Gnassingbé Eyadéma

Knowledge Identifier: +Gnassingbe_Eyadema

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Gnassingbe Eyadema

President of Togo from 1967 until his death in 2005 add

Category: Politics

Born in 1935.

Countries: Togo (59%), France (10%), Ivory Coast (7%)

Education: undef.

Main connections: TOGO, Faure Gnassingbe, Joseph Kokou Koffigoh

Linked to: Economic Community of West African States, Togo, Rally of the Togolese People, European integration

 

Timeline


 

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Gnassingbé Eyadéma was born in 1935 add something


1953

In 1953, Eyadema joined the French army where he was trained in weapon use and the art of war add something


1962

After nearly 10 years in the French army, Eyadema returned to Togo in 1962 add something


1963

In 1963, he conducted a military coup against President Sylvanus Olympio, who died during the attack add something

 

He participated in two successful military coups, in January 1963 and January 1967, and became President on April 14, 1967 add something


1967

In 1967, Colonel Eyadema of the Togolese Army led a second military coup against Grunitzky add something

 

Eyadema installed himself as president on 14 April 1967 as well as Minister of National Defense, an office that he assumed for 38 years add something

 

Edem Kodjo - He returned to Togo and was appointed by President Gnassingbé Eyadéma as Secretary-General of the Ministry of Finance in July 1967


1969

Rally of the Togolese People - The RPT was founded in late 1969, under President Gnassingbé Eyadéma


1972

After taking power, Eyadéma won uncontested elections in 1972, 1979, and 1986 add something


1974

During his rule he escaped several assassination attempts; in 1974 he survived a plane crash in the northern part of the country near Sarakawa add something

 

Eyadéma even changed his first name from Étienne to Gnassingbé to note the date of the 1974 plane crash of which he was claimed to be the only survivor add something

 

In reality, he was not the sole survivor of the crash on January 24, 1974 add something


1977

Claude Ameganvi - An architect by training, in 1977 he joined the exile student movement in France in opposition to the one-party dictatorship of Gnassingbé Eyadéma


1990

Although his rule was seriously challenged by the events of the early 1990s, he ultimately consolidated power again and won multiparty presidential elections in 1993, 1998, and 2003; the opposition boycotted the 1993 election and denounced the 1998 and 2003 election results as fraudulent add something

 

Jacques Amouzou - Amouzou was "widely perceived as a front" for President Gnassingbé Eyadéma during the 1990s


1991

A national conference was held in August 1991, electing Joseph Kokou Koffigoh as Prime Minister and leaving Eyadéma as merely a ceremonial president add something

 

Joseph Kokou Koffigoh - He was elected as Prime Minister by the National Conference on 27 August 1991; President Gnassingbé Eyadéma was stripped of his powers and was left as a ceremonial president

 

Joseph Kokou Koffigoh - Beginning in December 1991, however, President Gnassingbé Eyadéma increasingly reasserted his authority at Koffigoh's expense


1992

Tavio Amorin - Being an outspoken opponent to President Gnassingbe Eyadema's dictatorial regime, Amorin was shot in the streets of Lomé by two unidentified men believed to be security force agents on July 23, 1992


1993

The European Union suspended aid in 1993 in protest of alleged voting irregularities and human rights violations add something

 

In March 1993, an unsuccessful attack was made on the Tokoin military camp, where Eyadéma was living; several people were killed in the attack, including Eyadéma's personal chief of staff, General Mawulikplimi Ameji add something


1994

Kwassi Klutse - Subsequently, in by-elections that were held in constituencies where the results of the 1994 parliamentary election had been annulled, the Rally of the Togolese People of President Gnassingbé Eyadéma won all three constituencies at stake, giving it and its allies a parliamentary majority and enabling it to form a new government without relying on Kodjo's Togolese Union for Democracy party


1999

Eugene Koffi Adoboli - At the time of his appointment by President Gnassingbé Eyadéma following the March 1999 parliamentary election, Adoboli was virtually unknown in Togolese politics


2000

First Ivorian Civil War - He was the chairman of the Organisation of African Unity from 2000 to 2001, and he attempted, unsuccessfully, to mediate between the government and rebels of Côte d'Ivoire in the First Ivorian Civil War, that began in that country in 2002 add something


2002

In late December 2002, the Constitution was changed to remove term limits on the office of president add something

 

Radio France Internationale - On September 17, 2002, Togolese President Gnassingbé Eyadéma tried to stop the broadcasting of an interview with one of his opponents, Agbéyomé Kodjo, by phoning directly to the Elysée Palace


2003

Previously, presidents had been limited to two five-year terms, and Eyadéma would have therefore been forced to step down after the 2003 election add something

 

Faure Gnassingbe - A son of President Gnassingbé Eyadéma, he was appointed to the government by his father, serving as Minister of Equipment, Mines, Posts, and Telecommunications from 2003 to 2005


2004

The European Union sent a mission on June 1, 2004 to evaluate the state of democracy in Togo and to start a procedure of democratization of &Togo add something


Gnassingbé Eyadéma died in 2005 add something

 

On February 5, 2005, he died in a plane 250 km south of Tunis , Tunisia add something

 

Eyadéma's funeral was held on 13 March 2005, in the presence of a number of Presidents and other international dignitaries; Presidents Mathieu Kérékou of Benin, John Kufuor of Ghana, Laurent Gbagbo of Côte d'Ivoire, Mamadou Tandja of Niger and Olusegun Obasanjo of Nigeria attended the ceremony add something

 

Rally of the Togolese People - It was founded by President Gnassingbé Eyadéma and headed by his son, President Faure Gnassingbé, after the former's death in 2005

 

Rally for the Support of Democracy and Development - The party led the first protests against the succession of President Gnassingbé Eyadéma by his son Faure Gnassingbé in February 2005

 

African Union - In response to the death of Gnassingbé Eyadéma, President of Togo, on 5 February 2005, AU leaders described the naming of his son Faure Gnassingbé the successor as a military coup


2017

Economic Community of West African States - "'Faure Essozimna Gnassingbé Eyadéma"', Chairperson of the ECOWAS. In office 4th of June 2017 - till date


2018

According to a 2018 study, "Gnassingbé Eyadema's rule rested on repression, patronage, and a bizarre leadership cult add something