was enthusiastic about the events of May 1968


Georges Pompidou - However, during the events of May 1968, disagreements arose between Pompidou and de Gaulle.


Dalida - In December 1968, she was *awarded the Médaille de la Présidence de la République by General Charles de Gaulle, the only person from the music industry to have received this medal


As part of a European tour, Nixon visited France in 1969. add something


Charles de Gaulle resigned the presidency at noon, 28 April 1969, following the rejection of his proposed reform of the Senate and local governments in a nationwide referendum. add something


The last boats took to the sea in December 1969, directly after a major deal between France and now-independent Algeria exchanging French armaments for Algerian oil. add something


Georges Pompidou - After the failure of the 1969 referendum, de Gaulle resigned and Pompidou was elected president of France.


French Communist Party - Following Charles de Gaulle's resignation after he lost a referendum on constitutional reforms, an early presidential election was held in June 1969


Writing in 1970, the German writer Walter Laqueur said that de Gaulle displayed “an essentially eighteenth century concept of international politics” and referred to his “colossal egocentricity and dictatorial and capricious style, even when at his best”. add something


On 6 July the first shots in the Nigerian civil war were fired, marking the start of a conflict would last until January 1970. add something

On 9 November 1970, two weeks short of what would have been his 80th birthday, Charles de Gaulle died suddenly, despite enjoying very robust health his entire life. add something


"TIME" magazine, 23 November 1970 continued his memoirs, dictated to his secretary from notes add something


Stan Lauryssens - As a journalist in the 1970s and 1980s, Lauryssens travelled the world and interviewed Jack Higgins Harold Robbins, Catherine Cookson, Konsalik, Thor Heyerdahl, Charles de Gaulle and Andy Warhol


Regis Debray - He was released in 1970 after an international campaign for his release which included Jean-Paul Sartre, André Malraux, General Charles de Gaulle and Pope Paul VI


Haile Selassie - As the longest-serving head of state in power, Haile Selassie was often given precedence over other leaders at state events, such as the state funerals of John F. Kennedy and Charles de Gaulle, the summits of the Non-Aligned Movement, and the 1971 celebration of the 2,500 years of the Persian Empire.


That de Gaulle did not necessarily reflect mainstream French public opinion with his veto was suggested by the decisive majority of French people who voted in favour of British membership when the much more conciliatory Pompidou called a referendum on the matter in 1972 add something


Jacques Chirac - After some months in the ministry of relations with Parliament, Chirac's first high-level post came in 1972 when he became Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development under Pompidou, who had been elected president in 1969, after de Gaulle retired.


The novel was made into a film, starring Edward Fox and Michel Lonsdale, in 1973 add something


After de Gaulle left office the United Kingdom applied again and finally became a member of the EEC in January 1973 add something


Francois Mitterrand - Presidents Charles de Gaulle and Valéry Giscard d'Estaing had wreaths placed on Pétain's grave to commemorate the 50th and 60th anniversaries of the end of World War I. Similarly, President Georges Pompidou had a wreath placed in 1973 when Pétain's remains were returned to the Ile d'Yeu after being stolen


Pantheon-Assas University - It is located in the chapel wing of the defunct Jesuit College of the Immaculate Conception, where Charles de Gaulle had been a pupil; the chapel itself, dating from the eighteenth century, was transformed into a lecture theatre in the 1980s


Mireille Mathieu - In 1989, President François Mitterrand invited Mathieu to sing a tribute to General Charles de Gaulle


France's GDP overtook that of the United Kingdom, a position it held until the 1990s add something


In 1990, his old political enemy, the Socialist President François Mitterrand, presided over the celebrations to mark the 100th anniversary of his birth add something


Charles de Gaulle (born 1948) - He is a grandson of General Charles de Gaulle, and served as a member of the European Parliament , from 1994 to 2004


Writing in 1995, another commentator, Pierre Manent attempted to explain why he remains so popular in France, yet not in the United_States; add something


Stanley Kubrick - Also noted in scholarly paper Stanley Kubrick: The Odysseys by Fabrice Jaumont given at a Universite Charles de Gaulle Conference in 1995.


Jacques Chirac - In 1998 the French aircraft carrier Clemenceau was decommissioned after 37 years of service, and another aircraft carrier was decommissioned two years later after 37 years of service, leaving the French Navy with no aircraft carrier until 2001, when Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier was commissioned.


Another grandson, Jean de Gaulle, was a member of the French Parliament until his retirement in 2007 add something


De Gaulle is the main character in the 2009 movie "Adieu De Gaulle adieu" add something


An extended version of the series with never before seen footage was subsequently broadcast on H2 and in more than 160 countries on June 22, 2014 add something