Knowledge Identifier: $Greenland
Category: Environment (330)
Launched in -5000.
Countries: Denmark (30%), United States (17%), (10%)
Linked to: Ethnic groups in Europe, Inuit Party, Princeton University Press, University of Greenland
The Thule Culture migrated eastward from what is now known as Alaska around 1000, reaching Greenland around 1300
Though under continuous influence of Norway and Norwegians, Greenland was not formally under the Norwegian crown until 1262
Joao Fernandes Lavrador - In the 1532 Wolfenbüttel map, believed to be the work of Diogo Ribeiro, along the coast of Greenland the legend was added: "As he who first sighted it was a farmer from the Azores Islands, this name remains attached to that country
In 1721, a joint mercantile and clerical expedition led by Danish-Norwegian missionary Hans Egede was sent to Greenland, not knowing whether a Norse civilization remained there
Hans Egede - On 6 July 1734 he wrote that his ship was off the Greenland coast when those on board "saw a most terrible creature, resembling nothing they saw before
Hans Egede - In Copenhagen, he was named Superintendent of the Greenland Missions and in 1741 the Lutheran Bishop of Greenland
Hans Egede - A catechism for use in Greenland was completed by 1747
Paul Egede - In 1779, he was elevated to Bishop of Greenland and, in 1785, made a fellow of the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters
Because of Norway's weak status, it lost sovereignty over Greenland in 1814 when the union was dissolved
John Rivett-Carnac - In October 1814 he joined the 38-gun "Sybille", with whom he went to Greenland to search for Commodore William L. Rodgers
George William Manby - In 1821 he sailed to Greenland with William Scoresby, for the purpose of testing a new type of harpoon for whaling, based on the same principles as his mortar
Johan Carl Christian Petersen - In 1841 he moved to Upernavik, at the time the most northern Danish colony in Greenland
William Henry Brewer - During his tenure at Yale, Brewer took part in a survey of Greenland in 1869
Charles Francis Hall - "Polaris" sailed into Thank God Harbor on September 10, 1871 and settled in for the winter on the shore of northern Greenland
George M. Robeson - While traveling west of Greenland under good weather, the Polaris broke a sailing record to the highest point northward at 82°29'N. In October 1871, the Polaris expedition established a winter camp on "Thank God Bay" in order to prepare reaching the North Pole by dog sled
Daniel L. Braine - Between 1873 and 1875 he commanded the on its cruise to Greenland in search of the ill-fated "Polaris" Expedition
Fridtjof Nansen - The idea of an expedition across the Greenland icecap grew in Nansen's mind throughout his Bergen years.
Eugenius Warming - Warmings published a number of treatises based on his expedition to Southwest Greenland in 1884
Robert Peary - Peary made several expeditions to the Arctic, exploring Greenland by dog sled in 1886 and 1891 and returning to the island three times in the 1890s, including the Peary Relief Expedition to Greenland of 1892.
Erich von Drygalski - One expedition wintered during the winter between 1892 and 1893 in Western Greenland
Russell W. Porter - Porter continued travel to the arctic with Peary and Greenland again in 1896, to Baffin Island in 1897, with the Yukon gold rush in 1898, to Labrador in 1899, and northern Greenland in 1900
Georg Carl Amdrup - Lieutenant Amdrup was the leader of a major Danish expedition in 1898-1900, the Carlsberg Fund Expedition to East Greenland
The New Testament was translated piecemeal from the time of the very first settlement on Kangeq Island, but the first translation of the whole Bible was not completed until 1900
Henrik Lund - After attending the Danish Lutheran seminary in Godthaab, Lund became the catechist at Angmagssalik in East Greenland in 1900
William Thalbitzer - From 1905 to 1907 he with his wife spent eighteen months among the natives in Tasiilaq, one of the most isolated places on the coast of eastern Greenland
Georg Carl Amdrup - He was a member of the Committee for the Danish expedition to Greenland's northeast coast 1906-1908, and, as the expedition historian, Amdrup wrote the expedition history in the "Notice of Grønland", XLI.
Frederick Cook - He left Annoatok, a small settlement in the north of Greenland, in February 1908.
Frederick Cook - From there they traveled north, eventually crossing Nares Strait to Annoatok on the Greenland side in the spring of 1909, allegedly almost dying of starvation during the journey.
Ejnar Mikkelsen - Organizing an expedition to map out the northeast coast of Greenland, to recover the bodies of Mylius-Erichsen and Lieutenant Höeg-Hagen and their records, Mikkelsen wintered 1909-10 at Shannon Island, East Greenland
Peter Freuchen - In 1910, Knud Rasmussen and Peter Freuchen established the Thule Trading Station at Cape York , Greenland, as a trading base
Alfred Wegener - Wegener's main interest was meteorology, and he wanted to join the Denmark-Greenland expedition scheduled for mid 1912.
Robert Peary - The monument for the memory of Robert Peary at Cape York, Greenland.
Henrik Lund - The song was adopted as the national anthem of Greenland in 1916
Theories drawn from archeological excavations at Herjolfsnes in the 1920s, suggest that the condition of human bones from this period indicates that the Norse population was malnourished, maybe due to soil erosion resulting from the Norsemen's destruction of natural vegetation in the course of farming, turf-cutting, and wood-cutting
Jean-Baptiste Charcot - Later on, Jean-Baptiste Charcot explored Rockall in 1921 and Eastern Greenland and Svalbard from 1925 until 1936
Henrik Lund - From 1923 to 1932, Lund was elected to the South Greenland provincial council
Eske Brun - Brun and his colleague Aksel Svane, via the law concerning the ruling of Greenland of 1925, took control of the island
Frederica de Laguna - In 1929, she assisted Therkel Mathiassen at his Norse culture archaeological excavation at Inugsuk, Greenland
Lawrence Wager - In 1930, Wager made his first trip to eastern Greenland with the British Arctic air route expedition led by Gino Watkins
Erik Holtved - In the 1930s, he was the first to identify the Ruin Island Phase of the Thule culture in northwest Greenland
Lawrence Wager - The research carried out in Greenland would form the basis of Wager's subsequent career, and he made a further three visits there in the 1930s, playing an increased role in leading and organising the expeditions
Alfred Wegener - Wegener's last expedition was to Greenland in 1930, to conduct the first 12-month monitoring of arctic weather.
Erik Holtved - An artist early on, in 1931, he was selected by Knud Rasmussen to head the Sixth Thule Expedition to Greenland which changed the course of his life
Erik Holtved - In 1931, he did work in the Lindenows Fjord area of southern Greenland, excavating 25 houses and unearthing 2,000 artifacts
Eske Brun - In 1932, at the age of 28, Brun was given a substitute job as governor of Northern Greenland
Peter Freuchen - Knud Rasmussen later used the name Navarana for the lead role in the movie "Palos Brudefærd" which was filmed in East Greenland in 1933
Gordon Noel Humphreys - Consisting of Shackleton, photographer and biologist A. W. Moore , H. W. Stallworthy of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, geologist R. Bentham and ornithologist David Haig-Thomas, along with their Greenland Inuit guides, Inutuk and Nukapinguaq, they set up camp at Etah, Greenland in 1934
Eigil Knuth - In 1935, Dr. Helge Larsen, Ebbe Munck, and Knuth, as archaeologist, assisted on the Augustine Courtauld Expedition to East Greenland, during which Gunbjrns Fjeld, Greenland's highest mountain, was climbed
Eske Brun - From 1941 until the end of the war Aksel Svane was situated in US to organize the supplies and Eske Brun became governor of Southern Greenland as well
Forrest O. Rednour - Rednour perished early on the morning of 13 June 1943 when "Escanaba" disintegrated in a massive explosion of undertermined cause in the North Atlantic Ocean off Ivituut, Greenland, with a loss of 101 of the 103 men aboard
Henrik Lund - Lund died on June 17, 1948 in Narssaq, Greenland
A final report was presented in 1950: Greenland was to be a modern welfare state with Denmark as sponsor and example
Henrik Kauffmann - Kauffmann's treaty was adapted in the early 1950s and remains the legal basis for the U.S. Thule Air Base in Greenland
Bernt Balchen - Balchen was primarily responsible for the pioneering and development of the strategic air base at Thule, Greenland, built secretly on his recommendation, in 1951 under severe weather conditions which, by extending the range of the Strategic Air Command, increased the capabilities that made the SAC a significant deterrent to Soviet aggression during the Cold War.
Lawrence Wager - He made a further expedition to Greenland in 1953, but in 1955 a heart attack put an end to his career as an active mountaineer and explorer
John T. Olson - Later, he was transferred to Thule Air Base in Greenland and remained on active duty until 1956
Lena Pedersen - In 1959, Pedersen moved from Greenland to the Northwest Territories and lived in Coppermine , Pangnirtung and Rae before moving to Cape Dorset where she participated in the art work sales of the West Baffin Eskimo Co-operative
Bernt Balchen - In 1962, he worked with the USAF presenting a proposal on the Apogee Intercept Defense System in 1962 and later, was the leading advocate for "Project Iceman", a proposed system of intermediate range ballistic missiles stationed in Greenland
Geoffrey Ballard - After receiving his PhD in 1963, Ballard worked as a civilian for the U.S. Army, specializing in microwave communications and studying how to hide refueling tanks under the ice in Greenland
As a consequence of political complications in relation to Denmark's entry into the European Common Market in 1972, Denmark began to seek a different status for Greenland, resulting in the Home Rule Act of 1979
In 1979, Denmark granted home rule to Greenland, and in 2008, Greenlanders voted in favor of the Self-Government Act, which transferred more power from the Danish government to the local Greenlandic government
Wally Herbert - Between 1979 and 1981 Wally and Allan Gill attempted to circumnavigate Greenland by dog sled and "umiak", a traditional boat
Siumut - From 1979 until 2009 and since 2013, members of Siumut have served as Greenland's Prime Minister
Alcohol consumption rates in Greenland reached their height in the 1980s, when it was twice as high as in Denmark, and had by 2010 fallen slightly below the average level of consumption in Denmark
However, in a referendum in 1982, a majority of the population voted for Greenland to withdraw from the EEC, which was effected in 1985
In 1985, Greenland left the European Economic Community upon achieving self-rule, as it did not agree with the EEC's commercial fishing regulations and an EEC ban on seal skin products
Summit Camp - There is a year-round station Summit Camp on the ice sheet, established in 1989
Other research has shown that higher snowfalls from the North Atlantic oscillation caused the interior of the ice cap to thicken by an average of y between 1994 and 2005
Princeton University Press, 2000,
Anders Fogh Rasmussen - By the morning of 14 November 2007, after results came through from the Faroe Islands and Greenland, his centre-right coalition of the Liberals, the Conservative People's_Party_(Denmark) and the Danish People's Party had obtained the 90 seats required for him to continue as Prime Minister, making him the longest-ruling Liberal Prime Minister of Denmark
Formerly consisting of three counties comprising a total of 18 municipalities, Greenland abolished these in 2009 and has since been divided into large territories known as "municipalities" : "Sermersooq" around the capital Nuuk and including all East Coast communities; "Kujalleq" around Cape Farewell; "Qeqqata" north of the capital along the Davis Strait; "Qeqertalik" surrounding Disko Bay; and "Avannaata" in the northwest; the latter two having come into being as a result of the Qaasuitsup municipality, one of the original four, being par
MT Hojgaard - Major projects carried out by the company since the merger include the Nuuk Center in Greenland completed in 2012