European Commission

Knowledge Identifier: &European_Commission

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European Commission

Executive body of the European Union add

Category: Politics

Founded in 1958.

Countries: (20%), Europe (15%), United Kingdom (12%)

Main connections: European Union, European Parliament, Walter Hallstein

Linked to: European Parliament, European Council, Council of the European Union, European Court of Justice

 

Timeline


 

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1958

Michel Rasquin - He was appointed Luxembourg's representative on the inaugural European Commission, the Hallstein Commission, which took office in January 1958

 

Hans von der Groeben - When the Treaty of Rome came into effect on 1 January 1958, Chancellor Konrad Adenauer appointed Von der Groeben as the second German member of the first European Commission, along with Walter Hallstein who became the commission president

 

Walter Hallstein led the first Commission of the EEC, holding the first formal meeting on 16 January 1958 at the Castle of the Valley of the Duchess add something

 

Lambert Schaus - On 18 June 1958 Schaus was appointed Luxembourg's representative on the inaugural European Commission, the Hallstein Commission, to replace the recently deceased Michel Rasquin


1960

Lionello Levi Sandri - He was appointed to the first European Commission in December 1960 as the successor to Giuseppe Petrilli in the Hallstein Commission and was responsible for the Social Affairs portfolio, in addition to overseas states and territories


1965

However, in 1965 accumulating differences between the French government of Charles de Gaulle and the other member states triggered the "empty chair" crisis ostensibly over proposals for the Common Agricultural Policy add something


1967

Merger Treaty - The three bodies, collectively named the "'European Executives"', co-existed until 1 July 1967 when, under the Merger Treaty, they were combined into a single administration under President Jean Rey add something


1968

The Rey Commission completed the Community's customs union in 1968 and campaigned for a more powerful, elected, European Parliament add something


1970

Altiero Spinelli - In 1970, he was nominated by the Italian government to be a member of the European Commission from 1970 to 1976, taking responsibility for industrial policy in order to develop European policies in a new field


1973

The Malfatti and Mansholt Commissions followed with work on monetary co-operation and the first enlargement to the north in 1973 add something

 

George Thomson, Baron Thomson of Monifieth - A strong European, he was one of the first British Commissioners of the European Community from 1973 to 1977, with responsibility for regional policy


1974

Niels Helveg Petersen - Niels Helveg Petersen entered Parliament at a young age and became a civil servant in the European Commission in 1974


1976

Alex Eadie - Eadie promoted research into wave, tidal and geothermal energy, and in 1976 secured the Joint European Torus nuclear fusion project for Oxfordshire, when the European Commission recommendation was for Italy

 

Raymond Vouel - On 21 July 1976, Vouel left the government to join the European Commission as Commissioner for Competition


1977

Social Democratic Party (UK) - At the time of the SDP's creation, Owen and Rodgers were sitting Labour Members of Parliament ; Jenkins had left Parliament in 1977 to serve as President of the European Commission, while Williams had lost her seat in the 1979 general election

 

Dermot Gleeson (BBC) - Gleeson graduated from Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge, worked in the Conservative Party Research Office and served in Sir Christopher Tugendhat's cabinet in the European Commission from 1977 to 1979

 

David Williamson, Baron Williamson of Horton - He was Deputy Director-General for Agriculture in the European Commission from 1977 to 1983 and Secretary-General of the European Commission from 1987 to 1997

 

The external representation of the Community took a step forward when President Roy Jenkins, recruited to the presidency in January 1977 from his role as Home Secretary of the United Kingdom's Labour government, became the first President to attend a G8 summit on behalf of the Community add something


1978

Peter Westmacott - In 1978, he was sent to the European Commission in Brussels , and from 1980 to 1984 he was in Paris


1979

Arthur Cockfield, Baron Cockfield - He served as Minister of State at the Treasury from 1979 to 1982, as Secretary of State for Trade from 1982 until 1983, as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster from 1983 until 1984, and as a member of the European Commission from 1984 to 1988


1981

Noel Devisch - From 1981 until 1984 he was a European Commission official in Brussels

 

Arthur D. Little - In 1981, ADL produced the European Commission's first white paper on telecommunications deregulation, having completed the first worldwide telecommunications database on phones installed, markets, technical trends, services and regulatory information

 

Savvas Tsitouridis - Tsitouridis worked for the European Commission in Brussels from 1981 to 1990 and 1995 to 1996 on matters pertaining to agriculture, competition, state subsidies and the internal market


1983

Richmond (Yorks) (UK Parliament constituency) - From 1983, the seat was represented by the cabinet minister Leon Brittan, after boundary changes saw his Cleveland and Whitby seat abolished; however he resigned from the Commons in December 1988 in order to take up the position of Vice-President of the European Commission

 

Jonathan Michie - In 1983 he moved to the Economics Department of the Trades Union Congress and in 1988 to Brussels as an Expert to the European Commission, before becoming an academic at the University of Cambridge in 1990


1984

Arthur Cockfield, Baron Cockfield - Lord Cockfield resigned from the cabinet in September 1984 in order to join the European Commission as commissioner for Internal Market Tax Law and Customs under Jacques Delors, and a Vice-President of the first Delors Commission


1985

In his first term, from 1985 to 1988, he rallied Europe to the call of the single market, and when appointed to a second term he began urging Europeans toward the far more ambitious goals of economic, monetary and political union add something

 

Noel Devisch - From 1985 until 1988, he was a member of the Cabinet Frans Andriessen, Vice-President of the European Commission


1987

Belgacom - In 1987, the European Commission published its Green Paper on telecommunications, which focused on liberalization


1988

Gerd Langguth - From 1988 to 1993, he was head of the European Commission's representation in Germany, in Bonn

 

Luc Coene - He was a Visiting Scholar at the IMF from June 1988 until November 1988 and an Economic adviser at the ECFIN Directorate of the European Commission from January 1989 until January 1992


1989

Leon Brittan - He was made European Commissioner for Competition at the European Commission early in 1989, resigning as an MP to take the position

 

Jonathan Glover - In 1989 the European Commission hired Glover to head a panel on embryo research in Europe

 

Martin Bangemann - In 1989, Bangemann joined the European Commission


1990

Peter Altmaier - He worked for the European Commission from 1990 to 1994

 

Microsoft - In the 1990s, critics began to contend that Microsoft used monopolistic business practices and anti-competitive strategies including refusal to deal and tying, put unreasonable restrictions in the use of its software, and used misrepresentative marketing tactics; both the U.S. Department of Justice and European Commission found the company in violation of antitrust laws

 

Astrid Grafin von Hardenberg - She worked till 1990 for the European Commission in Brussels


1991

Lousewies van der Laan - Between 1991 and 1994 she worked for TACIS of the European Commission, where she was responsible for environmental projects


1993

Antonio Ruberti - He was appointed to the European Commission by the Italian government 1993, when he joined the Delors Commission with the portfolio covering science, research, technological development and education

 

Robert Cailliau - In 1993, in collaboration with the Fraunhofer Gesellschaft Cailliau started the European Commission's first web-based project for information dissemination in Europe


1994

Axel Voss - From 1994 he worked as a lawyer and was Citizens' adviser of the European Commission at the regional Commission Representation in Bonn

 

Robert Cailliau - In 1994 Cailliau started the "Web for Schools" project with the European Commission, introducing the web as a resource for education

 

Erkki Liikanen - In 1994 Liikanen became the first Finnish Member of the European Commission

 

Ulrich von Hassell - Ulrich von Hassell is the grandfather of Agostino von Hassell, a noted author on military and war history; and of Corrado Pirzio-Biroli former civil servant of the European Commission and ambassador of the EU to Austria during the Austrian European Union membership referendum, 1994

 

Nick Clegg - In April 1994, he took up a post at the European Commission, working in the TACIS aid programme to the former Soviet Union

 

China Europe International Business School - Established under an agreement between the Chinese government and the European Commission in Shanghai in November 1994, CEIBS was the first business school in mainland China to offer a full-time MBA, an Executive MBA and a wide range of Executive Development programs


1995

Anita Gradin - From 1995 to 1999 she was a member of the European Commission responsible for Immigration, home affairs and justice; relations with the Ombudsman; Financial Control and Fraud prevention

 

Leon Brittan - In 1995 he became European Commissioner for Trade and European Commissioner for External Affairs, serving as Vice-President of the European Commission

 

CNIL - In 1995, the European Commission voted through a directive in this manner


1996

Ana de Palacio y del Valle-Lersundi - Her sister, Loyola de Palacio, was a minister in the Spanish government from 1996 to 1998, and a member of the European Commission from 1999 to 2004

 

Loyola de Palacio - She was a minister in the Spanish government from 1996 to 1998, and a member of the European Commission from 1999 to 2004


1999

The entire Santer Commission was forced to resign in 1999 by the Parliament as result of fraud and corruption scandal, with a central role played by Édith Cresson add something

 

Romano Prodi - In September 1999 Prodi, a prominent pro-European, became President of the European Commission, thanks to the support of both the conservative European People's Party and social-democratic Party of European Socialists in the European Parliament

 

Loyola de Palacio - She joined the European Commission on 13 September 1999, as commissioner for energy and transport, in the Prodi Commission


2000

However since the global downturn by 2010 the press corps in Brussels shrunk by a third add something

 

Mailis Reps - From 2000 to 2001 Mailis Rand worked in the European Commission Directorate-General of Personnel and Administration


2001

Nice Treaty - Powers were strengthened again with the Nice Treaty in 2001 giving the President more power over the composition of their Commission add something

 

Honeywell - The merger was cleared by American authorities but was blocked by the European Commission's competition commissioner, Mario Monti, on July 3, 2001

 

Galileo (satellite navigation) - The European Commission had some difficulty funding the project's next stage, after several allegedly "per annum" sales projection graphs for the project were exposed in November 2001 as "cumulative" projections


2002

A Commission officer Guido Strack reported alleged fraud and abuses in his department in years 2002-2004 to OLAF and was fired as result add something

 

Axel Kahn - He was named in 2002 as a counsellor for biosciences and biotechnologies matters by the European Commission


2004

Allegations of fraud and corruption were again raised in 2004 by former chief auditor Jules Muis add something

 

The Barroso Commission was the first full Commission since the enlargement in 2004 to 25 members and hence the number of Commissioners at the end of the Prodi Commission had reached 30 add something

 

The present Commission, the Barroso Commission, took office in late 2004 after being delayed by objections from the Parliament, which forced a reshuffle add something

 

Neelie Kroes - As a European Commissioner for Competition one of her first tasks in 2004 was to oversee the sanctions against Microsoft by the European Commission, known as the European Union Microsoft competition case

 

Friedrich Wetter - Cardinal Wetter criticized in 2004 the Italian government's withdrawal of its nomination of Rocco Buttiglione to the European Commission

 

Daniel Cohn-Bendit - Just as in the former structure, only delegates from national parties were allowed to vote, individual supporters were only entitled to receive information, and all other federations of European parties had to adapt their statuses later in 2004 to the new regulations from the European Commission about European political parties, in order to continue receive public funding

 

Edmund Stoiber - In February 2004 Edmund Stoiber became a candidate of Jacques Chirac and Gerhard Schröder for the presidency of the European Commission but he decided not to run for this office

 

KLM - In February 2004, the European Commission and US Department of Justice approved the proposed merger of Air France and KLM. In April 2004 an exchange offer took place in which KLM shareholders exchanged their KLM shares for Air France shares


2005

Jo Cornu - Since 2005 Jo Cornu is President of ISTAG-group of the European Commission

 

Paul van Buitenen - In May 2005, he asked the European Commission to create an investigation, after learning that Frits Bolkestein was a member of the Russian Bank Menatep's international consultative council and that he had worked for the Shell British-Dutch petrol company, two firms "detaining secret accounts in Clearstream"


2006

In 2006, a toxic waste spill off the coast of Côte d'Ivoire, from a European ship, prompted the Commission to look into legislation against toxic waste add something

 

Booz Allen Hamilton - In 2006 at the request of the Article 29 Working Group, an advisory group to the European Commission , the American Civil Liberties Union and Privacy International investigated the U.S. government's SWIFT surveillance program and Booz Allen's role therein

 

Saparmurat Niyazov - In 2006 the European Commission and the international trade committee of the European Parliament voted to grant Turkmenistan "most favoured nation" trading status with the European Union, widely seen as motivated by interest in natural gas, after Niyazov announced he would enter a "human rights dialogue" with the EU.

 

Vittorio Grigolo - The European Commission of the EU granted Grigolo and Romano Musumarra a European Border Breakers *award, along with the record company, authors and publishers, for recording the highest sales for a debut album in 2006 within the European Union, but outside of its country of production

 

BBC - Initial content was made available in January 2006 however BBC Jam was suspended on 20 March 2007 due to allegations made to the European Commission that it was damaging the interests of the commercial sector of the industry

 

France 24 - The European Commission gave the green light to France 24 in June 2006, saying it did not breach European Union state aid rules

 

Pilkington - The acquisition was completed in June 2006, after the European Commission stated that it would not be opposed


2007

In 2007 the Commission increased from 25 to 27 members with the accession of Romania and Bulgaria who each appointed their own Commissioners add something

 

There is a larger press corps in Brussels than Washington D.C.; in 2007 media outlets in every Union member-state had a Brussels correspondent add something

 

Ryanair - However, the bid is likely to face a stiff challenge from the European Commission, which blocked an earlier 2007 bid

 

Jeremy Rifkin - The Third Industrial Revolution was formally endorsed by the European Parliament in 2007 and is now being implemented by various agencies within the European Commission

 

Following the accession of Romania and Bulgaria in January 2007, this clause took effect for the next Commission add something

 

Interchange fee - In January 2007, the European Commission issued the results of a two-year inquiry into the retail banking sector

 

Intel - In July 2007, the European Commission accused Intel of anti-competitive practices, mostly against AMD

 

YKK Group - On September 19, 2007 YKK was fined 150,3 million euros by the European Commission for running worldwide price-fixing cartels and sharing markets with zip-makers Prym and Coats

 

Interchange fee - On December 19, 2007, the European Commission issued a decision prohibiting MasterCard's multilateral interchange fee for cross-border payment card transactions with MasterCard and Maestro branded debit and consumer credit cards


2008

However, the Council and Parliament may request the Commission to draft legislation, though the Commission does have the power to refuse to do so as it did in 2008 over transnational collective conventions add something

 

However, the treaty was rejected by voters in Ireland in 2008 with one main concern being the loss of their Commissioner add something

 

Eli Lilly and Company - In 2008 Lilly's activities included research projects within the framework of the Innovative Medicines Initiative, a public-private research initiative in Europe that is a joint effort of the EFPIA and the European Commission

 

Freedom of information laws by country - Since 2008, the European Commission operates the Register of Interest representatives, a voluntary register of lobbyists at the European union

 

Loyola de Palacio - Since 2008, the European Commission has created a European Policy Chair named "Loyola de Palacio" in the Robert Schuman Center in advanced Studies in the European University Institute in Italy

 

PRS for Music - The European Commission decided in 2008 that the cross-licensing agreements formed by 24 collecting societies in Europe were in violation of anti-competition laws

 

Interchange fee - On March 26, 2008, the European Commission opened an investigation into Visa's multilateral interchange fees for cross-border transactions within the EEA as well as into the "Honor All Cards" rule

 

Activision Blizzard - In April 2008, the European Commission permitted the merger to take place

 

Navteq - The European Commission in July 2008 ruled the deal did not violate antitrust rules clearing the way for closing the deal


2009

In 2009, the Lisbon Treaty was not in force and Barroso was not "elected" by the Parliament, but rather nominated by the European Council; in any case, the centre-right parties of the EU pressured for a candidate from their own ranks add something

 

Since 2009 the First Vice President has gained further power by being the High Representative add something

 

This guarantee contributed to the Irish approving the treaty in a second referendum in 2009 add something

 

HSBA Hamburg School of Business Administration - HSBA has been granted the Erasmus University Charta by the European Commission in 2009

 

Paul van Buitenen - After the European elections of June 2009 Van Buitenen returned to the European Commission, this time in DG RTD, at a stone's throw from the European Parliament

 

Garuda Indonesia - In July 2009, following a third mission led again by Federico Grandini, the European Commission lifted Garuda Indonesia's ban from flying into Europe

 

Galileo (satellite navigation) - In October 2009, the European Commission cut the number of satellites from 28 to 22, with plans to order the remaining six at a later time

 

Barroso's first Commission term expired on 31 October 2009 add something

 

Standard & Poor's - In November 2009, ten months after launching an investigation, the European Commission formally charged S&P with abusing its position as the sole provider of international securities identification codes for United States of America securities by requiring European financial firms and data vendors to pay licensing fees for their use

 

The Treaty of Lisbon, which came into force on 1 December 2009, mandated a reduction of the number of commissioners to two thirds of member-states from 2014 unless the Council decided otherwise add something


2010

In 2010 the Commission was sued for blocking access to documents on EU biofuel policy add something

 

Lufthansa - In 2010, Lufthansa was named in a European Commission investigation into price-fixing, but was not fined due to acting as a whistleblower

 

Kristalina Georgieva - On 21 January 2010 the European Commission President José Manuel Barroso met with Georgieva and expressed his approval, stating that "Mrs. Georgieva has solid international experience and knowledge with which she is going to contribute significantly in her capacity as a EU Commissioner

 

Virgin Media - On 22 January 2010, the European Commission confirmed that although Virgin Media had not contacted them, it would "closely monitor" the trial

 

Connie Hedegaard - Taking up her new position at the European Commission on 10 February 2010, Connie Hedegaard stressed the importance of climate change in the 21st century

 

Central Bank of Ireland - The European Commission in a November 2010 review of the financial crisis said Some national supervisory authorities failed dramatically


2011

European Union Institute for Security Studies - In 2011, the EUISS, in its role as the European agency for strategic studies, was chosen by the European Commission to prepare and deliver the final reports of the European Strategy and Policy Analysis System

 

Unilever - In April 2011, Unilever was fined 104m euros by the European Commission for establishing a price-fixing cartel in Europe along with P&G, who was fined 211,2m euros, and Henkel

 

Schengen Area - The European Commission is expected to unveil revised rules governing the possible temporary re-establishment of internal border controls in September 2011

 

FC Sion - On 31 October 2011, Sion sent a complaint to the European Commission


2012

New York Stock Exchange - On February 1, 2012, the European Commission blocked the merger of NYSE with Deutsche Börse, after commissioner Joaquin Almunia stated that the merger "would have led to a near-monopoly in European financial derivatives worldwide"

 

Jeremy Rifkin - On May 29, 2012, Rifkin delivered the keynote address at the European Commission Conference: Mission Growth; Europe at the Lead of the New Industrial Revolution

 

According to figures published by the Commission, 23,803 persons were employed by the Commission as officials and temporary agents in September 2012 add something

 

Gazprom - On 4 September 2012, the European Commission said it had launched an anti-trust case against Gazprom


2013

United Parcel Service - However, the deal fell through in January 2013 after it was announced that UPS had failed to obtain permission from the European Commission and as such had been blocked on competition grounds

 

Antonio Tajani - Moreover, in February 2013 the European Commission further reinforced market surveillance through a plan to reinforce the controls of the products in the internal market

 

Antonio Tajani - In March 2013 Tajani, along with Commissioner Olli Rehn said that the European Commission is ready to acknowledge "mitigating factors" on the assessment of compliance with the deficit and debt criteria, in the context of a plan for the disposal of old debts of the public administration to enterprises

 

Antonio Tajani - In March 2013 the President of the European Commission José Manuel Barroso has appointed Tajani to lead the new EU-Brazil working group, which will include the European Commissioner for Trade Karel de Gucht and European Commissioner for Research, Innovation and Science Máire Geoghegan-Quinn

 

Constitutional Court of Hungary - On the 8th of March 2013, in a letter to the European commission, Guido Westerwelle, the German foreign minister, and counterparts in Denmark, the Netherlands and Finland called for the European Union to be given new powers allowing it to freeze EU budget funds to a member state in breach of Europe's "fundamental values

 

BP - BP's London offices, along with those of Royal Dutch Shell and Statoil, were raided in May 2013 by regulators from the European Commission, beginning an investigation into allegations the companies reported distorted prices to the price reporting agency Platts, in order to "manipulate the published prices" for several oil and biofuel products

 

European Union - On 13 June 2013, Iceland's Foreign Minister Gunnar Bragi Sveinsson informed the European Commission that the newly elected government intended to "put negotiations on hold"

 

In the face of high-level criticism, the Commission is due to shut down Presseurop on 20 December 2013 add something


2017

The European Commission has an Action Plan to enhance preparedness against chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear security risks as part of its anti-terrorism package released in October 2017 add something