Knowledge Identifier: !Cold_War
Sustained state of political and military tension between powers in the Western Bloc, dominated by the United States with NATO among its allies, and powers in the Eastern Bloc, dominated by the Soviet Union along with the Warsaw Pact
Activity starting in 1947.
Countries: United States (34%), (12%), United Kingdom (9%)
Linked to: Soviet Union, NATO, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Solidarity
Robert William Seton-Watson - In 1949, saddened by the new Soviet control of countries to whose independence he had devoted much of his life and by the death of his friend Edvard Bene?, Czechoslovakia's last non-Communist leader before the end of the Cold War, Seton-Watson retired to Kyle House on the Isle of Skye, where he died in 1951
Albert Kesselring - With the establishment of West Germany in 1949, and the advent of the Cold War between the former Allies and the Soviet Union, it became inevitable that the "Wehrmacht" would be revived in some form, and there were calls for amnesty for military prisoners as a precondition for German military participation in the Western Alliance
Albert Baez - Cold War - As the Cold War arose in the 1950s, Baez's talents were in high demand for the developing arms race
Joseph McCarthy - Cold War - Beginning in 1950, McCarthy became the most visible public face of a period in which Cold War tensions fueled fears of widespread Communist subversion
Alec Douglas-Home - Cold War - By 1950, with the Cold War at its height, Steele's association with the communists was a crucial electoral liability
Marjorie Barnard - Dever suggests that this denial may be due to the Cold War witch hunts of the 1950s in which her name, among others, was mentioned
Dorothy Frooks - Frooks, Nearing and Seldes were all first-hand witnesses of the red-baiting, McCarthyism, and Cold War hysteria of the 1950s
George Bell (bishop) - In the 1950s Bell opposed the atomic arms race and supported many Christian initiatives of the time opposed to the Cold War
D. M. Thomas - In the 1950s, at height of the Cold War, Thomas studied Russian during his National Service
The popularly elected and non-aligned Mosaddegh had been a Middle Eastern nemesis of Britain since nationalizing the British-owned Anglo-Iranian Oil Company in 1951
Even though the Chinese and North Koreans were exhausted by the war and were prepared to end it by late 1952, Stalin insisted that they continue fighting, and the Armistice was approved only in July 1953, after Stalin's death
Edwin E. Willis - Cold War - He supported anti-communist Cold War laws, such as the McCarran-Walter Internal Security Act of 1950
In 1953, President Eisenhower's CIA implemented Operation Ajax, a covert operation aimed at the overthrow of the Iranian prime minister, Mohammad Mosaddegh
John Lukacs - Cold War - Lukacs argued however that although it was Joseph Stalin who was largely responsible for the beginning of the Cold War, the administration of Dwight Eisenhower missed a chance for ending the Cold War in 1953 after Stalin's death, and as a consequence the Cold War went on for many more decades
Between 1954 and 1961, Eisenhower's United States sent economic aid and military advisers to strengthen South Vietnam's pro-Western regime against communist efforts to destabilize it
John Aspinwall Roosevelt - Cold War - At the height of the Cold War, when the US Atomic Energy Commission was desperately seeking sources of uranium for the production of atomic weapons, John Roosevelt became an officer and director of the Standard Uranium Company, reportedly the first and most successful publicly-traded uranium corporation, which registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission in early 1954 and soon attracted heavy investments by industrialist Floyd Odlum, one of the wealthiest men in America
Mao had defended Stalin when Khrushchev attacked him after his death in 1956, and treated the new Soviet leader as a superficial upstart, accusing him of having lost his revolutionary edge
Stuart Milner-Barry - This 1956 Olympiad trip to Moscow was risky, since Britain and the USSR, which had been allies during World War II, were by locked into the Cold War, and Milner-Barry's wartime codebreaking knowledge would have been of great interest to the Soviets; the very fact that Britain had broken German codes on a massive scale was kept secret until 1974, when Frederick Winterbotham's book "The Ultra Secret" was published
John Henry Faulk - Cold War - Faulk's radio career at CBS ended in 1957, a victim of the Cold War and the blacklisting of the 1950s
Denver Pyle - Cold War - In 1958, Pyle starred with Judith Evelyn in the episode "Man in the Moon" of the NBC docudrama about the Cold War, "Behind Closed Doors", hosted and occasionally starring Bruce Gordon
Patrick Peyton - Cold War - This campaign was harnessed by the CIA between 1958 and 1965 and was funded in order to combat leftist influence in Latin America, during the Cold War
Enrico Mattei - Cold War - Mattei visited Moscow in 1959, where he brokered an oil import deal with the Soviet Union in the middle of the Cold War over intense protests from NATO and the U.S. He publicly supported independence movements against colonial powers, which allowed ENI to take advantage of postcolonial bitterness in places like Algeria
Don Haggerty - In 1959, he guest starred in the late Bruce Gordon's NBC docudrama about the Cold War, "Behind Closed Doors"
After Rhee was overthrown in 1960, South Korea fell within a year under a period of military rule that lasted until the re-establishment of a multi-party system in the late 1980s
Christopher Lasch - Cold War - In the 1960s, he was a neo-Marxist and acerbic critic of Cold War liberalism
In 1961, Khrushchev declared that even if the U.S. was behind the West, within a decade its housing shortage would disappear, consumer goods would be abundant, and within two decades, the "construction of a communist society" in the USSR would be completed "in the main"
Arnold Belkin - Cold War - In 1961 he formed the Grupo de Interioristas along with Francisco Icaza, which was concerned with the Cold War and commercialism with the widespread use of plastic
Art Metrano - Cold War - Metrano's first film role was as a truck driver in the 1961 Cold War thriller "Rocket Attack U.S.A."
John F. Kennedy - Unfortunately, the President started off on the wrong foot by reacting aggressively to a routine Khrushchev speech on Cold War confrontation in early 1961.
Laurence Harvey - Cold War - More importantly, he appeared as the brainwashed Raymond Shaw in 1962 in the Cold War thriller "The Manchurian Candidate"
Robert Menzies - The Menzies government was able to exploit Labor's divisions over the Cold War and the American alliance, winning an increased majority at what would be Menzies' last election, the 1963 election
Considering the response given to be unsatisfactory, de Gaulle began the development of an independent French nuclear deterrent and in 1966 withdrew from NATO's military structures and expelled NATO troops from French soil
Lucien Cardin - Cold War - During taunts by Conservative MPs in the House of Commons in March 1966, Cardin shouted out across the floor of the House, "What about Monsignor-" Although he got the name wrong, and later insisted that he thought Munsinger had died, the media brought attention to the issue, and there was a federal inquiry that caught the public's attention due to its implications to national security during the Cold War
According to historian Charles R. H. Tripp, the Iraqi Ba'athist coup of 1968 upset "the US-sponsored security system established as part of the Cold War in the Middle East
E. L. Doctorow - Cold War - In 1969, Doctorow left publishing in order to write, accepting a position as Visiting Writer at the University of California, Irvine, where he completed "The Book of Daniel", a freely fictionalized consideration of the trial and execution of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg for allegedly giving nuclear secrets to the Soviet Union during the Cold War
Jonah Raskin - Cold War - In 1974, Raskin received a grant from the Rabinowitz Foundation in N.Y. for research on the Cold War and American culture in the literature of the period from 1945 to 1960, reading and interviewing that would inform his later book on Allen Ginsberg and the Beat Generation, "American Scream"
Norman Armour - Cold War - According to an interview in 1976, Armour indicated that he was proudest of his work in 1954, protesting the attacks of Joseph R. McCarthy, a Republican Senator from Wisconsin, on the members of the Foreign Service, suspected of connivance with communism during the ongoing Cold War, in his February 9, 1950 Wheeling, West Virginia Speech on Lincoln Day to the Republican Women Club of Wheeling, West Virginia, West Virginia
Craig Thomas (author) - Cold War - After publishing his third novel, the Cold War espionage thriller "Wolfsbane", he left teaching altogether, in 1977
Adrian S. Fisher - Cold War - This classified study called NSC-68, was the blueprint for the Truman Doctrine for containment of communism, which provided the overall policy concepts for the U.S. participation in the Cold War throughout the 1950s
Roy Marsden - Cold War - Marsden starred in Yorkshire Television's 1978–1980 Cold War espionage series "The Sandbaggers"
A senior US State Department official predicted such an outcome as early as 1980, positing that the invasion resulted in part from a "domestic crisis within the Soviet may be that the thermodynamic law of entropy up with the Soviet system, which now seems to expend more energy on simply maintaining its equilibrium than on improving itself
Arthur C. Clarke - Cold War - Because of the political environment in America in the 1980s, the film presents a Cold War theme, with the looming tensions of nuclear warfare not featured in the novel
Hans-Dietrich Genscher - He is most respected for his efforts that helped spell the end of the Cold War, in the late 1980s when Communist eastern European governments toppled, and which led to German reunification
Mary Pinchot Meyer - In 1983, former Harvard University psychology lecturer Timothy Leary claimed that in the spring of 1962, Pinchot Meyer, who, according to her biographer Nina Burleigh "wore manners and charm like a second skin", told Leary she was taking part in a plan to avert worldwide nuclear war by convincing powerful male members of the Washington establishment to take mind-altering drugs, which would presumably lead them to conclude that the Cold War was meaningless
Kevin Reynolds (director) - Reynolds enjoyed initial successes co-writing the Cold War hit "Red Dawn" in 1984 and writing and directing the Steven Spielberg-produced "Fandango" in 1985
Harold Pinter - Cold War - In 1985, Pinter recalled that his early act of conscientious objection resulted from being "terribly disturbed as a young man by the Cold War. And McCarthyism
Stephen Lowe (playwright) - It was published in 1985 during a period of increased tension towards the end of the Cold War, and Lowe's introduction quoted from Gabriel Garcia Marquez's Nobel acceptance speech, "we, the inventors of tales, who will believe anything, feel entitled to believe that it is not yet too late to engage in the creation of a utopia of a very different kind
Richard Mottram - Cold War - From 1986 to 1989, he was the Under-secretary responsible for the defence programme, and from 1989 to 1992, the Deputy Secretary with responsibilities for UK defence policy and strategy, and defence relations with other countries at the time of the end of the Cold War
Michael Sturmer - Cold War - In a series of his essays published in book form in 1986 as "Dissonanzen des Fortschritts" , Stürmer claimed that democracy in West Germany can not be taken for granted; that though Germany does have a democratic past, the present system of the Federal Republic was created in response to past totalitarian experiences of both left and right; that geography has played a key role in limiting the options of German governments; and that given the Cold War, the ideas of neutrality for the Federal Republic or reunification with East Germany were not realistic
The negotiations failed, but the third summit in 1987 led to a breakthrough with the signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty
Sebastian Shaw (actor) - Although appearances in films became far less common in his later career, he received much acclaim for his performance as the Cold War spy Sharp in Clare Peploe's "High Season" at the New York Film Festival in 1987; "The San Diego Union-Tribune" said Shaw played the role with "endearing, sweet gravity"
By 1989, the Soviet alliance system was on the brink of collapse, and, deprived of Soviet military support, the Communist leaders of the Warsaw Pact states were losing power
Porter Goss - Cold War - A CIA officer in Latin America during the Cold War, he served as a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1989 until he took up his post at the agency
Francis Fukuyama - Cold War - Fukuyama is best known as the author of "The End of History and the Last Man", in which he argued that the progression of human history as a struggle between ideologies is largely at an end, with the world settling on liberal democracy after the end of the Cold War and the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989
Tony Barrell (broadcaster) - Cold War - In 1989, Barrell was associate producer for the four-part ABC-KCET television documentary series "Power in the Pacific", a survey of ongoing impact of the Pacific War and the Cold War in the Asia-Pacific
Anatoly Dobrynin - Cold War - He attended the December 1989 Malta Summit that formally marked the end of the Cold War
Ron Dellums - Cold War - However, with the winding down of the Cold War, total B-2 production was reduced to 21 aircraft in the early 1990s
The pressures escalated inside the Soviet Union, where Communism fell and the U.S. was formally dissolved in late 1991
Thierry Noir - Cold War - The rock band U2 featured the artwork of Thierry Noir painted on Trabants , photos of which decorate their 1991 album Achtung Baby, which itself includes songs that have themes inspired by the fall of the Berlin Wall and the changes taking place in Europe at the end of the Cold War
Seymour Cray - Cold War - In 1995 there had been no further sales of the Cray-3, and the ending of the Cold War made it unlikely anyone would buy enough Cray-4s to offer a return on the development funds
Carl Schurz - The base was returned to the German government in 1996, following the end of the Cold War
Don DeLillo - Lillo finally broke cover with his long awaited eleventh novel, the epic Cold War history Underworld.
Ralph Hall - Asked in 2006 how the 1996 trip benefited the Texas Fourth Congressional District he represents, Hall said, "I think it benefits my constituents if you do anything that benefits the Peace Through Strength people, when youre going out to bring information to them to help win the Cold War. Thats a benefit to them, to their strategic interests.
Oliver Stone - In November 2012, Hudson Institute adjunct fellow historian Ronald Radosh lambasted it as "mendacious" Cold War revisionism and "mindless recycling of Stalin's propaganda," noting similarities to Communist author and NKVD agent Carl Marzani's Soviet-published treatise "We Can Be Friends
Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2015