Knowledge Identifier: &Communist_Party_USA
Founded in 1919.
Countries: United States (66%), Russia (8%), Germany (6%)
Linked to: Communist Labor Party, Communist Party, Communist Party of Canada, Communist Party of China
Victor Riesel - In the 1920s and 1930s, Nathan Riesel successfully opposed Communist Party USA attempts to infiltrate activists into the local union and turning its purpose to promotion of the party
Workers Party of America - The "'Workers Party of America"' was the name of the legal party organization used by the Communist Party USA from the last days of 1921 until the middle of 1929
In 1925 the Comintern, through its representative Sergei Gusev, ordered the majority Foster faction to surrender control to Ruthenberg's faction; Foster complied
Clara Lemlich - In 1929, after the Communist Party created a Women's Commission, Lemlich launched the United Council of Working Class Women, which eventually had nearly fifty branches in New York City , as well as affiliates in Philadelphia , Seattle, Chicago , Los Angeles , San Francisco and Detroit
By 1930, the party adopted the title of Communist Party of the USA, with the slogan of "the united front from below"
Congress of Industrial Organizations - These were the Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934 the leadership of which included some members of the Trotskyist Communist League of America, the 1934 West Coast Longshore Strike the leadership of which included some members of the Communist Party USA, and the 1934 Toledo Auto-Lite strike led by the American Workers Party
Earl Russell Browder offered to run as Norman Thomas' running mate on a joint Socialist Party-Communist Party ticket in the 1936 presidential election but Thomas rejected this overture
Lester Rodney - Rodney's favorite jobs though involved sports, and in 1936 he parlayed his high school background in sportswriting into a job with the "Daily Worker" and its Sunday edition, the "Sunday Worker", the party organ of the Communist Party USA, or CPUSA. There Rodney was able to combine sports journalism with his developing sense of social justice, to champion social issues, most notably the desegregation of major league baseball
J. Robert Oppenheimer - From 1937 to 1942, in the midst of the Great Purge and Hitler-Stalin pact, Oppenheimer was a member at Berkeley of what he called a "discussion group", which was later identified by fellow members, Haakon Chevalier and Gordon Griffiths, as a "closed" unit of the Communist Party for Berkeley faculty.
Socialist Party of America - In Spain, the country in which the Lovestoneites invested most of their emotional energy as fervid supporters of the Workers' Party of Marxist Unification , 1937 marked a similar bloodbath, with the Communist Party of Spain achieving hegemony among the Republican forces and conducting bloody purges of their own at the behest of the Soviet secret police
Although membership in the CPUSA rose to about 75,000 by 1938, many members left the party after the Soviet Union signed the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact with Nazi Germany on August 23, 1939
International Longshore and Warehouse Union - Bridges' star within the CIO began to wane, however, as the Communist Party began to lose ground within the CIO. When the CPUSA began to attack Roosevelt in the months after the signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact in 1939, the CIO responded by abolishing the position of West Coast director of the CIO, limiting Bridges' authority to California
Congress passed the Smith Act, which made it illegal to advocate, abet, or teach the desirability of overthrowing the government, in 1940
J. Robert Oppenheimer - The &Federal_Bureau_of_Investigation recorded that J. Robert Oppenheimer attended a meeting in the home of self-proclaimed Communist Haakon Chevalier, that the Communist Party's California state chairman William Schneiderman, and Isaac Folkoff, West Coast liaison between the Communist Party and NKVD, attended in Fall 1940, during the Hitler-Stalin pact.
Dalton Trumbo - Trumbo aligned himself with the Communist Party USA before the 1940s, although he did not join the party until 1943
Ostensibly, this was not due to Lovestone's insubordination in challenging a decision by Stalin, but for his support for American Exceptionalism, the thesis that socialism could be achieved peacefully in the USA. Lovestone and Gitlow formed their own group called the "Communist Party ", a section of the pro-Bukharin International Communist Opposition, which was initially larger than the Trotskyists but failed to survive past 1941
Pete Seeger - In 1942 he became a member of the Communist Party USA itself
Giovanni Rossi Lomanitz - The Federal Bureau of Investigation had placed a listening device in the residence of Communist Party activist Steve Nelson, and in October 1942 overheard a man referred to as "Joe", whom the FBI suspected of being Lomanitz's close friend Joe Weinberg, describing to Nelson the significance and technical outlines of the secret nuclear research done at Berkeley
More important for the party was the renewal of state persecution of the CPUSA. The Truman administration's loyalty oath program, introduced in 1947, drove some leftists out of federal employment and, more importantly, legitimized the notion of Communists as subversives, to be exposed and expelled from public and private employment
Against the backdrop of these many setbacks, however, William Z Foster, who was once again in a leadership role after the ouster of Earl Browder, and who, due to his poor health, had not been brought to trial in 1948 along with a number of other members of the party's leadership, wrote his "History of the Communist Party of the United States"
Socialist Party of America - After the 1950s, however, the Party's appeal was weakened by the popularity of Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal, the organization and flexibility of the Communist Party under Earl Browder, and the resurgent labor movement's desire to support sympathetic Democratic Party politicians
Moses I. Finley - In 1954, he appeared before the United States Senate Subcommittee on Internal Security , which asked him whether he had ever been a member of the Communist Party USA
Giovanni Rossi Lomanitz - The Atomic Energy Commission Personnel Security Board found in 1954 that Oppenheimer had stated in 1943 that he did not want anybody working on the project who was a member of the Communist Party, since "one always had a question of divided loyalty" and the discipline of the Communist Party was very severe and not compatible with complete loyalty to the project
Cold War - As the decades progressed, the combined effects of the second Red Scare, McCarthyism, Nikita Khrushchev's 1956 Secret Speech denouncing the previous decades of Joseph Stalin's rule, and the adversities of the continued Cold War mentality, steadily weakened the Communist Party's internal structure and confidence
By 1957, membership had dwindled to less than 10,000, of whom some 1,500 were informants for the Federal Bureau of Investigation
Vietnam War - The party attempted to recover with its opposition to the Vietnam War during the U.S. Civil rights movement in the 1960s, but the continued uncritical support of the CPUSA for an increasingly stultified and militaristic Soviet Union increasingly alienated them from the rest of the U.S. left, who saw this supportive position as outdated and even dangerous
Many of these critics were elements on both U.S. coasts who would come together to form the Progressive Labor Movement in 1961
Hubert Humphrey - During his tenure, Humphrey was the lead author of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, introduced the first initiative to create the Peace Corps, sponsored the clause of the McCarran Act to threaten concentration camps for 'subversives', proposed making Communist Party membership a felony and chaired the Select Committee on Disarmament
With the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the party held its convention and attempted to resolve the issue of whether the Party should reject Marxism-Leninism
Industrial Workers of the World - However, British lecturer Peter Knight in his scholarly encyclopedia of conspiracy theories connects the Comintern with the Communist Party USA, based on Venona project decrypts released in 1995, but Knight does not make the same connection between IWW and the Comintern
Communist Party of Brazil - This can be perceived in a letter sent to the Communist Party USA on the occasion of its 29th National Convention in 2010
Allen West (politician) - At town hall meeting in Palm City, Florida on April 11, 2012, West was asked by a man in the audience, "What percentage of the American legislature do you think are card carrying Marxists or International Socialists-" West responded that he believed "there's about 78 to 81 members of the Democrat Party that are members of the Communist Party
In June 2014, the Party will be holding its 30th National Convention in Chicago