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Soviet Union
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Cold War

Knowledge Identifier: !Cold_War

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Cold War

Sustained state of political and military tension between powers in the Western Bloc, dominated by the United States with NATO among its allies, and powers in the Eastern Bloc, dominated by the Soviet Union along with the Warsaw Pact add

Category: Military

Activity starting in 1947.

Countries: United States (34%), (12%), United Kingdom (9%)

Main connections: Soviet Union, NATO, Joseph Stalin

Linked to: Soviet Union, NATO, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Solidarity

 

Timeline


 

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1947

By 1947, US president Harry S. Truman's advisers urged him to take immediate steps to counter the Soviet Union's influence, citing Stalin's efforts to undermine the US by encouraging rivalries among capitalists that could precipitate another war add something

 

In early 1947, Britain, France and the United States unsuccessfully attempted to reach an agreement with the Soviet Union for a plan envisioning an economically self-sufficient Germany, including a detailed accounting of the industrial plants, goods and infrastructure already removed by the Soviets add something

 

Newspaper reporter-columnist Walter Lippmann gave the term wide currency, with the book "The Cold War"; when asked in 1947 about the source of the term, he referred it to a French term from the 1930s, "la guerre froide" add something

 

One month later, Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947, creating a unified Department of Defense, the Central Intelligence Agency , and the National Security Council add something

 

The "'Cold War"', often dated from 1947 to 1991, was a sustained state of political and military tension between powers in the Western Bloc, dominated by the United States with NATO among its allies, and powers in the Eastern Bloc, dominated by the Soviet Union along with the Warsaw Pact add something

 

In February 1947, the British government announced that it could no longer afford to finance the Greek monarchical military regime in its civil war against communist-led insurgents add something

 

In South Carolina, on April 16, 1947, he delivered a speech saying, "Let us not be deceived: we are today in the midst of a cold war add something

 

In June 1947, in accordance with the Truman Doctrine, the United States enacted the Marshall Plan, a pledge of economic assistance for all European countries willing to participate, including the Soviet Union add something

 

In September 1947, the Soviets created Cominform, the purpose of which was to enforce orthodoxy within the international communist movement and tighten political control over Soviet satellites through coordination of communist parties in the Eastern Bloc add something


1948

As part of the economic rebuilding of Germany, in early 1948, representatives of a number of Western European governments and the United States announced an agreement for a merger of western German areas into a federal governmental system add something

 

In early 1948, following reports of strengthening "reactionary elements", Soviet operatives executed a coup d'état in Czechoslovakia, the only Eastern Bloc state that the Soviets had permitted to retain democratic structures add something

 

The Italian Christian Democrats defeated the powerful Communist-Socialist alliance in the elections of 1948 add something

 

William L. Clayton - Cold War - In 1948, he returned to his private business in Houston, but remained active in efforts to promote free trade and economic cooperation between the United States and its allies during the Cold War

 

Aksel Larsen - Cold War - The Danish communists became the target of public disdain once more with the onset of the Cold War and the communist coup in Prague in 1948 combined with new purges and trials in Moscow and Eastern Europe

 

Gordon P. Saville - Cold War - In May 1948, Muir S. Fairchild was made vice chief of staff of the USAF. In light of the developing Cold War and the threat of Soviet long-range bombers, Fairchild determined that Saville's expertise was critically needed


1949

In 1949, Mao Zedong's People's Liberation Army defeated Chiang Kai-shek's United States-backed Kuomintang Nationalist Government in China, and the Soviet Union promptly created an alliance with the newly formed People's Republic of China add something

 

The Soviets, who had already created a network of mutual assistance treaties in the Eastern Bloc by 1949, established a formal alliance therein, the Warsaw Pact, in 1955 add something

 

Antonio de Oliveira Salazar - Cold War - Portugal was the only non-democracy among the founding members of NATO in 1949, which reflected Portugal's role as an ally against communism during the Cold War

 

Juan Peron - Cold War - In 1949 Perón first articulated his foreign policy, the "Third Way", developed to avoid the binary Cold War divisions and keep other world powers, such as the United States and the Soviet Union, as allies rather than enemies

 

Robert William Seton-Watson - In 1949, saddened by the new Soviet control of countries to whose independence he had devoted much of his life and by the death of his friend Edvard Bene?, Czechoslovakia's last non-Communist leader before the end of the Cold War, Seton-Watson retired to Kyle House on the Isle of Skye, where he died in 1951

 

Norman Makin - In the gathering Cold War atmosphere of the post-war years, this was a position of great importance to Australia, and Makin performed it so well that the incoming Liberal Prime Minister, Robert Menzies, kept him in the post after the change of government in 1949

 

Albert Kesselring - With the establishment of West Germany in 1949, and the advent of the Cold War between the former Allies and the Soviet Union, it became inevitable that the "Wehrmacht" would be revived in some form, and there were calls for amnesty for military prisoners as a precondition for German military participation in the Western Alliance

 

Britain, France, the United States, Canada and eight other western European countries signed the North Atlantic Treaty of April 1949, establishing the &North_Atlantic_Treaty_Organization add something

 

In May 1949, Stalin backed down and lifted the blockade add something


1950

By the early 1950s, the Soviet approach to restricting emigration movement was emulated by most of the rest of the Eastern Bloc add something

 

From the beginning of the post-war period, Western Europe and Japan rapidly recovered from the destruction of World War II and sustained strong economic growth through the 1950s and 1960s, with per capita GDPs approaching those of the United States, while Eastern Bloc economies stagnated add something

 

In the early 1950s , the US formalized a series of alliances with Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Thailand and the Philippines , thereby guaranteeing the United States a number of long-term military bases add something

 

In the early 1950s, the US worked for the rearmament of West Germany and, in 1955, secured its full membership of NATO. In May 1953, Beria, by in a government post, had made an unsuccessful proposal to allow the reunification of a neutral Germany to prevent West Germany's incorporation into NATO. add something

 

Albert Baez - Cold War - As the Cold War arose in the 1950s, Baez's talents were in high demand for the developing arms race

 

Joseph McCarthy - Cold War - Beginning in 1950, McCarthy became the most visible public face of a period in which Cold War tensions fueled fears of widespread Communist subversion

 

Alec Douglas-Home - Cold War - By 1950, with the Cold War at its height, Steele's association with the communists was a crucial electoral liability

 

A. J. P. Taylor - Cold War - He blamed the United States for the Cold War, and in the 1950s and 1960s, was one of the leading lights of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament

 

Carl Marzani - Cold War - In prison, Marzani began work on a book blaming President Harry S. Truman for starting the Cold War. Caught attempting to smuggle a manuscript out of prison in 1950, he was placed in solitary confinement for seven months

 

John Cain (senior) - Conflict between left and right in the Labor Party grew increasingly bitter in the Cold War atmosphere of the 1950s

 

Marjorie Barnard - Dever suggests that this denial may be due to the Cold War witch hunts of the 1950s in which her name, among others, was mentioned

 

Dorothy Frooks - Frooks, Nearing and Seldes were all first-hand witnesses of the red-baiting, McCarthyism, and Cold War hysteria of the 1950s

 

George Bell (bishop) - In the 1950s Bell opposed the atomic arms race and supported many Christian initiatives of the time opposed to the Cold War

 

D. M. Thomas - In the 1950s, at height of the Cold War, Thomas studied Russian during his National Service

 

Rae Luckock - She became the Canadian Congress of Women's founding president in 1950, and became a victim of the Cold War's communist hysteria when she was denied entry into the United States, because she travelled to "Red" China and invited Soviet women to visit Canada

 

In June 1950, Kim Il-sung's North Korean People's Army invaded South Korea add something


1951

The popularly elected and non-aligned Mosaddegh had been a Middle Eastern nemesis of Britain since nationalizing the British-owned Anglo-Iranian Oil Company in 1951 add something

 

James R. Lilley - Cold War - Lilley began his career in government by joining the Central Intelligence Agency in 1951, a result of his interest in answering the call to public service at the beginning of the Cold War


1952

Even though the Chinese and North Koreans were exhausted by the war and were prepared to end it by late 1952, Stalin insisted that they continue fighting, and the Armistice was approved only in July 1953, after Stalin's death add something

 

In 1952, Stalin repeatedly proposed a plan to unify East and West Germany under a single government chosen in elections supervised by the United Nations if the new Germany were to stay out of Western military alliances, but this proposal was turned down by the Western powers add something

 

Edwin E. Willis - Cold War - He supported anti-communist Cold War laws, such as the McCarran-Walter Internal Security Act of 1950


1953

In 1953, President Eisenhower's CIA implemented Operation Ajax, a covert operation aimed at the overthrow of the Iranian prime minister, Mohammad Mosaddegh add something

 

In British Guiana, the leftist People's_Progressive_Party_(Guyana) candidate Cheddi Jagan won the position of chief minister in a colonially administered election in 1953, but was quickly forced to resign from power after Britain's suspension of the still-dependent nation's constitution add something

 

While Stalin's death in 1953 slightly relaxed tensions, the situation in Europe remained an uneasy armed truce add something

 

Shaul Avigur - Cold War - In 1953 he was appointed the founding head of Lishkat Hakesher, known as "Nativ", an Israeli organization that maintained contact with Jews in the Soviet Union during the Cold War

 

Lawrence Dobkin - Cold War - In 1953, Dobkin guest starred on Alan Hale, Jr.'s short-lived CBS espionage series set in the Cold War, "Biff Baker, U.S.A."

 

John Lukacs - Cold War - Lukacs argued however that although it was Joseph Stalin who was largely responsible for the beginning of the Cold War, the administration of Dwight Eisenhower missed a chance for ending the Cold War in 1953 after Stalin's death, and as a consequence the Cold War went on for many more decades

 

Arthur W. Radford - Korean War - In 1953, as the Korean War was winding down - but the time was in the depths of the Cold War, President Dwight D. Eisenhower appointed Admiral Radford as the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

 

Dwight D. Eisenhower - Eisenhower held out an olive branch to the Soviet Union after Joseph Stalin's death in March 1953, but the Cold War escalated during his presidency.


1954

Between 1954 and 1961, Eisenhower's United States sent economic aid and military advisers to strengthen South Vietnam's pro-Western regime against communist efforts to destabilize it add something

 

In Guatemala, a CIA-backed military coup ousted the left-wing President Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954 add something

 

John Aspinwall Roosevelt - Cold War - At the height of the Cold War, when the US Atomic Energy Commission was desperately seeking sources of uranium for the production of atomic weapons, John Roosevelt became an officer and director of the Standard Uranium Company, reportedly the first and most successful publicly-traded uranium corporation, which registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission in early 1954 and soon attracted heavy investments by industrialist Floyd Odlum, one of the wealthiest men in America

 

T. J. Binyon - There, in 1954, the young soldiers, among them Alan Bennett, Michael Frayn and Dennis Potter, were trained to serve as translators and interpreters in the Cold War


1955

Embarrassed by the landslide electoral victory of Jagan's allegedly Marxist party, the British imprisoned the PPP's leadership and maneuvered the organization into a divisive rupture in 1955, engineering a split between Jagan and his PPP colleagues add something

 

John Dehner - Cold War - He guest starred on the 1955-1956 NBC Western anthology series, "Frontier" and in the CBS Cold War drama, "Crusader", starring Brian Keith

 

John Randolph (actor) - Cold War - He wound up blacklisted by the Hollywood studio bosses in 1955 after he refused to answer questions and claimed the Fifth Amendment before the HUAC relating to the Cold War Communist infiltration of the State Department


1956

Mao had defended Stalin when Khrushchev attacked him after his death in 1956, and treated the new Soviet leader as a superficial upstart, accusing him of having lost his revolutionary edge add something

 

Moderate and conservative parties in Europe, as well as social democrats, gave virtually unconditional support to the Western alliance, while European and American Communists, paid by the KGB and involved in its intelligence operations, adhered to Moscow's line, although dissent began to appear after 1956 add something

 

Possessing nuclear superiority, for example, allowed Eisenhower to face down Soviet threats to intervene in the Middle East during the 1956 Suez Crisis add something

 

The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 occurred shortly after Khrushchev arranged the removal of Hungary's Stalinist leader Mátyás Rákosi add something

 

The non-aligned Indonesian government of Sukarno was faced with a major threat to its legitimacy beginning in 1956, when several regional commanders began to demand autonomy from Jakarta add something

 

The period after 1956 was marked by serious setbacks for the Soviet Union, most notably the breakdown of the Sino-Soviet alliance, beginning the Sino-Soviet split add something

 

Stuart Milner-Barry - This 1956 Olympiad trip to Moscow was risky, since Britain and the USSR, which had been allies during World War II, were by locked into the Cold War, and Milner-Barry's wartime codebreaking knowledge would have been of great interest to the Soviets; the very fact that Britain had broken German codes on a massive scale was kept secret until 1974, when Frederick Winterbotham's book "The Ultra Secret" was published

 

On February 25, 1956, Khrushchev shocked delegates to the 20th Congress of the Soviet Communist Party by cataloguing and denouncing Stalin's crimes add something

 

On November 18, 1956, while addressing Western ambassadors at a reception at the Polish embassy in Moscow, Khrushchev used his famous "Whether you like it or not, history is on our side add something


1957

From 1957 through 1961, Khrushchev openly and repeatedly threatened the West with nuclear annihilation add something

 

Jagan again won the colonial elections in 1957 and 1961; despite Britain's shift to a reconsideration of its view of the left-wing Jagan as a Soviet-style communist at this time, the United States pressured the British to withhold Guyana's independence until an alternative to Jagan could be identified, supported, and brought into office add something

 

John Henry Faulk - Cold War - Faulk's radio career at CBS ended in 1957, a victim of the Cold War and the blacklisting of the 1950s

 

In August 1957, the Soviets successfully launched the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile and in October, launched the first Earth satellite, Sputnik add something


1958

By the end of 1958, the rebels were militarily defeated, and the last remaining rebel guerilla bands surrendered by August 1961 add something

 

The unity of NATO was breached early in its history, with a crisis occurring during Charles de Gaulle's presidency of France from 1958 onwards add something

 

Denver Pyle - Cold War - In 1958, Pyle starred with Judith Evelyn in the episode "Man in the Moon" of the NBC docudrama about the Cold War, "Behind Closed Doors", hosted and occasionally starring Bruce Gordon

 

Patrick Peyton - Cold War - This campaign was harnessed by the CIA between 1958 and 1965 and was funded in order to combat leftist influence in Latin America, during the Cold War

 

In February 1958, dissident military commanders in Central Sumatera and North Sulawesi declared the Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia-Permesta Movement aimed at overthrowing the Sukarno regime add something

 

Due to their anti-communist rhetoric, the rebels received arms, funding, and other covert aid from the CIA until Allen Lawrence Pope, an American pilot, was shot down after a bombing raid on government-held Ambon, Maluku in April 1958 add something

 

In a memorandum sent to President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Prime Minister Harold Macmillan on September 17, 1958, he argued for the creation of a tripartite directorate that would put France on an equal footing with the United States and the United Kingdom, and for the expansion of NATO's coverage to include geographical areas of interest to France, most notably French Algeria, where France was waging a counter-insurgency and sought NATO assistance add something

 

During November 1958, Khrushchev made an unsuccessful attempt to turn all of Berlin into an independent, demilitarized "free city", giving the United States, Great Britain, and France a six-month ultimatum to withdraw their troops from the sectors they still occupied in West Berlin, or he would transfer control of Western access rights to the East Germans add something


1959

Enrico Mattei - Cold War - Mattei visited Moscow in 1959, where he brokered an oil import deal with the Soviet Union in the middle of the Cold War over intense protests from NATO and the U.S. He publicly supported independence movements against colonial powers, which allowed ENI to take advantage of postcolonial bitterness in places like Algeria

 

Don Haggerty - In 1959, he guest starred in the late Bruce Gordon's NBC docudrama about the Cold War, "Behind Closed Doors"

 

In Cuba, the July 26 Movement seized power in January 1959, toppling President Fulgencio Batista, whose unpopular regime had been denied arms by the Eisenhower administration add something


1960

After Rhee was overthrown in 1960, South Korea fell within a year under a period of military rule that lasted until the re-establishment of a multi-party system in the late 1980s add something

 

However, by the late 1960s, the "battle for men's minds" between two systems of social organization that Kennedy spoke of in 1961 was largely over, with tensions henceforth based primarily on clashing geopolitical objectives rather than ideology add something

 

In the course of the 1960s and 1970s, Cold War participants struggled to adjust to a new, more complicated pattern of international relations in which the world was no longer divided into two clearly opposed blocs add something

 

Richard Nikolaus von Coudenhove-Kalergi - Cold War - In the 1960s Coudenhove-Kalergi urged Austria to pursue "an active policy of peace", as a "fight against the Cold War and its continuation, the atomic war"

 

Christopher Lasch - Cold War - In the 1960s, he was a neo-Marxist and acerbic critic of Cold War liberalism

 

Anastas Mikoyan - Cold War - Mikoyan disapproved of Khrushchev's walkout from the 1960 Paris Summit over the U-2 Crisis of 1960, which he believed kept tension in the Cold War high for another fifteen years

 

Grigori Chukhrai - Cold War - "Ballad of a Soldier" overcame the Cold War barrier and premiered in the United States in 1960 at the San Francisco International Film Festival in San Francisco, California

 

Cuba began negotiating arms purchases from Eastern Europe in March 1960 add something

 

In the Republic of the Congo, newly independent from Belgium since June 1960, the CIA-cultivated President Joseph Kasa-Vubu ordered the dismissal of the democratically elected Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba and the Lumumba cabinet in September; Lumumba called for Kasa-Vubu's dismissal instead add something


1961

In 1961, Khrushchev declared that even if the U.S. was behind the West, within a decade its housing shortage would disappear, consumer goods would be abundant, and within two decades, the "construction of a communist society" in the USSR would be completed "in the main" add something

 

In Africa, where Angolan rebels had waged a multi-faction independence war against Portuguese rule since 1961, a two-decade civil war replaced the anti-colonial struggle as fighting erupted between the communist People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola , backed by the Cubans and Soviets, and the National Liberation Front of Angola , backed by the United States, the People's Republic of China, and Mobutu's government in Zaire add something

 

Significant hopes were pinned on a covert program named the Cuban Project, devised under the Kennedy administration in 1961 add something

 

The aftermath of the crisis led to the first efforts in the nuclear arms race at nuclear disarmament and improving relations, although the Cold War's first arms control agreement, the Antarctic Treaty, had come into force in 1961 add something

 

Arnold Belkin - Cold War - In 1961 he formed the Grupo de Interioristas along with Francisco Icaza, which was concerned with the Cold War and commercialism with the widespread use of plastic

 

Art Metrano - Cold War - Metrano's first film role was as a truck driver in the 1961 Cold War thriller "Rocket Attack U.S.A."

 

John F. Kennedy - Unfortunately, the President started off on the wrong foot by reacting aggressively to a routine Khrushchev speech on Cold War confrontation in early 1961.

 

In January 1961, just prior to leaving office, Eisenhower formally severed relations with the Cuban government add something

 

In April 1961, the administration of newly elected American President John F. Kennedy mounted an unsuccessful CIA-organized ship-borne invasion of the island at Playa Girón and Playa Larga in Las Villas Provincea failure that publicly humiliated the United States add something


1962

Jack Kelly (actor) - Cold War - In 1962, he played the lead in "Red Nightmare" a Cold War film narrated by Jack Webb in which Kelly's character wakes up one morning to discover that America has been taken over by Communists

 

Laurence Harvey - Cold War - More importantly, he appeared as the brainwashed Raymond Shaw in 1962 in the Cold War thriller "The Manchurian Candidate"

 

In February 1962, Khrushchev learned of the American plans regarding Cuba: a "Cuban project"approved by the CIA and stipulating the overthrow of the Cuban government in October, possibly involving the American militaryand yet one more Kennedy-ordered operation to assassinate Castro add something

 

Bashir al-Azma - On 22 April 1962, al-Azma declared on Radio Damascus that Syria's foreign policy continued to be based on "the principles of positive neutrality and non-alignment with military blocs, non-participation in the Cold War, and respect for the principles of the UN Charter


1963

Robert Menzies - The Menzies government was able to exploit Labor's divisions over the Cold War and the American alliance, winning an increased majority at what would be Menzies' last election, the 1963 election


1964

Christopher Coville - Born in Liverpool , Coville joined the Royal Air Force in 1964, at the height of the Cold War


1966

Considering the response given to be unsatisfactory, de Gaulle began the development of an independent French nuclear deterrent and in 1966 withdrew from NATO's military structures and expelled NATO troops from French soil add something

 

Presidential elections held in 1966, during the occupation, handed victory to the conservative Joaquín Balaguer add something

 

Lucien Cardin - Cold War - During taunts by Conservative MPs in the House of Commons in March 1966, Cardin shouted out across the floor of the House, "What about Monsignor-" Although he got the name wrong, and later insisted that he thought Munsinger had died, the media brought attention to the issue, and there was a federal inquiry that caught the public's attention due to its implications to national security during the Cold War


1967

Six-Day War - Egypt, which received the bulk of its arms and economic assistance from the U.S., was a troublesome client, with a reluctant Soviet Union feeling obliged to assist in both the 1967 Six-Day War and the War of Attrition against pro-Western Israel add something

 

Joan Freeman - Cold War - Also in 1967, she appeared as the love interest opposite Don Knotts in the Cold War space-race comedy "The Reluctant Astronaut"


1968

According to historian Charles R. H. Tripp, the Iraqi Ba'athist coup of 1968 upset "the US-sponsored security system established as part of the Cold War in the Middle East add something

 

In 1968, a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia called the Prague Spring took place that included "Action Program" of liberalizations, which described increasing freedom of the press, freedom of speech and freedom of movement, along with an economic emphasis on consumer goods, the possibility of a multiparty government, limiting the power of the secret police add something

 

In September 1968, during a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers' Party one month after the invasion of Czechoslovakia, Brezhnev outlined the Brezhnev Doctrine, in which he claimed the right to violate the sovereignty of any country attempting to replace Marxism-Leninism with capitalism add something


1969

In Africa, Somali army officers led by Mohamed Siad Barre carried out a bloodless coup in 1969, creating the socialist Somali Democratic Republic add something

 

E. L. Doctorow - Cold War - In 1969, Doctorow left publishing in order to write, accepting a position as Visiting Writer at the University of California, Irvine, where he completed "The Book of Daniel", a freely fictionalized consideration of the trial and execution of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg for allegedly giving nuclear secrets to the Soviet Union during the Cold War


1970

In Chile, the Socialist Party candidate Salvador Allende won the presidential election of 1970, becoming the first democratically elected Marxist to become president of a country in the Americas add something

 

In the 1970s, the KGB, led by Yuri Andropov, continued to persecute distinguished Soviet personalities such as Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Andrei Sakharov, who were criticising the Soviet leadership in harsh terms add something

 

The term "second Cold War" refers to the period of intensive reawakening of Cold War tensions and conflicts in the late 1970s and early 1980s add something

 

To alleviate the risk of a potential nuclear war, both sides sought relief of political tensions through détente in the 1970s add something

 

Donald Ethell - Cold War - He served in Germany during the Cold War and rebadged to Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry in 1970 when the Queen's Own Rifles of Canada was removed from regular army service

 

Robert W. Fuller - During the 1970s and 1980s, Fuller traveled frequently to the Soviet Union, working as a citizen-scientist to improve superpower relations during the Cold War

 

Chiang Kai-shek - In the context of the Cold War, most of the Western world recognized this position and the ROC represented China in the United Nations and other international organizations until the 1970s


1972

Between 1972 and 1974, the two sides agreed to strengthen their economic ties, including agreements for increased trade add something


1973

John F. G. Howe - Cold War - After his rank as a Group Captain was made substantive, in 1973 he was appointed Officer Commanding RAF Gutersloh on the front line of the Cold War Iron Curtain operations


1974

Four years later, the pro-American Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie was overthrown in a 1974 coup by the Derg, a radical group of Ethiopian army officers led by the pro-Soviet Mengistu Haile Mariam, who built up relations with the Cubans and Soviets add something

 

The 1974 Portuguese Carnation Revolution against the authoritarian "Estado Novo" returned Portugal to a multi-party system and facilitated the independence of the Portuguese colonies Angola and East Timor add something

 

Jonah Raskin - Cold War - In 1974, Raskin received a grant from the Rabinowitz Foundation in N.Y. for research on the Cold War and American culture in the literature of the period from 1945 to 1960, reading and interviewing that would inform his later book on Allen Ginsberg and the Beat Generation, "American Scream"


1975

Under the leadership of Pol Pot, the Khmer Rouge would eventually kill 1-3 million Cambodians in the killing fields, out of a 1975 population of roughly 8 million add something


1976

Norman Armour - Cold War - According to an interview in 1976, Armour indicated that he was proudest of his work in 1954, protesting the attacks of Joseph R. McCarthy, a Republican Senator from Wisconsin, on the members of the Foreign Service, suspected of connivance with communism during the ongoing Cold War, in his February 9, 1950 Wheeling, West Virginia Speech on Lincoln Day to the Republican Women Club of Wheeling, West Virginia, West Virginia


1977

Craig Thomas (author) - Cold War - After publishing his third novel, the Cold War espionage thriller "Wolfsbane", he left teaching altogether, in 1977

 

Adrian S. Fisher - Cold War - This classified study called NSC-68, was the blueprint for the Truman Doctrine for containment of communism, which provided the overall policy concepts for the U.S. participation in the Cold War throughout the 1950s

 

In January 1977, four years prior to becoming president, Ronald Reagan bluntly stated, in a conversation with Richard V. Allen, his basic expectation in relation to the Cold War. "My idea of American policy toward the Soviet Union is simple, and some would say simplistic," he said add something


1978

Julius W. Becton, Jr. - Cold War - He went on to serve in the Korean War and the Vietnam War, eventually rising to the rank of lieutenant general in 1978 and command of VII Corps in Europe during the Cold War

 

Roy Marsden - Cold War - Marsden starred in Yorkshire Television's 1978–1980 Cold War espionage series "The Sandbaggers"

 

In April 1978, the communist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan seized power in Afghanistan in the Saur Revolution add something

 

Richard Holbrooke - Cold War - During his service, he oversaw a warming with Cold War adversaries in the region, culminating in the normalization of relations with China in December 1978


1979

Although Brezhnev was convinced in 1979 that the Soviet war in Afghanistan would be brief, Muslim guerrillas, aided by the US and other countries, waged a fierce resistance against the invasion add something

 

Although President Jimmy Carter tried to place another limit on the arms race with a SALT II agreement in 1979, his efforts were undermined by the other events that year, including the Iranian Revolution and the KGB-backed Nicaraguan Revolution, which both ousted pro-US regimes, and his retaliation against Soviet intervention in Afghanistan in December 0 add something

 

Pope John Paul II provided a moral focus for anti-communism; a visit to his native Poland in 1979 stimulated a religious and nationalist resurgence centered on the Solidarity movement that galvanized opposition and may have led to his attempted assassination two years later add something

 

In September 1979, Khalqist President Nur Muhammad Taraki was assassinated in a coup within the PDPA orchestrated by fellow Khalq member Hafizullah Amin, who assumed the presidency add something

 

Distrusted by the Soviets, Amin was assassinated by Soviet special forces in December 1979 add something


1980

A senior US State Department official predicted such an outcome as early as 1980, positing that the invasion resulted in part from a "domestic crisis within the Soviet may be that the thermodynamic law of entropy up with the Soviet system, which now seems to expend more energy on simply maintaining its equilibrium than on improving itself add something

 

By the early 1980s, the U.S. had built up a military arsenal and army surpassing that of the United States add something

 

Carter initiated military cooperation with Somalia in 1980 add something

 

Carter responded to the Soviet intervention by withdrawing the SALT II treaty from the Senate, imposing embargoes on grain and technology shipments to the U.S., and demanding a significant increase in military spending, and further announced that the United States would boycott the 1980 Moscow Summer Olympics add something

 

Tensions continued intensifying in the early 1980s when Reagan revived the B-1 Lancer program that was canceled by the Carter administration, produced LGM-118 Peacekeepers, installed US cruise missiles in Europe, and announced his experimental Strategic Defense Initiative, dubbed "Star Wars" by the media, a defense program to shoot down missiles in mid-flight add something

 

What do you think of that-" In 1980, Ronald Reagan defeated Jimmy Carter in the 1980 presidential election, vowing to increase military spending and confront the Soviets everywhere add something

 

Arthur C. Clarke - Cold War - Because of the political environment in America in the 1980s, the film presents a Cold War theme, with the looming tensions of nuclear warfare not featured in the novel

 

Andrew Hunt (historian) - He is currently writing a book on Ronald Reagan and Cold War culture in the United States in the 1980s

 

Hans-Dietrich Genscher - He is most respected for his efforts that helped spell the end of the Cold War, in the late 1980s when Communist eastern European governments toppled, and which led to German reunification


1981

Bob Massie (politician) - Cold War - He is the son of historians Robert K. Massie, winner of the 1981 Pulitzer Prize for biography; and Suzanne Massie, who played a key role in forming the relationship between Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev, which led to the end of the Cold War

 

In December 1981, Poland's Wojciech Jaruzelski reacted to the crisis by imposing a period of martial law add something


1983

In 1983, the Reagan administration intervened in the multisided Lebanese Civil War, invaded Grenada, bombed Libya and backed the Central American Contras, anti-communist paramilitaries seeking to overthrow the Soviet-aligned Sandinista government in Nicaragua add something

 

Mary Pinchot Meyer - In 1983, former Harvard University psychology lecturer Timothy Leary claimed that in the spring of 1962, Pinchot Meyer, who, according to her biographer Nina Burleigh "wore manners and charm like a second skin", told Leary she was taking part in a plan to avert worldwide nuclear war by convincing powerful male members of the Washington establishment to take mind-altering drugs, which would presumably lead them to conclude that the Cold War was meaningless

 

The Able Archer 83 exercise in November 1983, a realistic simulation of a coordinated NATO nuclear release, has been called most dangerous moment since the Cuban Missile Crisis, as the Soviet leadership keeping a close watch on it considered a nuclear attack to be imminent add something


1984

Kevin Reynolds (director) - Reynolds enjoyed initial successes co-writing the Cold War hit "Red Dawn" in 1984 and writing and directing the Steven Spielberg-produced "Fandango" in 1985


1985

By early 1985, Reagan's anti-communist position had developed into a stance known as the new Reagan Doctrinewhich, in addition to containment, formulated an additional right to subvert existing communist governments add something

 

Harold Pinter - Cold War - In 1985, Pinter recalled that his early act of conscientious objection resulted from being "terribly disturbed as a young man by the Cold War. And McCarthyism

 

Stephen Lowe (playwright) - It was published in 1985 during a period of increased tension towards the end of the Cold War, and Lowe's introduction quoted from Gabriel Garcia Marquez's Nobel acceptance speech, "we, the inventors of tales, who will believe anything, feel entitled to believe that it is not yet too late to engage in the creation of a utopia of a very different kind

 

The first was held in November 1985 in Geneva, Switzerland add something


1986

Richard Mottram - Cold War - From 1986 to 1989, he was the Under-secretary responsible for the defence programme, and from 1989 to 1992, the Deputy Secretary with responsibilities for UK defence policy and strategy, and defence relations with other countries at the time of the end of the Cold War

 

Michael Sturmer - Cold War - In a series of his essays published in book form in 1986 as "Dissonanzen des Fortschritts" , Stürmer claimed that democracy in West Germany can not be taken for granted; that though Germany does have a democratic past, the present system of the Federal Republic was created in response to past totalitarian experiences of both left and right; that geography has played a key role in limiting the options of German governments; and that given the Cold War, the ideas of neutrality for the Federal Republic or reunification with East Germany were not realistic


1987

The negotiations failed, but the third summit in 1987 led to a breakthrough with the signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty add something

 

Hastings Banda - Cold War - Eventually, with the collapse of the Cold War, the World Bank and International Monetary Fund arrived, imposing a series of Structural Adjustment Programs from 1987

 

Sebastian Shaw (actor) - Although appearances in films became far less common in his later career, he received much acclaim for his performance as the Cold War spy Sharp in Clare Peploe's "High Season" at the New York Film Festival in 1987; "The San Diego Union-Tribune" said Shaw played the role with "endearing, sweet gravity"

 

An ineffectual start led to the conclusion that deeper structural changes were necessary and in June 1987 Gorbachev announced an agenda of economic reform called "perestroika", or restructuring add something


1989

By 1989, the Soviet alliance system was on the brink of collapse, and, deprived of Soviet military support, the Communist leaders of the Warsaw Pact states were losing power add something

 

In 1989, the Communist governments in Poland and Hungary became the first to negotiate the organizing of competitive elections add something

 

The 1989 revolutionary wave swept across Central and Eastern Europe peacefully overthrew all the Soviet-style communist states: East Germany, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria, Romania was the only Eastern-bloc country to topple its communist regime violently and execute its head of state add something

 

They reached a breaking point when Gorbachev refused to use Soviet troops to support the faltering government of East Germany in late 1989 add something

 

Mikhail Gorbachev - Cold War - Otto Hahn Peace Medal - The loosening of Soviet hegemony over Eastern Europe effectively ended the Cold War, and for this, Gorbachev was *awarded the Otto Hahn Peace Medal in Gold in 1989 and the Nobel Peace Prize on 15 October 1990

 

Porter Goss - Cold War - A CIA officer in Latin America during the Cold War, he served as a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1989 until he took up his post at the agency

 

Francis Fukuyama - Cold War - Fukuyama is best known as the author of "The End of History and the Last Man", in which he argued that the progression of human history as a struggle between ideologies is largely at an end, with the world settling on liberal democracy after the end of the Cold War and the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989

 

Tony Barrell (broadcaster) - Cold War - In 1989, Barrell was associate producer for the four-part ABC-KCET television documentary series "Power in the Pacific", a survey of ongoing impact of the Pacific War and the Cold War in the Asia-Pacific

 

Dmitry Shparo - Cold War - In 1989, Shparo and his American colleague, Paul Shurke, led the Bering Bridge Expedition from Siberia to Alaska in an attempt to reconnect Arctic cultures separated by the Cold War

 

The tidal wave of change culminated with the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989, which symbolized the collapse of European Communist governments and graphically ended the Iron Curtain divide of Europe add something

 

Ronald Reagan - In November 1989, the Berlin Wall was torn down, the Cold War was officially declared over at a Malta Summit on December 3, 1989 and two years later, the Soviet Union collapsed.

 

Anatoly Dobrynin - Cold War - He attended the December 1989 Malta Summit that formally marked the end of the Cold War

 

On December 3, 1989, Gorbachev and Reagan's successor, George H. W. Bush, declared the Cold War over at the Malta Summit; a year later, the two former rivals were partners in the Gulf War against Iraq add something


1990

Ron Dellums - Cold War - However, with the winding down of the Cold War, total B-2 production was reduced to 21 aircraft in the early 1990s

 

Etienne Tshisekedi - Cold War - With the country in economic turmoil in the early 1990s, partly due to dictator Mobutu Sese Seko's loss of Western support after the Cold War, Mobutu bowed to pressure, and promised a transition to multiparty democracy

 

Geoff Hoon - The Upholder class entered Royal Navy service from 1990 to 1993 at the end of the Cold War, but were deemed surplus as part of the Peace Dividend and refocus on a nuclear submarine fleet

 

Brent Scowcroft - This book described what it was like to be in the White House during the end of the Cold War, as the Soviet Union collapsed in the early 1990s

 

In the U.S. itself, "glasnost" weakened the bonds that held the Soviet Union together and by February 1990, with the dissolution of the USSR looming, the Communist Party was forced to surrender its 73-year-old monopoly on state power add something


1991

The pressures escalated inside the Soviet Union, where Communism fell and the U.S. was formally dissolved in late 1991 add something

 

David Halberstam - Cold War - In 1991, Halberstam wrote "The Next Century", in which he argued that, after the end of the Cold War, the United States was likely to fall behind economically to other countries such as Japan and Germany

 

Thierry Noir - Cold War - The rock band U2 featured the artwork of Thierry Noir painted on Trabants , photos of which decorate their 1991 album Achtung Baby, which itself includes songs that have themes inspired by the fall of the Berlin Wall and the changes taking place in Europe at the end of the Cold War

 

Douglas Hurd - He oversaw Britain's diplomatic responses to the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, as well as the first Gulf War to drive Iraqi troops out of Kuwait

 

Barry Miles - Zappa regularly described himself as "a devout capitalist" and attempted to broker joint commercial ventures with business interests in the former Soviet Union following the end of the Cold War in 1991

 

Gorbachev's permissive attitude toward Eastern Europe did not initially extend to Soviet territory; even Bush, who strove to maintain friendly relations, condemned the January 1991 killings in Latvia and Lithuania, privately warning that economic ties would be frozen if the violence continued add something

 

The USSR was fatally weakened by a failed coup and a growing number of Soviet republics, particularly Russia, who threatened to secede from the USSR. The Commonwealth of Independent States, created on December 21, 1991, is viewed as a successor entity to the Soviet Union but, according to Russia's leaders, its purpose was to "allow a civilized divorce" between the Soviet Republics and is comparable to a loose confederation add something

 

The USSR was declared officially dissolved on December 25, 1991 add something


1995

Seymour Cray - Cold War - In 1995 there had been no further sales of the Cray-3, and the ending of the Cold War made it unlikely anyone would buy enough Cray-4s to offer a return on the development funds


1996

Carl Schurz - The base was returned to the German government in 1996, following the end of the Cold War


1997

John Lukacs - In his 1997 book, " George F. Kennan and the Origins of Containment, 1944-1946", a collection of letters between Lukacs and his close friend George F. Kennan exchanged in 1994-1995, Lukacs and Kennan criticized the New Left claim that the Cold War was caused by the United States

 

Don DeLillo - Lillo finally broke cover with his long awaited eleventh novel, the epic Cold War history Underworld.


1999

Mikhail Gorbachev - Iraq War - In the decade that followed the Cold War, Gorbachev opposed both the U.S.-led NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999 and the U.S.-led Iraq War in 2003


2004

Liu Xiaobo - Cold War - Liu published a 2004 article in support of Bush's war on Iraq, titled "Victory to the Anglo-American Freedom Alliance", in which he praised the U.S.-led post-Cold War conflicts as "best examples of how war should be conducted in a modern civilization


2005

Aksel Larsen - The Danish Institute for International Studies , concluded in 2005, that Larsen held a secret working relationship between 1958 and 1964 with one of Denmark's allied partners in the Cold War, stating that "Larsen

 

Aksel Larsen - The Danish Institute for International Studies, concluded in 2005, that Larsen held a secret working relationship between 1958 and 1964 with one of Denmark's allied partners in the Cold War, stating that "Larsen


2006

Ralph Hall - Asked in 2006 how the 1996 trip benefited the Texas Fourth Congressional District he represents, Hall said, "I think it benefits my constituents if you do anything that benefits the Peace Through Strength people, when you’re going out to bring information to them to help win the Cold War. That’s a benefit to them, to their strategic interests.

 

Denis Healey - In July 2006 he argued that "Nuclear weapons are infinitely less important in our foreign policy than they were in the days of the Cold War" and "I don't think we need nuclear weapons any longer"


2010

"The Cambridge History of the Cold War" 2000pp; new essays by leading scholars add something


2012

Oliver Stone - In November 2012, Hudson Institute adjunct fellow historian Ronald Radosh lambasted it as "mendacious" Cold War revisionism and "mindless recycling of Stalin's propaganda," noting similarities to Communist author and NKVD agent Carl Marzani's Soviet-published treatise "We Can Be Friends


2015

Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2015 add something

 

London: New York : I.B. Tauris, 2015 add something