François Mitterrand

Knowledge Identifier: +Francois_Mitterrand

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Francois Mitterrand

21st President of the French Republic and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra, serving from 1981 until 1995 add

Category: Politics

Born in 1916.

Countries: France (72%), (6%), United Kingdom (3%)

Main connections: Charles de Gaulle, Pierre Beregovoy, Jacques Chirac

Linked to: French Communist Party, Socialist Party, First Secretary of the French Socialist Party, Radical Party of the Left

 

Timeline


 

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François Mitterrand was born in 1916 add something


1925

Mitterrand studied from 1925 to 1934 in the collège Saint-Paul in Angoulême, where he became a member of the Jeunesse Etudiante Chrétienne , the student organisation of "Action catholique" add something


1930

Mitterrand furthermore had some personal and family relations with members of the "Cagoule", a far-right terrorist group in the 1930s add something


1934

Arriving in Paris in autumn 1934, he went to the École Libre des Sciences Politiques until 1937, where he obtained his diploma in July of that year add something

 

Mitterrand took membership for about a year in the "Volontaires nationaux" , an organisation related to François de la Rocque's far-right league, the "Croix de Feu"; the league had just participated in the 6 February 1934 riots which led to the fall of the second "Cartel des Gauches" add something


1935

However, he did write news articles in the "L'Echo de Paris " newspaper, which was close to the PSF. He participated in the demonstrations against the "métèque invasion" in February 1935 and in those against law teacher Gaston Jèze, who had been nominated as juridical counsellor of Ethiopia's Negus, in January 1936 add something


1936

While the Socialists took the leading position on the left, by obtaining more votes than the Communists for the first time since 1936, the leadership of Mitterrand was challenged by an internal opposition led by Michel Rocard who criticized the programme of the PS as being "archaic" and "unrealistic" add something


1937

Mitterrand served his university from 1937 to 1939 in the 23rd régiment d'infanterie coloniale add something


1938

In 1938, he became the best friend of Georges Dayan, a Jewish socialist, whom he saved from anti-Semite aggressions by the national-royalist movement "Action française" add something

 

Catherine Langeais - On 28 January 1938, at the age of fourteen, she was introduced by her brother to the politician and future president of the French Republic François Mitterrand


1939

Finishing his law studies, he was sent in September 1939 to the Maginot line near Montmédy, with the rank of Sergeant-chief add something

 

Michel Roussin - "'Michel Roussin"' was the chief of staff of Alexandre de Marenches, who directed the SDECE French secret service until the May 1981 election of François Mitterrand as President of France


1940

He became engaged to Marie-Louise Terrasse in May 1940 add something

 

He fought as an infantry sergeant and was injured and captured by the Germans on 14 June 1940 add something


1942

In late 1942, the non-occupied zone was invaded by the Germans add something

 

On 15 October 1942, Mitterrand and Marcel Barrois met Marshal Philippe Pétain along with other members of the "Comité d'entraide aux prisonniers rapatriés de l'Allier" add something


1943

During 1943, the RNPG gradually changed from providing false papers to information-gathering for France libre add something

 

From the beginning of 1943, Mitterrand became involved with setting up a powerful resistance group called the Organisation de résistance de l'armée add something

 

In 1943 Giraud was contesting with General Charles de Gaulle for the leadership of the French Resistance add something

 

In November 1943 the "Sicherheitsdienst" raided a flat in Vichy, where they hoped to arrest François Morland, a member of the resistance add something

 

Warned by his friends, he escaped to London aboard a Lysander plane on 15 November 1943 add something

 

From 27 November 1943 Mitterrand ran the Bureau central de renseignements et d'action add something


1944

After a second visit to London in February 1944, Mitterrand took part in the liberation of Paris add something

 

In October 1944 Mitterrand and Jacques Foccart developed a plan to liberate the POW and concentration camps add something


1945

" On the orders of de Gaulle, in April 1945 Mitterrand accompanied General Lewis as the French representative at the liberation of the camps at Kaufering and Dachau add something


1946

Elected in 1946, reelected in 1951, 1956, 1962, 1967, 1968, 1973, 1978 add something

 

At the June 1946 legislative election, he led the list of the Rally of the Republican Lefts in the Western suburb of Paris , but he was not elected add something

 

In the November 1946 legislative election, he succeeded in winning a seat as deputy from the Nièvre "département" add something

 

European Democratic and Social Rally - Between 1946 and 1964 François Mitterrand, at the time member of the Democratic and Socialist Union of the Resistance , was a leading member of the Rally of Republican Lefts , the alliance between the Radicals and U.S..


1947

He ended the "cordon sanitaire" of the PCF which the party had been subject to since 1947 add something

 

In January 1947, he joined the cabinet as War Veterans Minister add something


1948

In May 1948 Mitterrand participated in the Congress of The Hague, together with Konrad Adenauer, Winston Churchill, Harold Macmillan, Paul-Henri Spaak, Albert Coppé and Altiero Spinelli add something


1950

Louis Mermaz - He became an ally of François Mitterrand in the late 1950s and in 1971 became a member of Mitterrand's staff in the French Socialist Party


1953

As leader of the progressive wing of the UDSR, he took the head of the party in 1953, replacing the conservative René Pleven add something

 

In June 1953 Mitterrand attended the coronation of Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland add something

 

Democratic and Socialist Union of the Resistance - But Pleven's leadership was eventually challenged by François Mitterrand who advocated a realignment to the Left, and took the lead in 1953


1955

Reelected in 1955, 1961, 1967, 1973, 1979 add something


1956

All in all, Mitterrand's La Baule speech, which marked a relative turning point in France's policy concerning its former colonies, has been compared with the 1956 "loi-cadre Defferre" which was responding to anti-colonialist feelings add something

 

The UDSR joined the Republican Front, a center-left coalition, which won the 1956 legislative election add something

 

Guy Mollet - During the 1956 legislative campaign, he created a center-left coalition called the Republican Front with the Radical Party of Pierre Mendès-France, the Democratic and Socialist Union of the Resistance led by François Mitterrand and the Social Gaullists headed by Jacques Chaban-Delmas


1958

In 1958, Mitterrand was one of the few to object to the nomination of Charles de Gaulle as head of government, and to de Gaulle's plan for a French Fifth Republic add something

 

This attitude may have been a factor in Mitterrand's losing his seat in the 1958 elections, beginning a long "crossing of the desert" add something

 

In September 1958, determinedly opposed to Charles de Gaulle, Mitterrand made an appeal to vote "no" in the referendum over the Constitution, which was nevertheless adopted on 4 October 1958 add something


1960

Mitterrand thus continued with the African policy of de Gaulle inaugurated in 1960, which followed the relative failure of the 1958 creation of the French Community add something


1961

Mitterrand visited China in 1961, during the worst of the Great Chinese Famine, but denied the existence of starvation add something


1962

In the 1962 election, Mitterrand regained his seat in the National Assembly with the support of the PCF and the SFIO. Practicing left unity in Nièvre, he advocated the rallying of left-wing forces at the national level, including the PCF, in order to challenge Gaullist domination add something

 

Charles Hernu - In 1962, Hernu allied himself with the increasingly prominent Socialist Party figure François Mitterrand


1965

Although at times a politically isolated figure, Mitterrand outmanoeuvred rivals to become the left's standard bearer in every presidential election from 1965 to 1988, except 1969 add something

 

Years later in 1965, when Mitterrand emerged as the challenger to de Gaulle in the second round of the presidential elections, de Gaulle was urged by an aide to use the Observatory Affair to discredit his opponent add something

 

Vincent Auriol - In 1965, he endorsed François Mitterrand for the Presidency

 

French Communist Party - In the 1965 presidential election, on the belief that a PCF candidate would not be able to do well, the PCF supported the left-wing candidacy of François Mitterrand, a former minister of the French Fourth Republic who was opposed to De Gaulle's regime since 1958

 

French Communist Party - In the 1965 presidential election, on the belief that a PCF candidate would not be able to do well, the PCF supported the left-wing candidacy of François Mitterrand, a former minister of the French Fourth Republic who was opposed to De Gaulle's regime since 1958


1967

Reelected in 1967, 1970, 1973, 1976, 1979 add something

 

Alain Savary - However, he left it in 1967 and founded the Union of Clubs for the Renewal of the Left, which joined the Federation of the Democratic and Socialist Left which supported left-wing candidate François Mitterrand at the 1965 presidential election


1968

In this election, the right wing won its largest majority since the "Bloc National" in 1919 add something

 

During the May 1968 governmental crisis, Mitterrand held a press conference to announce his candidacy if a new presidential election was held add something

 

Jacques Attali - In 1968, he met François Mitterrand for the first time, while he was doing an internship at the prefecture of a French department

 

Daniel Singer (journalist) - He wrote critically of Charles De Gaulle, François Mitterrand, and the French Communist Party, but was enthusiastic about the events of May 1968


1971

The Urba consultancy was established in 1971 by the Socialist Party to advise Socialist-led communes on infrastructure projects and public works add something

 

In June 1971, at the time of the Epinay Congress, the CIR joined the "PS", which had replaced the SFIO in 1969 add something

 

Pierre Mauroy - In 1971, during the Epinay Congress, he supported François Mitterrand's advent and became the second most powerful person in the Socialist Party

 

Guy Mollet - It allied with François Mitterrand, who joined the party during the Epinay Congress and took the lead in 1971

 

Georges Freche - It is to be noted that he had antagonized François Mitterrand as early as the foundation of the current French Socialist Party in 1971, being cast aside even at that date

 

Georges Sarre - Sarre was an early supporter of Jean-Pierre Chevènement and François Mitterrand within the new Socialist Party , which he joined at the famous Epinay Congress in 1971


1972

The beginning of his first term was marked by a left-wing economic policy based on the 110 Propositions for France and the 1972 Common Programme between the Socialist Party, the Communist Party and the Left Radical Party add something


1973

Presidents Charles de Gaulle and Valéry Giscard d'Estaing had wreaths placed on Pétain's grave to commemorate the 50th and 60th anniversaries of the end of World War I. Similarly, President Georges Pompidou had a wreath placed in 1973 when Pétain's remains were returned to the Ile d'Yeu after being stolen add something

 

With this programme, he led the 1973 legislative campaign of the "Union of the Left" add something

 

Henri Emmanuelli - On the request of François Mitterrand he was, at the age of 27, a candidate in the legislative elections of March 1973 in the second circonscription of Lot-et-Garonne

 

Jacques Attali - His close collaboration with François Mitterrand began in December 1973, and led his campaign for presidential elections in 1974 and 1981


1974

He had a daughter, Mazarine, born in 1974, with Anne Pingeot add something

 

French Democratic Confederation of Labour - In 1974, many PSU and CFDT members joined the Socialist Party led by François Mitterrand


1977

In 1977, the Communist and Socialist parties failed to update the "Common Programme", lost the 1978 legislative election add something


1979

A United Nations Human Development report concluded that, from 1979 to 1989, France was the only country in the OECD in which income inequalities did not get worse add something

 

Nevertheless, Mitterrand won the vote at the Party's Metz Congress and Rocard renounced his candidacy for the 1981 presidential election add something

 

Lionel Jospin - Integrating François Mitterrand's circle, he became the second highest-ranking member of the party in 1979, its First Secretary when Mitterrand was elected President of France in 1981


1980

François Mitterrand's actions during World War II were the cause of much controversy in France in the 1980s and 1990s add something

 

"The Independent" Despite Mitterrand's left-wing affiliations, the 1980s saw France becoming more distant from the USSR add something

 

Segolene Royal - After graduating in 1980, she elected to serve as a judge of an administrative court before she was noticed by President François Mitterrand's special adviser Jacques Attali and recruited to his staff in 1982

 

Conference Olivaint - During the 1980s, many young people were recruited into François Mitterrand's staff by alumni such as Jacques Attali and Hubert Védrine

 

Ai Qing - He made a second journey to France in 1980, and in 1985 French president François Mitterrand awarded him the title of Commander of the Order of Arts and Letters

 

Daniel Balavoine - He took part in French political life and is known for a 1980 televised verbal confrontation with François Mitterrand

 

Daniel Balavoine - In 1980, he confronted François Mitterrand, who was at this time the National Secretary of the French Socialist Party and a French presidential candidate, during a France 2 Evening News broadcasting program, leaving the entire room speechless

 

French Democratic Confederation of Labour - In the 1980s, after François Mitterrand's election and his choice to follow Socialist economic policies, the CFDT appeared like a pro-governmental organization

 

ADFE-Francais du Monde - It was established in 1980 to support abroad the candidacy of François Mitterrand to the Presidency of the French Republic, and was quite active in obtaining in 1982 the right for French citizens living overseas to elect their own representatives to a consultative assembly, the "Conseil Superieur des Français de l'Etranger" , the denomination of which was modified in 2004 in "Assemblée des Français de l'étranger" , electing twelve senators to the French Senate

 

Daniel Singer (journalist) - The book dissects the phenomenon of François Mitterrand, who came into office as the first socialist president in French history with "the most radical program of any offered in the West by a prospective government in at least thirty years", but by the end of the 1980s had abandoned radicalism and turned the French Socialist Party back into a standard European social democratic party


1981

Childcare facilities were expanded, with the number of places in crèches rising steadily between 1981 and 1986 add something

 

In the presidential election of 1981, Mitterrand became the first socialist President of the Fifth Republic, and his government became the first left-wing government in 23 years add something

 

Parental leave was extended to firms with 100 employees in 1981 and subsequently to all employees in 1984 add something

 

Priority areas were set up in 1981 as part of a systematic effort to combat underachievement in schools, while technical education was encouraged add something

 

The court's judgement revealed that Mitterrand was motivated by keeping elements of his private life secret from the general public, such as the existence of his illegitimate daughter Mazarine Pingeot , his cancer which had been diagnosed in 1981, and the elements of his past in the Vichy Régime which were not already public knowledge add something

 

Elected President in the May 1981 presidential election, he was re-elected in 1988 and held office until 1995 add something

 

Following his death, a controversy erupted when his former physician, Dr Claude Gubler, wrote a book called "Le Grand Secret" explaining that Mitterrand had had false health reports published since November 1981, hiding his cancer add something

 

Dominique Strauss-Kahn - After the election of President François Mitterrand in 1981, he decided to stay out of government

 

Paris Orleans - But the Paris business suffered a near death blow in 1981 when the Socialist government of François Mitterrand nationalized "Banque Rothschild" and renamed it "Compagnie Européenne de Banque"

 

Jean-Edern Hallier - Close for a time to François Mitterrand, who successfully ran for President in 1981 for the Socialist Party , he later opposed him, threatening to reveal the existence of his illegitimate daughter Mazarine Pingeot

 

Martine Aubry - Following the election of François Mitterrand to the French presidency in 1981, she successively held several posts at the Ministry of Social Affairs, in the cabinets of Jean Auroux and Pierre Bérégovoy

 

Tuliameni Kalomoh - From 1981 to 1986, Kalomoh was appointed the first SWAPO Chief Representative to France following the victory of the Socialist Party President François Mitterrand who invited SWAPO and African National Congress,ANC to open offices in France

 

Jean Glavany - From 1981 to 1988, he was head of cabinet of President François Mitterrand

 

Valery Giscard d'Estaing - Giscard was defeated in the 1981 presidential election by Mitterrand

 

Paul Guimard - Guimard was in charge of a mission for the French President François Mitterrand from Mitterrand's election in 1981 until August 1982

 

Andre Henry - He served as Minister of Free Time from 1981 to 1983, under former President François Mitterrand

 

Georges Fillioud - He was a member of the French government in charge of mass media from 1981 to 1986, under former President François Mitterrand

 

Robert Badinter - In 1981, François Mitterrand was elected president, and Badinter became the Minister of Justice

 

Jacques Attali - In 1981, François Mitterrand, after he was elected President, named him as his special adviser

 

Pierre Beregovoy - In 1981, following Mitterrand's election as President of France, he was chosen as Secretary General of the Presidency

 

Philippe de Villiers - In 1981, he resigned his post as sub-prefect because he did not want to serve the government of the Socialist President François Mitterrand

 

Le Monde - In 1981, it backed the election of Socialist François Mitterrand on the grounds that alternation of the political party in government would be beneficial to the country

 

RTL (French radio) - In 1981, under president François Mitterrand, privately run radio stations were allowed to broadcast in France

 

Bertrand Renouvin - In the presidential elections 1981 and 1988, he supported François Mitterrand, candidate of French Socialist Party

 

Olier Mordrel - Nonetheless, in the 1981 presidential race, Mordrel backed Socialist candidate François Mitterrand

 

Jean Lacouture - Politically engaged on the Left, Lacouture supported decolonisation, and Mitterrand from 1981

 

Nicole Questiaux - She served as the Minister of National Solidarity from 1981 to 1983, under former President François Mitterrand

 

Elysee Palace - Socialist President François Mitterrand, who governed from 1981 to 1995, is said to have seldom used its private apartments, preferring the privacy of his own home on the more bohemian Left Bank

 

French Communist Party - The PCF remained isolated thereafter until François Mitterrand's electoral victory in 1981

 

Socialist Party (France) - The PS first won power in 1981, when its candidate François Mitterrand was elected President of France in the 1981 presidential election

 

Jacques Foccart - This expression would survive until François Mitterrand's 1981 election and the first socialist government of the Fifth Republic , in particular with Mitterrand's son, Jean-Christophe, nicknamed "Papamadi"

 

Jacques Delors - Under President François Mitterrand, Delors served as Economics and Finance Minister from 1981 to 1983, and Economics, Finance, and Budget Minister from 1983 to 1984

 

France 24 - With the arrival of François Mitterrand as President in 1981 and the naming of Michel Rocard as Prime Minister, the government launched a new project, "'Canal France International"' "", a package of programmes aimed at making programmes in French for foreign audiences, particularly in Africa, to be developed in parallel as a television channel

 

Pierre Dreyfus - During the early years of the Mitterrand presidency, Dreyfus became active on the political scene, serving briefly as Industry Minister between June 1981 and June 1982 under prime minister Pierre Mauroy

 

Roger Quilliot - He served as Housing Minister from May 22 to June 23, 1981, under former French President François Mitterrand


1982

From 1982 to 1986, Mitterrand established an "anti-terror cell" installed as a service of the President of the Republic add something

 

Tour de France - Broadcasting in France was largely a state monopoly until 1982, when the socialist president François Mitterrand allowed private broadcasters and privatised the leading television channel

 

Edmond Jouhaud - He was rehabilitated by a law passed in 1982 under the presidency of François Mitterrand

 

Jean-Edern Hallier - He was suspected of simulating his own kidnapping in 1982, and being behind a bombing in Régis Debray's building , a suspicion recently confirmed by Régis Debray and Gilles Ménage, who worked for President François Mitterrand in the Elysée cell involved in the wiretap scandal

 

Jean-Michel Wilmotte - His style influenced a number of personalities including François Mitterrand, who asked him to design part of his private apartments in the Elysée Palace in 1982

 

Thomson-CSF - In 1982 both Thomson-Brandt and Thomson-CSF were nationalized by François Mitterrand

 

Technicolor SA - In 1982, both Thomson-Brandt and Thomson-CSF saw nationalization due to the efforts of François Mitterrand

 

Tino Rossi - In 1982, for his contribution to France and its culture, President François Mitterrand named Tino Rossi a Commander of the Legion of Honor

 

Philippe Starck - Starck's career started to climb in earnest in 1982 when he designed the interior for the private apartments of the French President François Mitterrand


1983

From 1983 onwards, wage-earners who had contributed to a pension fund for 37,5 years became eligible to retire on a full pension add something

 

The Left lost the 1983 municipal elections and the 1984 European Parliament election add something

 

After two years in office, Mitterrand made a substantial u-turn in economic policies, with the March 1983 adoption of the so-called "tournant de la rigueur" add something

 

The Louvre - In 1983, French President François Mitterrand proposed, as one of his Grands Projets, the "'Grand Louvre"' plan to renovate the building and relocate the Finance Ministry, allowing displays throughout the building

 

Movement for National Renewal (Gabon) - The trials and sentencing resulted in some international protest; in 1983, President Mitterrand of France urged review of the sentences, and many were reduced

 

Pierre Beregovoy - But in March 1983, Mitterrand listened to his Prime Minister Pierre Mauroy and ratified the change of economic policy


1984

In 1984, a law was passed to ensure that divorced women who were not in receipt of maintenance would be provided with assistance in recovering the shortfall in their income from their former husband add something

 

This right was extended to the self-employed in 1984 and to farmers in 1986 add something

 

It was abandoned and Mauroy resigned in July 1984 add something

 

Helmut Kohl - !Battle_of_Verdun - On 22 September 1984 Kohl met the French president François Mitterrand at Verdun, where the Battle of Verdun between France and Germany had taken place during


1985

The qualifying age for these reductions was, however, reduced to 62 in 1985 add something

 

In October 1985, to commemorate the tricentenary of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, Mitterrand gave a formal apology to the descendents of Huguenots around the world add something

 

Dreyfus affair - In 1985, President François Mitterrand commissioned a statue of Dreyfus by sculptor Louis Mitelberg

 

Anna Marly - In recognition of the importance of "Le chant des partisans" Marly was named a chevalier de La Légion d'Honneur by François Mitterrand in 1985, the fortieth anniversary of the liberation of France

 

Rock Hudson - At the same time, privately, Reagan called Hudson in his Paris hospital room where he was being treated in July 1985, and Nancy Reagan telephoned French President François Mitterrand to ensure that Hudson would receive the best possible care


1986

Before the 1986 legislative campaign, proportional representation was instituted in accordance with the 110 Propositions add something

 

By 1986, particular attention was being focused on assisting women in single-parent families to get back into employment, in recognition of the growing problems associated with extra-marital births and marital breakdown add something

 

In February 1986 he helped the "Single European Act" come into effect add something

 

Solidarity tax on wealth - First named IGF , it was abolished in 1986 by Jacques Chirac's right-wing government, but re-established in 1988 as ISF in slightly different terms after François Mitterrand's re-election

 

Jacques Foccart - He was rehabilitated in 1986 by the new Prime minister Jacques Chirac as an adviser on African affairs for the two years of "cohabitation" with socialist president François Mitterrand

 

Jean Lecanuet - In 1986 at the beginning of the first period of "cohabitation" in modern French politics Chirac nominated Lecanuet as Foreign Minister, but President François Mitterrand vetoed the appointment, along with some of Chirac's other nominees

 

Alain Prost - In 1986 or 1987 Prost was *awarded the Legion d'Honneur by President François Mitterrand

 

Radical Party of the Left - The party resumed its customary alliance with the PS in the 1986 legislative election and supported President François Mitterrand's 1988 reelection bid by the first round

 

Musee d'Orsay - The museum officially opened in December 1986 by then-president, François Mitterrand


1987

Pierre Berge - In 1987 Bergé launched the French magazine "Globe", which supported the candidacy of François Mitterrand for the presidential election

 

Rodolfo Terragno - Terragno received the Ordre National du Mérite from French President François Mitterrand, in 1987


1988

The Mitterrand election campaign of 1988 was directed by Henri Nallet, who became Justice Minister and therefore in charge of the investigation at national level add something

 

With the polls running in his favor, Mitterrand announced his candidacy in the 1988 presidential election add something

 

When Mitterrand visited the USSR in November 1988, the Soviet media claimed to be 'leaving aside the virtually wasted decade and the loss of the Soviet-French 'special relationship' of the Gaullist era' add something

 

Michel Rocard - He served as Prime Minister under François Mitterrand from 1988 to 1991, during which he created the "Revenu minimum d'insertion" , a social minimum welfare program for indigents, and led the Matignon Accords regarding the status of New Caledonia

 

Jean Monnet - In 1988, by order of the president François Mitterrand, Jean Monnet's remains were transferred to the Panthéon of Paris

 

Helmut Kohl - Kohl and Mitterrand were the joint recipients of the Charlemagne Prize in 1988

 

Bibliotheque nationale de France - On 14 July 1988, President François Mitterrand announced the construction and the expansion of one of the largest and most modern libraries in the world, intended to cover all fields of knowledge, and designed to be accessible to all, using the most modern data transfer technologies, which could be consulted from a distance, and which would collaborate with other European libraries


1989

Responding to a democratic movement in Africa after the 1989 fall of the Berlin Wall, he made his La Baule speech in June 1990 which tied development aid to democratic efforts from former French colonies, and during which he opposed the devaluation of the CFA Franc add something

 

The Urba affair became public in 1989 when two police officers investigating the Marseille regional office of Urba discovered detailed minutes of the organisation's contracts and division of proceeds between the party and elected officials add something

 

Mireille Mathieu - In 1989, President François Mitterrand invited Mathieu to sing a tribute to General Charles de Gaulle


1990

In 1990 Mitterrand declared an amnesty for those under investigation, thus ending the affair add something

 

Through the offices of the 'Cellule Africaine', a Presidential office headed by Mitterrand's son, Jean-Christophe, he provided the Hutu regime with financial and military support in the early 1990s add something

 

When Mitterrand's involvement in these conservative nationalist movements was revealed in the 1990s, he attributed his actions to the milieu of his youth add something

 

With French assistance, the Rwandan army grew from a force of 9,000 men in October 1990 to 28,000 in 1991 add something

 

Charles de Gaulle - In 1990, his old political enemy, the Socialist President François Mitterrand, presided over the celebrations to mark the 100th anniversary of his birth

 

Anne Lauvergeon - In 1990, she was placed in charge of the mission for the international economy and foreign trade by French President François Mitterrand


1991

Disappointed with Rocard's apparent failure to enact the Socialists' programme, Mitterrand dismissed Rocard in 1991 and appointed Edith_Cresson (Édith_Cresson) to replace him add something

 

Hubert Vedrine - Diplomatic adviser of President Mitterrand, he served as secretary-general of the presidency from 1991 to 1995, as Foreign Minister in the government of Lionel Jospin from 1997 to 2002

 

Max Soliven - Soliven's work led to him becoming a Chevalier of the National Order of Merit of the French Republic; this was presented to him in 1991 by French President François Mitterrand


1992

Mitterrand came under fire in 1992 when it was revealed that he had arranged for the laying of a wreath of flowers on the grave of Philippe Pétain each Armistice Day since 1987 add something

 

She was the first woman to become Prime Minister in France, but was forced to resign after the disaster of the 1992 regional elections add something

 

Maastricht Treaty - Together they fathered the Maastricht Treaty, which was signed on 7 February 1992 add something

 

Pierre Beregovoy - He served as Prime Minister under François Mitterrand from 1992 to 1993

 

Gina Lollobrigida - In 1992 she was *awarded the Légion d'honneur by François Mitterrand


1993

Her successor Pierre Bérégovoy promised to fight unemployment and corruption but he could not prevent the catastrophic defeat of the left in the 1993 legislative election add something

 

The illegal wiretapping was revealed in 1993 by "Libération"; the case against members of the cell went to trial in November 2004 add something

 

On 2 February 1993, in his capacity as co-prince of Andorra, Mitterrand and Joan Martí Alanis, who was Bishop of Urgell and therefore Andorra's other co-prince, signed Andorra's new constitution, which was later approved by referendum in the principality add something

 

On 16 February 1993, President Mitterrand inaugurated in Fréjus a memorial to the wars in Indochina add something

 

Liberation - An example of their proclaimed independent, "counter-power" slant is when in 1993 Libération leaked Socialist president François Mitterrand's illegal wiretapping program

 

Marvin Hier - He is the recipient of an honorary degree and, in 1993 was made a Chevalier in the Ordre National du Mérite by French President François Mitterrand


1994

Paris assisted Rwanda's president Juvénal Habyarimana, who was assassinated on 6 April 1994 while travelling in a Dassault Falcon 50 given to him as a personal gift of Mitterrand add something

 

Mitterrand sought secrecy about the issue, which lasted until November 1994, when Mitterrand's failing health and impending retirement meant that he could no longer count on the fear and respect that he had once engendered among French journalists add something

 

Raffaello de Banfield - He received countless honours and recognitions, such as the Italian "; in 1994, through François Mitterrand, he became a Grand Cavalier of the

 

Euzhan Palcy - In 1994, she was honored with the distinction of Chevalier de l'Ordre National du Mérite from French President, François Mitterrand

 

Eurotunnel - The tunnel was financed partly from investment by shareholders and partly from £8bn of debt, and was officially opened on 6 May 1994 by HM Queen Elizabeth II and President François Mitterrand


1995

His second and last term ended after the 1995 presidential election in May 1995 with the election of Jacques Chirac add something

 

Constitutional Council of France - In 1995, Roland Dumas was appointed president of the Council by François Mitterrand

 

David Owen - In January 1995, Lord Owen wrote to President François Mitterrand as President of the European Union to say that he wished to step down before the end of the French presidency


François Mitterrand died in 1996 add something

 

Mitterrand died on 8 January 1996 at the age of 79 from prostate cancer, a condition he and his doctors had concealed for most of his presidency add something


1997

Socialist Party treasurer Henri Emmanuelli was tried in 1997 for corruption offences, for which he received a two year suspended sentence add something

 

"Les mots volés" de Edwy Plenel, Stock, 1997 add something


1999

It took 20 years for the 'affaire' to come before the courts because the instructing judge Jean-Paul Vallat was at first thwarted by the 'affaire' being classed a defence secret, but in December 1999 la Commission consultative du secret de la défense nationale declassified part of the files concerned add something


2000

The Judge finished his investigation in 2000, but it still took another four years before coming on 15 November 2004 before the 16th chamber of the "Tribunal correctionnel de Paris " add something


2002

Henri Emmanuelli - Whilst he was a faithful supporter of François Mitterrand until the latter's death, he is identified as belonging to the left-wing of the PS, and was one of the leaders of the party's "New World" faction formed in 2002 which aimed to steer the party leftwards after Jospin's poor performance in that year's presidential election


2005

The 'affaire' finally ended before the "Tribunal correctionnel de Paris " with the court's judgement on 9 November 2005 add something


2006

"Le Journaliste et le Président" de Edwy Plenel, 2006 add something


2007

The case was taken to the European Court of Human Rights, which gave judgement on 7 June 2007 that the rights of free expression of the journalists involved in the case were not respected add something

 

Valery Giscard d'Estaing - He was the only surviving ex-president since he left office until the end of Jacques Chirac's term on 16 May 2007, with the exception of a brief period between François Mitterrand's retirement in 1995 and death in early 1996


2008

In 2008 the French state was ordered by the courts to give Jean-Edern Hallier's family compensation add something


2014

A study in ambiguity", London, Bodley Head, 2014 add something


2015

As of 2015, Mitterand has had the most prime ministers during the regime of the 5th Republic add something


2017

It was done by "French police collaborating with the Nazis", he said on 16 July 2017 add something