Knowledge Identifier: $England



Category:Island countriesadd

Category: Environment (330)

Launched in -5000.

Countries: United Kingdom (55%), United States (10%), (6%)

Main connections: Yorkshire, Scotland, Wales

Linked to: Rugby School, Somerville College, Oxford, Bedford College, London, City of London Corporation




This timeline needs to be reviewed and corrected, as it has been automatically generated from multiple web sources.
Please help improve it by adding dated informations, images and videos about England.


A fresh wave of Scandinavian attacks from the late 10th century ended with the conquest of this united kingdom by Sweyn Forkbeard in 1013 and again by his son Cnut in 1016, turning it into the centre of a short-lived North Sea Empire that included Denmark and Norway add something


However, the native royal dynasty was restored with the accession of Edward the Confessor in 1042 add something


A dispute over the succession to Edward led to the Norman conquest of England in 1066, accomplished by an army led by Duke William of Normandy add something


After the Norman conquest in 1066 various Castles in England were created so law lords could uphold their authority and in the north to protect from invasion add something


Jews have a history of a small minority on the island since 1070 add something


In 1086, when the "Domesday Book" was compiled, England had a population of two million add something


The "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle" recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years later the "Chronicle" stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense add something


Rhys ap Gruffydd - He was forced to submit to King Henry II of England in 1158


John, King of England - John, King of England was born in 1166


John, King of England - Henry the Young King had been crowned King of England in 1170, but was not given any formal powers by his father; he was promised Normandy and Anjou as part of his future inheritance


Rhys ap Gruffydd - In 1171 King Henry II arrived in England from France, on his way to Ireland


John, King of England - He was appointed the Lord of Ireland in 1177 and given lands in England and on the continent


John, King of England - The war ended in stalemate and a tense family reconciliation in England at the end of 1184


The English monarch paid a tribute to the Doge of Genoa from 1190 onwards so that English ships could fly the flag as a means of protection when entering the Mediterranean add something


Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor - Otto became a friend of Richard I of England, who attempted to make him Earl of York in 1190, and, through marriage with Margaret, king of Scotland


John, King of England - John's military position was weak and he agreed to a truce; in early 1194 the king finally returned to England, and John's remaining forces surrendered


The Royal Arms of England, a national coat of arms featuring three lions, originated with its adoption by Richard the Lionheart in 1198 add something


John, King of England - Treaty of Le Goulet - Despite this, after Richard died in 1199, John was proclaimed king of England, and came to an agreement with Philip II of France to recognise John's possession of the continental Angevin lands at the peace treaty of Le Goulet in 1200


Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor - Otto's election pulled the empire into the conflict between England and France, since Philip had allied himself with the French king, Philip II, and Otto was supported at first by Richard I, and after his death in 1199, by his brother John


John, King of England - England itself had to be secured against possible French invasion, the sea-routes to Bordeaux needed to be secured following the loss of the land route to Aquitaine, and his remaining possessions in Aquitaine needed to be secured following the death of his mother, Eleanor, in April 1204


John, King of England - John spent much of 1205 securing England against a potential French invasion


John, King of England - Innocent placed an interdict on England in March 1208, prohibiting clergy from conducting religious services, with the exception of baptisms for the young, and confessions and absolutions for the dying


John, King of England - Philip seized the initiative in 1213, sending his son, Prince Louis, to invade Flanders with the intention of next launching an invasion of England


John, King of England - John died of dysentery contracted whilst on campaign in eastern England during late 1216; supporters of his son Henry III went on to achieve victory over Louis and the rebel barons the following year


John, King of England - John, King of England died in 1216


John, King of England - Prince Louis intended to land in the south of England in May 1216, and John assembled a naval force to intercept him


John, King of England - The civil war continued until royalist victories at the battles of Lincoln, England and Dover in 1217


They were expelled from England in 1290 following the Edict of Expulsion, only to be allowed back in 1656 add something


The Black Death epidemic hit England; starting in 1348, it eventually killed up to half of England's inhabitants add something


Desiderius Erasmus - In 1499, while in England, Erasmus was particularly impressed by the Bible teaching of John Colet who pursued a style more akin to the church fathers than the Scholastics


Catherine of Aragon - In 1507 she served as the Spanish Ambassador for England, thus becoming the first female ambassador in European history


Catherine of Aragon - In 1507, she held the position of Ambassador for the Spanish Court in England when her father found himself without one, becoming the first female ambassador in European history


Catherine of Aragon - On 11 June 1513 Henry appointed Catherine Regent or Governor of England when he went to France on a military campaign


Catherine of Aragon - In 1520, Catherine's nephew Holy Roman Emperor Charles V paid a state visit to England, and she urged Henry to enter an alliance with Charles rather than with France


Catherine of Aragon - By 1525 Henry was infatuated with his mistress Anne Boleyn and dissatisfied that his marriage to Catherine had produced no surviving sons, leaving their daughter, the future Mary I of England, as heiress presumptive at a time when there was no established precedent for a woman on the throne


The established church of England is the Church of England, which left communion with Rome in the 1530s when Henry VIII was unable to annul his divorce to the aunt of the king of Spain add something


Catherine of Aragon - In 1533 their marriage was declared invalid and Henry married Anne on the judgment of clergy in England, without reference to the Pope


Henry VIII broke from communion with the Catholic Church, over issues relating to his divorce, under the Acts of Supremacy in 1534 which proclaimed the monarch head of the Church of England add something


When the modern border between $ Wales and England was established by the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542, many Welsh-speaking communities found themselves on the English side of the border add something


Mary, Queen of Scots - Under the Third Succession Act, passed in 1543 by the Parliament of England, Elizabeth was the heir of Mary I of England, and Henry VIII's last will and testament had excluded the Stuarts from succeeding to the English throne


Mary, Queen of Scots - On 1 July 1543, when Mary was six months old, the Treaty of Greenwich was signed, which promised that at the age of ten Mary would marry Edward and move to England, where Henry could oversee her upbringing


Mary, Queen of Scots - On 4 April 1558, Mary signed a secret agreement bequeathing Scotland and her claim to England to the French crown if she died without issue


Mary, Queen of Scots - After the death of Henry VIII's elder daughter, Queen Mary I of England, in November 1558, she was succeeded by her only surviving sibling, Elizabeth I


Mary, Queen of Scots - $Treaty_of_Edinburgh - Under the terms of the Treaty of Edinburgh, signed by Mary's representatives on 6 July 1560, France and England undertook to withdraw troops from Scotland and France recognised Elizabeth's right to rule England


Mary, Queen of Scots - In late 1561 and early 1562, arrangements were made for the two queens to meet in England at York or Nottingham in August or September 1562, but Elizabeth sent Sir Henry Sidney to cancel in July because of the civil war in France


Competing with Spain, the first English colony in the Americas was founded in 1585 by explorer Walter Raleigh in Virginia and named Roanoke add something


Guy Fawkes - Although England was not by engaged in land operations against Spain, the two countries were still at war, and the Spanish Armada of 1588 was only five years in the past


An armada sailed from Spain in 1588 as part of a wider plan to invade England and re-establish a Catholic monarchy add something


This failure did not end the threat: Spain launched two further armadas, in 1596 and 1597, but both were driven back by storms add something


The political structure of the island changed in 1603, when the King of Scots, James VI, a kingdom which had been a long-time rival to English interests, inherited the throne of England as James I, thereby creating a personal union add something


Guy Fawkes - Wintour told Fawkes of their plan to "doe some whatt in Ingland if the pece with Spaine healped us nott", and thus in April 1604 the two men returned to England


Guy Fawkes - It is uncertain when Fawkes returned to England, but he was back in London by late August 1605, when he and Wintour discovered that the gunpowder stored in the undercroft had decayed


Guy Fawkes - Fawkes became synonymous with the Gunpowder Plot, the failure of which has been commemorated in England since 5 November 1605


Since 1606 the St George's Cross has formed part of the design of the Union Flag, a Pan-British flag designed by King James I add something


Under the auspices of King James VI and I the Authorised King James Version of the Holy Bible was published in 1611 add something


Leader of the Parliament forces, Oliver Cromwell declared himself Lord Protector in 1653; a period of personal rule followed add something


After Cromwell's death and the resignation of his son Richard as Lord Protector, Charles II was invited to return as monarch in 1660, in a move called the Restoration add something


With the founding of the Royal Society in 1660, science was greatly encouraged add something


In 1666 the Great Fire of London gutted the City of London but it was rebuilt shortly afterwards with many significant buildings designed by Sir Christopher Wren add something


Some experts claim that the earliest concept of a metric system was invented by John Wilkins, the first secretary of the Royal Society, in 1668 add something


After the Glorious Revolution of 1688, it was constitutionally established that King and Parliament should rule together, though Parliament would have the real power add something


Though the Tories initially supported Catholic king James II, some of them, along with the Whigs, during the Revolution of 1688 invited Dutch prince William of Orange to defeat James and ultimately to become William III of England add something


This was established with the Bill of Rights in 1689 add something


The Bank of England, founded in 1694 by Scottish banker William Paterson, is the United Kingdom's central bank add something


After the parliaments of England and Scotland agreed, the two countries joined in political union, to create the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707 add something


There has not been a government of England since 1707, when the Acts of Union 1707, putting into effect the terms of the Treaty of Union, joined England and Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain add something


The opening of Northwest England's Bridgewater Canal in 1761 ushered in the canal age in Britain add something


Francis Hopkinson - Hopkinson spent from May 1766 to August 1767 in England in hopes of becoming commissioner of customs for North America


Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington - Upon returning to England in late 1786, he astonished his mother with his improvement


William I of the Netherlands - In January 1795 he fled with his son to England


Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington - Returning to England in March 1795, he was returned as a Member of Parliament for Trim for a second time


By 1801, the population was 8,3 million, and by 1901 30,5 million add something


In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland add something


Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington - When his brother's term as Governor-General of India ended in March 1805, the brothers returned together to England on HMS "Howe"


Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington - By 30 September he had returned to England and was raised to the rank of lieutenant general on 25 April 1808


Rail transport in England is the oldest in the world: passenger railways originated in England in 1825 add something


The Father of Railways, George Stephenson, built the first public inter-city railway line in the world, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, which opened in 1830 add something


William Ewart Gladstone - On his return to England, William was elected to Parliament in 1832 as Conservative Member of Parliament for Newark, partly through the influence of the local patron, the Duke of Newcastle


Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington - The Whig Government fell in 1832 and Wellington was unable to form a Tory Government partly because of a run on the Bank of England


Louis Agassiz - Before his first visit to England in 1834, the labours of Hugh Miller and other geologists brought to light the remarkable fish of the Old Red Sandstone of the northeast of Scotland


William Ewart Gladstone - Gladstone published his first book, "The State in its Relations with the Church", in 1838, in which he argued that the goal of the state should be to promote and defend the interests of the Church of England


Thomas Henry Huxley - The "Rattlesnake" left England on 3 December 1846 and, once they had arrived in the southern hemisphere, Huxley devoted his time to the study of marine invertebrates


Thomas Henry Huxley - The value of Huxley's work was recognized and, on returning to England in 1850, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society


At club level, England is recognised by FIFA as the birthplace of club football, due to Sheffield F.C. founded in 1857 being the world's oldest club add something


The Football Association is the oldest governing body in the sport, with the rules of football first drafted in 1863 by Ebenezer Cobb Morley add something


The England national football team, whose home venue is Wembley Stadium, played Scotland in the first ever international football match in 1872 add something


Dwight L. Moody - It was while on a trip to England in Spring of 1872 that he became well known as an evangelist


One of the game's top rivalries is The Ashes series between England and Australia, contested since 1882 add something


Robert Frost - After his death on May 5, 1885, the family moved across the country to Lawrence, Massachusetts, under the patronage of William Frost, Sr., who was an overseer at a New England mill


James G. Blaine - Blaine and his wife and daughters sailed for Europe in June 1887, visiting England, Ireland, Germany, France, Austria-Hungary, and finally Scotland, where they stayed at the summer home of Andrew Carnegie


Rugby league was born in Huddersfield in 1895 add something


The most senior art gallery is the National Gallery in Trafalgar Square, which houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900 add something


London has hosted the Summer Olympic Games three times, in 1908, 1948, and 2012 add something


Robert Frost - Frost met or befriended many contemporary poets in England, especially after his first two poetry volumes were published in London in 1913 and 1914


In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland add something


John Maynard Keynes - The Treasury and Bank of England were still in favour of the gold standard and in 1925 they were able to convince the Chancellor Winston Churchill to re-establish it, which had a depressing effect on British industry


Since the 1930s various modernist forms have appeared whose reception is often controversial, though traditionalist resistance movements continue with support in influential places add something


Meher Baba - On his first trip to England in 1931 he traveled on the "Rajputana", the same ship that was carrying Mahatma Gandhi, who was sailing to the second Round Table Conference in London


T. S. Eliot - When Harvard offered him the Charles Eliot Norton professorship for the 1932-1933 academic year, he accepted and left Vivienne in England


Famous for recording many motion picture film scores, the London Symphony Orchestra first performed film music in 1935 add something


Donald Campbell - Following low-speed tests conducted at the Goodwood circuit in Sussex, England, the "CN7" was taken to the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah, USA, scene of his father's last LSR triumph in 1935


Fred Perry was the last Englishman to win Wimbledon in 1936 add something


Meher Baba - He returned to England in 1936 but did not return to the United States again until the early 1950s


W. H. Auden - Auden spent the autumn of 1938 partly in England, partly in Brussels


Robert Watson-Watt - Work there resulted in the design and installation of aircraft detection and tracking stations called Chain Home along the East and South coasts of England in time for the outbreak of World War II in 1939


John Maynard Keynes - In September 1941 he was proposed to fill a vacancy in the Court of Directors of the Bank of England, and subsequently carried out a full term from the following April


R. B. Bennett - He visited the Regiment in England during the war, and always ensured the 1st Battalion had a turkey dinner at Christmas every year they were overseas, including the Christmas of 1944 when the battalion was holding front line positions in the Nijmegen Salient


Originally established as private banker to the government of England, since 1946 it has been a state-owned institution add something


T. S. Eliot - In 1946, Eliot was a member of a group otherwise composed of senior clergy which produced a report entitled "Catholicity" published in 1947 as a contribution to the process which resulted in the Church of England's Report on Doctrine


John Maynard Keynes - Just before his death in 1946, Keynes told Henry Clay, a professor of Social Economics and Advisor to the Bank of England


John Maynard Keynes - A few weeks after returning from the United States, Keynes died of a heart attack at Tilton, his farmhouse home near Firle, East Sussex, England, on 21 April 1946 at the age of 62


Residential patterns were altered in England by private motoring, and by the creation of the National Health Service in 1948 add something


The NHS began on 5 July 1948, putting into effect the provisions of the National Health Service Act 1946 add something


Especially since the 1950s, religions from the former British colonies have grown in numbers, due to immigration add something


Bela Lugosi - While in England to play a six-month tour of "Dracula" in 1951, he co-starred in a lowbrow movie comedy, "Mother Riley Meets the Vampire"


At the most localised level, much of England is divided into civil parishes with councils; in Greater London only one, Queen's Park, exists after they were abolished in 1965 until legislation allowed their recreation in 2007 add something


Geoff Hurst - The following season he was in the West Ham side which lost the League Cup final on aggregate to West Bromwich Albion, and in February 1966 he was given his debut for England by manager Alf Ramsey


English women who have won Wimbledon include: Ann Haydon Jones in 1969 and Virginia Wade in 1977 add something


England is highly industrialised, but since the 1970s there has been a decline in traditional heavy and manufacturing industries, and an increasing emphasis on a more service industry oriented economy add something


Since the 1970s there has been a large move away from manufacturing and an increasing emphasis on the service industry add something


Geoff Hurst - His England career ended the same year with yet another game against West Germany, in the qualification stages for the 1972 European Championships, which England lost


England has hosted four Cricket World Cups and will host the 2019 edition, but never won the tournament, reaching the final 3 times add something


Spike Milligan - From 1980-82, he advertised for the English Tourist Board, playing a Scotsman on a visit around the different regions of England


Gary Lineker - He first played for the England national team against Scotland in 1984


Gary Lineker - Lineker made his England debut in 1984 and over the following eight years earned 80 caps and scored 48 goals, finishing as England's all-time second highest scorer behind Bobby Charlton


Gary Lineker - His links with cricket were renewed when he was invited to become Honorary President of Kent-based wandering cricket club, Paraguayan Elbows CC. The club, which was founded in 1986, was named in his honour after an incident in that summer's World Cup match between England and Paraguay


Gary Lineker - In 1988, Lineker played in the Euro 1988, but failed to score as England lost all three Group games


Gary Lineker - He returned to England in 1989, joining Tottenham Hotspur, and over three seasons he scored 67 goals in 105 games and won the FA Cup


Since the late 1990s, many English people have migrated to Spain add something


Gary Lineker - In the 1990 World Cup, he scored four goals to help England reach the semi-finals after a string of draws and narrow victories


About half of the population increase between 1991 and 2001 was due to immigration add something


In 1994, President of the IOC, Juan Antonio Samaranch, laid a wreath on Brooke's grave, and said, "I came to pay homage and tribute to Dr Brookes, who really was the founder of the modern Olympic Games" add something


There is rail transport access to France and Belgium through an undersea rail link, the Channel Tunnel, which was completed in 1994 add something


These were created in 1994 as Government Offices, used by the UK government to deliver a wide range of policies and programmes regionally, but there are no elected bodies at this level, except in London, and in 2011 the regional government offices were abolished add something


Pat Cadigan - She emigrated to England with her son Rob Fenner in 1996, where she is married to her third husband, Christopher Fowler


David Beckham - Beckham made his first appearance for the England national football team on 1 September 1996, in a !World_Cup (FIFA_World_Cup) qualifying match against Moldova


David Beckham - In international football, Beckham made his England debut on 1 September 1996, at the age of 21


London accepted in 1998: the London Assembly was created two years later add something


David Beckham - Beckham had played in all of England's qualifying matches for the 1998 !World_Cup (FIFA_World_Cup) and was part of the England squad at the !World_Cup (FIFA_World_Cup) finals in France, but the team's manager Glenn Hoddle publicly accused him of not concentrating on the tournament, and he did not start in either of England's first two matches


William Ewart Gladstone - The main purpose of this administration was to deliver Ireland a reform which would give them a devolved assembly, similar to that which has been enjoyed by Scotland and Wales - but not England - since 1998


David Beckham - He proposed to her on 24 January 1998 in a restaurant in Cheshunt, England


Wiley-Blackwell, 2000 The European Cup has been won by several English clubs add something


The UK film council ranked David Yates, Christopher Nolan, Mike Newell, Ridley Scott and Paul Greengrass the five most commercially successful English directors since 2001 add something


Donald Campbell - Campbell's speed on his final Lake Eyre run remained the highest speed achieved by a wheel-driven car until 2001; "Bluebird CN7" is now on display at the National Motor Museum in Hampshire, England, her potential only partly realised


David Beckham - He was still a first-choice player for England, however, and was awarded an OBE for services to football on 13 June 2003


However, when the proposal was rejected by the northern England devolution referendums, 2004 in the North East, further referendums were cancelled add something


David Beckham - Beckham played in all of England's matches at Euro 2004, but the tournament was a disappointment for him


Gary Lineker - In 2004 he was chosen to front the Codemasters "England International Football" game, with him voicing the team selection and the pre- and post-match menus


David Beckham - Beckham made more headlines on 9 October 2004 when he admitted intentionally fouling Ben Thatcher in an England match against Wales in order to get himself booked


The climax of the 2005 Ashes was viewed by 7,4 million as it was available on terrestrial television add something


David Beckham - In October 2005, Beckham's sending off against Austria made him the first England captain to be sent off and the first player to be sent off twice while playing for England


David Beckham - The match was the first time since the 2006 !World_Cup (FIFA_World_Cup) that Beckham had skippered England and marked a dramatic turnaround for Beckham


David Beckham - Having stepped down as captain after the !World_Cup (FIFA_World_Cup), Beckham was dropped completely from the England national team selected by new coach Steve McClaren on 11 August 2006


Due to immigration, it was reported in 2007 that around 800,000 school students spoke a foreign language at home, the most common being Punjabi and Urdu add something


David Beckham - On 26 May 2007, McClaren announced that Beckham would be recalled to the England squad for the first time since stepping down as their captain


David Beckham - On 22 August 2007, Beckham played in a friendly for England against Germany, becoming the first to play for England while with a non-European club team


Contemporary painters include Lucian Freud, whose work "Benefits Supervisor Sleeping" in 2008 set a world record for sale value of a painting by a living artist add something


Since 2008, the England national rugby league team has been a full test nation in lieu of the Great Britain national rugby league team, which won three World Cups but is now retired add something


David Beckham - In 2008, Beckham's success in the England national team under Fabio Capello led to speculation that he might return to Europe in order to retain match fitness for the !World_Cup (FIFA_World_Cup) qualifying matches in 2009


David Beckham - On 20 March 2008, Beckham was recalled to the England squad by Capello for the friendly against France in Paris on 26 March


David Beckham - On 11 May 2008, Capello included an in-form Beckham in his 31 man England squad to face the United States at Wembley Stadium on 28 May before the away fixture with Trinidad and Tobago on 1 June


David Beckham - In a surprise move, Capello handed Beckham the captaincy for England's friendly against Trinidad and Tobago on 1 June 2008


During the Early Middle Ages the style favoured sculpted crosses and ivories, manuscript painting, gold and enamel jewellery, demonstrating a love of intricate, interwoven designs such as in the Staffordshire Hoard discovered in 2009 add something


However they have hosted the ICC World Twenty20 in 2009, winning this format in 2010 beating rivals Australia in the final add something


It was created in 2009 after constitutional changes, taking over the judicial functions of the House of Lords add something


The London Business School is considered one of the world's leading business schools and in 2010 its MBA programme was ranked best in the world by the "Financial Times" add something


The regional assemblies outside London were abolished in 2010, and their functions transferred to respective Regional Development Agencies and a new system of Local authority leaders' boards add something


David Beckham - Having missed the 2010 !World_Cup (FIFA_World_Cup) through injury, Beckham has not played for England since 14 October 2009


David Beckham - Having missed the 2010 !World_Cup (FIFA_World_Cup) through injury, Beckham has not played for England since 14 October 2009


David Beckham - The rumours were confirmed on 4 February, when Beckham stated that he was seeking a permanent transfer to Milan, in a bid to sustain his England career through the 2010 !World_Cup (FIFA_World_Cup)


David Beckham - In all, Beckham had made 16 appearances out of a possible 20 for England under Capello until his ruptured Achilles tendon of March 2010 ruled him out of selection for the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa


David Beckham - On 14 May 2010 it was announced that Beckham would work as a mediator between management and the players, and as an English member of the coaching staff for the England national football team at the tournament


David Beckham - He unveiled a new team at the next England match, a home friendly game against Hungary on 11 August 2010, with Beckham still unavailable for selection but aiming for a return to playing in the MLS by the following month


Acclaimed for his motion capture work, Andy Serkis opened The Imaginarium Studios in London in 2011 add something


However, following the 2011 census data released by the Office for National Statistics, figures now show that Polish is the main language spoken in England after English add something


David Beckham - After a poor performance from England at the !World_Cup (FIFA_World_Cup) Capello remained as manager, but was under pressure to revamp the England squad for the imminent UEFA Euro 2012 qualification campaign


England contains one indigenous national minority, the Cornish people, recognised by the UK government under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in 2014 add something


The ONS has projected that the population will grow by nine million between 2014 and 2039 add something


The 2014 European Parliament election saw the regions of England elect the following MEPs: 22 UK Independence Party , 17 Conservatives, 17 Labour, 3 Greens, and one Liberal Democrat add something


In the United Kingdom general election, 2017, the Conservative Party won 317 seats , more than any other party, though not enough to achieve an overall majority add something


England's universities include some of the highest-ranked universities in the world; University of Cambridge, University of Oxford, Imperial College London, University College London and King's College London are all ranked in the global top 30 in the 2018 "QS World University Rankings" add something