Edward II of England

Knowledge Identifier: +Edward_II_of_England

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Edward II of England

King of England from 1307 until he was deposed by his wife Isabella in January 1327 add

Category: Politics

Born in 1284.

Countries: United Kingdom (71%), France (15%), (7%)

Education: undef.

Main connections: Edward I of England, John of Brittany, Earl of Richmond, Edward III of England

Linked to: Oriel College, Oxford University Press, Trinity College, Cambridge

 

Timeline


 

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Edward II of England was born in 1284 add something


1298

Ironically, it was the king who had originally chosen Gaveston in 1298 to be a suitable friend for his son due to his wit, courtesy and abilities add something


1301

He was the first English prince to hold the title Prince of Wales, which was formalised by the Parliament of Lincoln of 7 February 1301 add something

 

Cricket - Written evidence exists of a game known as "creag" being played by Prince Edward, the son of Edward I , at Newenden, Kent in 1301 and there has been speculation, but no evidence, that this was a form of cricket


1305

John of Brittany, Earl of Richmond - In 1305, Edward I had appointed him Guardian of Scotland, a position which was confirmed upon the accession of Edward II in 1307


1306

Edward I knighted his son in a major ceremony in 1306 called the Feast of the Swans whereby all present swore to continue the war in Scotland add something


1307

Each campaign begun by Edward, from 1307 to 1314, had ended in Robert clawing back more of the land that Edward I had taken during his long reign add something

 

However, upon the elder king's death in 1307, Edward II immediately recalled him add something

 

Edward I died on 7 July 1307 en route to another campaign against the Scots, a war that had become the hallmark of his reign add something

 

Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick - After the succession of Edward II in 1307, however, he soon fell out with the new king and the king's favourite Piers Gaveston

 

Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel - This flow of patronage continued after the death of Edward I in 1307; in 1308 Edward II returned the hundred of Purslow to Arundel, an honour that Edward I had confiscated from Edmund's father

 

Gilbert de Clare, 8th Earl of Gloucester - This grant was made by Edward II, who succeeded his father Edward I in July 1307


1308

In 1308 Edward travelled to Boulogne to marry Isabella, leaving Gaveston to act as regent add something

 

Isabella's marriage to Edward subsequently took place in 1308 add something

 

On 25 January 1308, Edward married Isabella of France, the daughter of King Philip IV of France, known as "Philip the Fair," and sister to three French kings, in an attempt to bolster an alliance with France add something

 

Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick - Together with Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, and Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, he carried the ceremonial swords at the coronation of King Edward II on 25 February 1308


1309

John of Brittany, Earl of Richmond - As the relationship between Edward II and his nobility deteriorated, Richmond remained loyal to the king; in 1309 he went on an embassy to Pope Clement V on behalf of Edward's favourite Piers Gaveston


1310

John of Brittany, Earl of Richmond - By 1310 however, the relationship between Edward II and his earls had deteriorated to the point where a committee of magnates took control over government from the king

 

Skipton - Home to one of the oldest mills in North Yorkshire, historical documents indicate High Corn Mill, which is powered by the waters of Eller Beck, dates to 1310 when it was owned by Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford, at this point it was transferred to the powerful Clifford family by the King Edward II

 

Gilbert de Clare, 8th Earl of Gloucester - In 1310, a group of so-called Lords Ordainers were appointed to draft the Ordinances of 1311, a set of restrictions on the rule of Edward II, including a renewed exile for Gaveston


1311

As the resentment against Edward's rule and Gaveston's position of power grew, some barons began to insist Gaveston be banished, through the Ordinances of 1311 add something


1312

Edward recalled his friend, but could do little to prevent Gaveston being captured in 1312 under the orders of the Earl of Lancaster and his allies, who claimed that he had led the king to folly add something

 

By mid-July, Aymer de Valence, 2nd Earl of Pembroke was advising the king to make war on the barons who, unwilling to risk their lives, entered negotiations in September 1312 add something


1314

By contrast, Edward did not issue his writs of service, calling upon 21,540 men, until 27 May 1314 add something

 

By June 1314, only Stirling Castle and Berwick remained under English control add something

 

On 23 June 1314, Edward and an army of 20,000 foot soldiers and 3,000 cavalry faced Robert and his army of foot soldiers and farmers wielding 14-foot-long pikes add something

 

The castle, however, was under a constant state of siege, and the English commander, Sir Phillip de Mowbray, had advised Edward that he would surrender the castle to the Scots unless Edward arrived by 24 June 1314, to relieve the siege add something

 

Exeter College, Oxford - Still situated in its original location in Turl Street, Exeter College was founded in 1314 by Walter de Stapeldon of Devon, Bishop of Exeter and later treasurer to Edward II, as a school to educate clergy


1318

But, as with Gaveston, the barons were indignant at the privileges Edward lavished upon the Despenser father and son, especially when the younger Despenser began in 1318 to strive to procure for himself the earldom of Gloucester and its associated lands add something


1320

By 1320, the situation in England was again becoming dangerously unstable add something

 

William Montagu, 1st Earl of Salisbury - His service to Edward II took him abroad to the Continent in both 1320 and 1325


1321

In 1321, the Earl of Hereford, along with the Earl of Lancaster and others, took up arms against the Despenser family, and the King was forced into an agreement with the barons add something


1322

At the York Parliament of 1322, Edward issued a statute which revoked all previous ordinances designed to limit his power and to prevent any further encroachment upon it add something

 

Edward had fathered at least one illegitimate son, Adam FitzRoy, who accompanied his father in the Scottish campaigns of 1322 and died shortly afterwards add something

 

Henry Burghersh - After the execution of Badlesmere in 1322 Burghersh's lands were seized by Edward II, and the pope was urged to deprive him; about 1326, however, his possessions were restored, a proceeding which did not prevent him from joining Edward's queen, Isabella, and taking part in the movement which led to the deposition and murder of the king

 

Andrew Harclay, 1st Earl of Carlisle - Battle of Old Byland - As one of the main military leaders on the border to Scotland, Harclay became frustrated with Edward II's inactivity, particularly the humiliating English defeat at the Battle of Old Byland on 14 October 1322, which made it clear that the war could not be won


1323

Robin Hood - Hunter identified the outlaw with a "Robyn Hode" recorded as employed by Edward II in 1323 during the king's progress through Lancashire


1324

Opposition to Edward and the Despensers rule continued; in 1324 there was a foiled assassination attempt on their lives, and in early 1325 John of Nottingham was placed on trial for involvement in a plot to kill them with magic add something

 

Walter Reynolds - Reynolds remained in general loyal to Edward II until 1324, when with all his suffragans he opposed the king in defence of the Bishop of Hereford, Adam of Orlton


1325

Overjoyed, Isabella arrived in France in March 1325 add something

 

On 31 May 1325, Isabella agreed to a peace treaty favouring France and requiring Edward to pay homage in France to her brother, King Charles; but Edward decided instead to send his son to pay homage add something

 

Richard de Bury - Somehow he became involved in the intrigues preceding the deposition of King Edward II, and supplied Queen Isabella and her lover, Roger Mortimer, in Paris with money in 1325 from the revenues of Brienne, of which province he was treasurer


1326

In September 1326, Mortimer and Isabella invaded England add something

 

Gilbert de Clare, 8th Earl of Gloucester - Despenser's ruthless expansion of the de Clare lordship of Glamorgan in Wales led directly to the troubles of Edward II's later reign, including a rebellion in the Welsh Marches, the defeat of the Earl of Lancaster at the Battle of Boroughbridge, and eventually the deposition of the king by Roger Mortimer and Queen Isabella in 1326


1327

Nevertheless a public funeral was held in 1327, attended by Isabella, after which Edward's body was said to be laid in Gloucester Cathedral add something


Edward II of England died in 1327 add something

 

On 3 April, Edward II was removed from Kenilworth and entrusted to the custody of two subordinates of Mortimer, later imprisoned at Berkeley Castle in Gloucestershire where, it was generally believed, he was murdered by an agent of Isabella and Mortimer on 11 October 1327, although Edward's death is commemorated annually at Berkeley Castle on 21 September add something

 

William Montagu, 1st Earl of Salisbury - After the deposition of Edward II in 1327, Montagu continued in the service of Edward's son Edward III

 

William Montagu, 1st Earl of Salisbury - The relationship continued after Edward was crowned king following the deposition of Edward II in 1327

 

John of Brittany, Earl of Richmond - By January 1327 Edward II had been forced to abdicate, and his son was declared King Edward III

 

Oriel College - The college lost no time in seeking royal favour again after Edward II's deposition, and Edward III confirmed his father's favour in February 1327, but the amended statutes remained in force with the Bishop of Lincoln as Visitor


1328

Married Philippa of Hainault on 24 January 1328 and had issue add something

 

Married David II of Scotland on 17 July 1328 and became Queen of Scots, but had no issue add something


1330

Consequently, when Edward III came of age in 1330, he executed Roger Mortimer on fourteen charges of treason, most significantly the murder of Edward II add something

 

The historian Ian Mortimer has put forward the argument that Edward II was not killed at Berkeley but was still alive at least until 1330 add something

 

Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel - The castle and honour of Arundel was briefly held by Edward II's half-brother Edmund, Earl of Kent, who was executed on 3 September 1330


1332

Married Reginald II "the Black", Count of Guelders in May 1332 and had issue add something


1337

Gilbert de Clare, 8th Earl of Gloucester - The title of Earl of Gloucester was recreated by Edward II's son Edward III in 1337, for Hugh de Audley


1343

Thomas Dagworth - In 1343 he had married Eleanor de Bohun, Countess of Ormonde, the daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford and Elizabeth Plantagenet, king Edward II's sister


1351

Barton-upon-Humber - A ferry to Hull began in 1351, being granted by Edward II running until 1851, but this was superseded by a ferry at New Holland which began in 1820


1352

Thomas de la Moore's account of Edward's murder was not written until after 1352 and is uncorroborated by other contemporary sources add something


1358

She died at Hertford on 23 August 1358 add something


1584

Wales - But Edward II was not an infant when the title was granted; the story is apocryphal and was first recorded in 1584


1897

Oriel College - The portico was completely rebuilt in 1897, and above it are statues of two Kings: Edward II on the left, and probably either Charles I or James I, although this is disputed; above those is a statue of the Blessed Virgin Mary after whom the College is officially named


1902

Oriel College - Behind the High Table is a portrait of Edward II; underneath is a longsword brought to the college in 1902 after being preserved for many years on one of the college's estates at Swainswick, near Bath, Somerset


1991

In 1991 English filmmaker Derek Jarman adapted the Christopher Marlowe play into a film featuring Tilda Swinton, Steven Waddington, Andrew Tiernan, Nigel Terry, and Annie Lennox add something


2004

"Oxford Dictionary of National Biography", Oxford University, 2004 British historian Ian Mortimer has drawn attention to the use of 'anti-sodomite' smear campaigns in the late 13th and early 14th centuries against Pope Boniface VIII and the Knights Templar add something


2007

The tomb remains in what is now Gloucester Cathedral, and was extensively restored between 2007 and 2008 at a cost of over £100,000 add something