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Ernst Nolte

Knowledge Identifier: +Ernst_Nolte


Ernst Nolte

German historian and philosopher add

Category: Sciences

Born in 1923.

Countries: Germany (42%), Europe (16%), (16%)

Main connections: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Communism, Soviet Union

Linked to: University of Marburg, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Soviet Union, University of Cologne




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Ernst Nolte was born in 1923 add something


Nolte claimed if Germany had to continue to abide by Part V of the Treaty of Versailles, which had disarmed Germany, Germany would have been destroyed by aggression from her neighbors sometime later in the 1930s, and with Germany's destruction, there would have been no hope for a "United States of Europe" add something


Some historians such as Hans-Ulrich Wehler were most forceful in arguing that the sufferings of the kulaks deported during the Soviet dekulakization campaign of the early 1930s were in no way analogous to the suffering of the Jews deported in the early 1940s add something


In 1941, Nolte was excused from military service because of a deformed hand, and he studied Philosophy, Philology and Greek at the Universities of Münster, Berlin , and Freiburg add something


The German political scientist Richard Löwenthal noted that news of the Soviet kulak expuslions and the "Holodomor" did not reach Germany until 1941, so that Soviet atrocities could not possibly have influenced the Germans as Nolte claimed add something


Adolf Hitler - Viktor Suvorov, Ernst Topitsch, Joachim Hoffmann, Ernst Nolte, and David Irving have argued that the official reason for Barbarossa given by the German military was the real reason—a preventive war to avert an impending Soviet attack scheduled for July 1941.


From 1944 onwards, Nolte was a close friend of the Heidegger family, and when in 1945 the professor feared arrest by the French, Nolte provided him with food and clothing for an attempted escape add something


After 1945 when Nolte received his BA in philosophy at Freiburg, he worked as a "Gymnasium" teacher add something


Nolte is by his own admission an intense German nationalist and his stated goal is to restore the Germans' sense of pride in their history that he feels has been missing since 1945 add something


In 1952, he received a PhD in philosophy at Freiburg for his thesis "Selbstentfremdung und Dialektik im deutschen Idealismus und bei Marx" add something


Nolte has been a prominent conservative academic since the early 1960s, and involved in many controversies related to the interpretation of the history of fascism and communism add something


The German historian Jen-Werner Müller wrote that Nolte "almost single-handedly" brought down the totalitarianism paradigm in the 1960s and replaced it with the fascism paradigm add something


Karl Dietrich Bracher - In the 1960s, Bracher was a leading critic of the theory of generic fascism presented by Ernst Nolte


Nolte cited the flight of Yuri Gagarin in 1961 as an example of practical transcendence, of how humanity was pressing forward in its technological development and rapidly acquiring powers traditionally thought to be only the providence of the gods add something


He is best known for his seminal work "Fascism In Its Epoch", which received widespread acclaim when it was published in 1963 add something


He published his "Habilitationsschrift" awarded at the University of Cologne, "Der Faschismus in seiner Epoche", as a book in 1963 add something


Nolte first rose to fame with his 1963 book "Der Faschismus in seiner Epoche" , in which he argued that fascism arose as a form of resistance to and a reaction against modernity add something


Between 1965 and 1973, Nolte worked as a professor at the University of Marburg, and from 1973 to 1991 at the Free University of Berlin add something


He was previously a Professor at the University of Marburg from 1965 to 1973 add something


Later in the 1970s, Nolte was to reject aspects of the theory of generic fascism that he had championed in "The Three Faces of Fascism" and instead moved closer to embracing totalitarian theory as a way of explaining both Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union add something


Originally trained in philosophy, he is Professor Emeritus of Modern History at the Free University of Berlin, where he taught from 1973 until his 1991 retirement add something


His "feuilleton" was a distillation of ideas he had first introduced in lectures delivered in 1976 and in 1980 add something


Timothy Mason - Mason was a leading advocate of comparative studies in fascism and in the 1980s strongly criticized the German philosopher Ernst Nolte for comparing the Holocaust to events that Mason regarded as totally unrelated to Nazi Germany such as the Armenian genocide and the Khmer Rouge genocides


Fleischer argued that Nolte was only seeking the "historicization" of National Socialism that Martin Broszat had called for in a 1985 essay by trying to understand what caused National Socialism, with a special focus on the fear of Communism add something


In particular, controversy centered on an argument of Nolte's 1985 essay Between Myth and Revisionism from the book "Aspects of the Third Reich", first published in German as "Die negative Lebendigkeit des Dritten Reiches" as an opinion piece in the "Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung" on 24 July 1980, but which did not attract widespread attention until 1986 when Jürgen Habermas criticized the essay in a "feuilleton" piece add something


Earlier in 1986, Nolte had planned to deliver a speech before the Frankfurt Römerberg Conversations , but he had claimed that the organizers of the event withdrew their invitation add something


Nolte is best known for his role in launching the "Historikerstreit" of 1986 and 1987 add something


The German historian Horst Möller, in an essay first published in late 1986 in the "Beiträge zur Konfliktforschung" magazine, argued that Nolte was not attempting to "excuse" Nazi crimes by comparing them with the crimes of others, but was instead trying to explain Nazi war-crimes add something


In an essay entitled "The Age of Tyrants", first published in the "Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung" on July 31, 1986, he went on to praise Nolte for daring to open up new questions for research add something


Nolte for his part, started to write a series of letters to newspapers such as "Die Zeit" and "Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung" attacking his critics; for example, in a letter to "Die Zeit" on 1 August 1986, Nolte complained that his critic Jürgen Habermas was attempting to censor him for expressing his views, and accused Habermas of being the person responsible for blocking him from attending the Römerberg Conversations add something


In an essay entitled "Encumbered Remembrance", first published in the "Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung" on August 29, 1986, Fest claimed that Nolte's argument that Nazi crimes were not singular was correct add something


In a letter to the editor of "Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung" published on September 6, 1986 Karl Dietrich Bracher accused both Habermas and Nolte of both " add something


The historian Eberhard Jäckel, in an essay first published in the "Die Zeit" newspaper on September 12, 1986, argued that Nolte's theory was ahistorical on the grounds that Hitler held the Soviet Union in contempt and could not have felt threatened as Nolte claimed add something


The philosopher Helmut Fleischer, in an essay first published in the "Nürnberger Zeitung" newspaper on September 20, 1986, defended Nolte against Habermas on the grounds that Nolte was only seeking to place the Holocaust into a wider political context of the time add something


Hagen Schulze, in an essay first published in "Die Zeit" on September 26, 1986, defended Nolte, together with Andreas Hillgruber, and argued that Habermas was acting from "incorrect presuppositions" in attacking Nolte and Hillgruber for denying the "singularity" of the Holocaust add something


In a letter to the editor of the "Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung" on November 29, 1986, Löwenthal argued the case for a "fundamental difference" in mass murder between Germany and the Soviet Union, and against the "equalizing" of various crimes in the 20th century add something


Hans-Ulrich Wehler - The debate began after an article by the philosopher Ernst Nolte was published in the German newspaper "Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung" on June 6 of 1986


Another area of controversy was Nolte's 1987 book "Der europäische Bürgerkrieg" and some accompanying statements, by which Nolte appeared to flirt with Holocaust denial as a serious historical argument add something


In a 1987 essay, the Austrian-born Israeli historian Walter Grab accused Nolte of engaging in an apologia for Nazi Germany add something


In a September 1987 interview, Nolte stated that the Germans were "once the master race , now they are the "guilty race" add something


Perhaps the most extreme response to Nolte's thesis occurred on 9 February 1988, when his car was burned by leftist extremists in Berlin add something


Davies concluded that revealations made after the fall of Communism in Eastern Europe after 1989-91 about Soviet crimes had discredited Nolte's critics add something


In his 1991 book "Geschichtsdenken im 20 add something


In October 1999, Evans stated in response that he agreed with Nolte on these points, but argued that this form of argument was an attempt by Nolte to avoid responding to his criticism of him during the "Historikerstreit" add something


Courtois wrote the preface to the French edition of "The European Civil War", published in 2000 add something


On 4 June 2000, Nolte was awarded the Konrad Adenauer Prize add something


Furet, François & Nolte, Ernst "Fascism and Communism", University of Nebraska Press, 2001 page 38 Furet contended that, although the histories of fascism and Communism were essential to European history, there were singular events associated with each movement which differentiated them, contrary to Nolte's conception of them as ultimately comparable add something


This was translated into English as "Fascism and Communism" in 2001 add something


In response, Nolte was defended against Applelbaum's charge of attempting to justify the Holocaust by Paul Gottfried in 2005, who contended that Nolte had merely argued that the Nazis had made a link in their own minds between Jews and Communists, and that the Holocaust was their attempt to eliminate the most likely supporters of Communism add something


Developments in Europe after the fall of the Soviet Union, both political and scholarly, have supported Nolte's position; notably the 2008 Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism which calls for the equal condemnation of Communism and Nazism add something


Since 2009, the European Union has a common remembrance day for Stalinism and Nazism add something


Nolte's latest book, "Die dritte radikale Widerstandsbewegung: der Islamismus", a study of Islamism was published in March 2009 add something