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Harold Wilson

Knowledge Identifier: +Harold_Wilson

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Harold Wilson

British Labour politician and Leader of the Labour Party add

Category: Politics

Born in 1916.

Countries: United Kingdom (77%), (7%), Vietnam (2%)

Main connections: James Callaghan, Edward Heath, Michael Foot

Linked to: Ministry of Works, Labour Party, Leader of the Labour Party, Jesus College, Oxford

 

Timeline


 

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Harold Wilson was born in 1916 add something


1930

His education was disrupted in October 1930 when he contracted typhoid fever after drinking contaminated milk on a Scouts' outing add something

 

In December 1930, his father, working as an industrial chemist, was made redundant and it took him nearly two years to find work add something


1934

Wilson did well at school and, although he missed getting a scholarship, he obtained an exhibition; which, when topped up by a county grant, enabled him to study Modern History at Jesus College, Oxford, from 1934 add something


1937

He was a lecturer in Economic History at New College from 1937, and a Research Fellow at University College add something


1938

The rights of adopted children were improved with certain wording changed in the Inheritance Act of 1938 to bestow opon them the same rights as natural-born children add something


1940

On New Year's Day 1940, in the chapel of Mansfield College, Oxford, he married Mary Baldwin who remained his wife until his death add something

 

Mary Wilson, Lady Wilson of Rievaulx - She was employed as a shorthand typist at Lever Brothers in Port Sunlight before marrying Harold Wilson on New Year's Day, 1940


1944

Following the Education Act 1944 there was disaffection with the tripartite system of academically-oriented Grammar schools for a small proportion of "gifted" children, and Technical and Secondary Modern schools for the majority of children add something


1945

Entering Parliament in 1945, Harold Wilson was appointed the Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Works and rose quickly through the ranks, becoming the Secretary for Overseas Trade two years later and finally being appointed to the Cabinet as the President of the Board of Trade in 1947 add something

 

Entering Parliament in 1945, Harold Wilson was appointed the Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Works and rose quickly through the ranks, becoming the Secretary for Overseas Trade two years later and finally being appointed to the Cabinet as the President of the Board of Trade in 1947 add something

 

In the 1945 general election, Wilson won his seat in the Labour landslide add something

 

Security Service - A file was kept on Labour Prime Minister Harold Wilson from 1945, when he became an MP, although the agency's official historian, Christopher Andrew maintains that his fears of MI5 conspiracies and bugging were unfounded

 

MI5 - A file was kept on Labour Prime Minister Harold Wilson from 1945, when he became an MP, although the agency's official historian, Christopher Andrew maintains that his fears of MI5 conspiracies and bugging were unfounded

 

George Thomas, 1st Viscount Tonypandy - An MP from 1945 to 1983, he held office in Harold Wilson's 1964-1970 Labour administration, notably as Secretary of State for Wales from 1968 to 1970

 

Stephen King-Hall - He later changed his affiliation and continued to stand as an Independent, subsequently losing the seat to future Prime Minister Harold Wilson in the 1945 general election


1947

As President of the Board of Trade, he was the driving force behind the Statistics of Trade Act 1947, which is still the authority governing most economic statistics in Great Britain add something

 

On 29 September 1947, Wilson was appointed President of the Board of Trade and, at 31, became the youngest member of the Cabinet in the 20th century add something


1949

His role in internal debates during the summer of 1949 over whether or not to devalue sterling, in which he was perceived to have played both sides of the issue, tarnished his reputation in both political and official circles add something

 

Many British economists advocated devaluation, but Wilson resisted, reportedly in part out of concern that Labour, which had previously devalued sterling in 1949, would become tagged as "the party of devaluation" add something


1950

The continued relevance of industrial nationalisation had been a key point of contention in Labour's internal struggles of the 1950s and early 1960s add something

 

Wilson steered a course in intra-party matters in the 1950s and early 1960s which left him neither fully accepted and trusted by either the left or the right within the Labour Party add something


1951

Korean War - Wilson was becoming known as a left-winger and joined Aneurin Bevan and John Freeman in resigning from the government in April 1951 in protest at the introduction of National Health Service medical charges to meet the financial demands imposed by the Korean War add something

 

Geraint Morgan - Geraint Morgan contested Merioneth in 1951 and Huyton in 1955 against Harold Wilson

 

John Freeman (British politician) - He rose quickly through the ministerial ranks, but resigned along with Aneurin Bevan and Harold Wilson in 1951 over National Health Service charges


1953

The Federation was set up in 1953, and was an amalgamation of the British Colonies of Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland and the self-governing Dominion of Southern Rhodesia add something


1954

By coincidence, it was Bevan's further resignation from the Shadow Cabinet in 1954 that put Wilson back on the front bench add something


1955

Despite his earlier association with the left-wing Aneurin Bevan, in 1955 he backed Hugh Gaitskell, who was considered the right-of-centre candidate in internal Labour Party terms, against Bevan for the party leadership He launched an opportunistic but unsuccessful challenge to Gaitskell in November 1960, in the wake of the Labour Party's 1959 defeat, Gaitskell's controversial attempt to ditch Labour's commitment to nationalisation in the shape of the Party's Clause Four, and Gaitskell's defeat at the 1960 Party Conference over a motion supporting Britain's add something

 

In the Labour Shadow Cabinet he served first as the Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1955 to 1961, and as the Shadow Foreign Secretary until being elected party leader in 1963 add something

 

In the meantime, he conducted an inquiry into the Labour Party's organisation following its defeat in the 1955 general election, which compared the Party organisation to an antiquated "penny farthing" bicycle, and made various recommendations for improvements add something

 

One of his procedural moves caused a delay to the progress of the Government's Finance Bill in 1955, and his speeches as Shadow Chancellor from 1956 were widely praised for their clarity and wit add something


1956

Wynne Godley - After his musical career ended he became an economist at the Metal Box company, and from 1956 to 1970 he worked at the Treasury where he worked in macroeconomic policy issues and short term forecasting, bridging economic and policy issues, including the 1967 devaluation of the pound under Harold Wilson

 

Joseph Kagan, Baron Kagan - After the opposition trade spokesman, Harold Wilson, wore a Gannex coat on a world tour in 1956, the raincoats became fashion icons, and were worn by world leaders such as Lyndon Johnson, Mao Zedong, and Nikita Khrushchev, as well as by Queen Elizabeth, the Duke of Edinburgh, and the royal corgis


1959

Unusually, Wilson combined the job of Chairman of the House of Commons Public Accounts Committee with that of Shadow Chancellor from 1959, holding the chairmanship of the PAC from 1959 to 1963 add something

 

Desmond Donnelly - This ensured his appointment as political correspondent for the Daily Herald from 1959, but Gaitskell's death in 1963 brought in Harold Wilson with whom Donnelly was not pleased; although his skills would have merited appointment to Wilson's government after the 1964 election, Wilson offered Donnelly nothing


1960

A new system of rate rebates was introduced, which benefited one million households by the end of the 1960s add something

 

Along with neighbouring new development Callaghan drive , it formed part of a large housing estate developed since the 1960s where all streets were named after former prime ministers or senior parliamentary figures add something

 

As early as the late 1960s, he had been telling intimates, like his doctor Sir Joseph Stone , that he did not intend to serve more than eight or nine years as Prime Minister add something

 

He was the Prime Minister in the so-called "Swinging London" era of the 1960s, and therefore features in many of the books about this period of history add something

 

He was twice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the 1960s and 1970s, winning four general elections, including a minority government after the February 1974 general election resulted in a hung parliament add something

 

In 1960, Prime Minister Harold Macmillan made his important Wind of Change speech to the Parliament of South Africa in Cape Town add something

 

In 1960, as a means of saving money, the Conservative government issued a circular which forbade the expansion of nursery education add something

 

In the late 1960s, Wilson's earlier government had witnessed the outbreak of The Troubles in Northern Ireland add something

 

These measures had a major impact on the living standards of low-income Britons, with disposable incomes rising faster for low-income groups than for high-income groups during the course of the 1960s add something

 

Wilson first served as Prime Minister in the 1960s, during a period of low unemployment and relative economic prosperity add something

 

Wilson's predecessor as leader, Hugh Gaitskell, had tried in 1960 to tackle the controversy head-on, with a proposal to expunge Clause Four from the party's constitution, but had been forced to climb down add something

 

With Britain's continuing economic difficulties and industrial strife in the 1960s, King convinced himself that Wilson's government was heading towards collapse add something

 

Trevor Park - He was a Labour Party Member of Parliament during Harold Wilson's government in the 1960s, a government which he regarded as unhelpful to the interests of Labour voters

 

New Statesman - Martin retired in 1960 and was replaced as editor by John Freeman, a politician-journalist who had resigned from the Labour government in 1951 with Bevan and Harold Wilson


1961

The government accepted most of the recommendations of the 1961 Parker Morris Report for significantly improved standards of space and amenities new local authority dwellings add something

 

An entry attempt had been issued in July 1961 by the Macmillan government, and negotiated by Edward Heath as Lord Privy Seal, but was vetoed in 1963 by French President Charles de Gaulle add something


1962

The Labour Party in Opposition had been divided on the issue, with former party leader Hugh Gaitskell having come out in 1962 in opposition to Britain joining the Community add something

 

This legislation was attributed to fall in number of homeless families taken into welfare accommodation each year in the LCC area, from 2,000 in 1962-64 to 1,300 in 1965 and 1,500 in 1966 add something

 

Wilson challenged for the deputy leadership in 1962 but was defeated by George Brown add something

 

Willie Ross, Baron Ross of Marnock - After serving as Shadow Secretary of State from 1962, he became Secretary of State for Scotland in 1964 under Harold Wilson


1963

Altogether, the impact of the First Wilson government's regional development policies was such that, according to one historian, the period 1963 to 1970 represented the most prolonged, most intensive, and most successful attack ever launched on regional problems in Britain add something

 

In 1963, Soviet defector Anatoliy Golitsyn is said to have secretly claimed that Wilson was a KGB agent add something

 

The Federation was dissolved in 1963 and the states of Zambia and Malawi were granted independence add something

 

Hugh Gaitskell died in January 1963, aged 56, after a sudden flare of Lupus erythematosus, an autoimmune disease, just as the Labour Party had begun to unite and appeared to have a good chance of being elected to government, with the Macmillan government running into trouble add something

 

Arnold Goodman, Baron Goodman - Harold Wilson , Honorary Fellow of University College since 1963, died only twelve days later on 24 May.

 

Charles de Gaulle - Also in the congregation were David Ben-Gurion, Anthony Eden, Harold Macmillan, Harold Wilson, former West German Chancellors Ludwig Erhard and Kurt-Georg Kiesinger, Marlene Dietrich and US Senator Edward Kennedy, who remembered De Gaulle's immediate decision to attend the funeral of his brother John following his assassination in 1963.

 

Burke Trend, Baron Trend - He became Cabinet Secretary under both Harold Wilson and Ted Heath between 1963 to 1973

 

Michael Foot - He only returned to the Parliamentary Labour Group in 1963 when Harold Wilson became Labour leader after the sudden death of Hugh Gaitskell

 

Joseph Kagan, Baron Kagan - Huddersfield was the home town of Harold Wilson, later Leader of the Opposition in 1963, and Kagan became close to Wilson and provided funding for his private office

 

Labour Party (UK) - In 1963, Gaitskell's sudden death from a heart-attack made way for Harold Wilson to lead the party


1964

A Short History of the Labour Party by Alastair J. Reid and Henry Pelling while the number of council homes built increased steadily, from 119,000 in 1964 to 133,000 in 1965 and to 142,000 in 1966 add something

 

Among the more challenging political dilemmas Wilson faced during his two terms in government and his two spells in Opposition before 1964 and between 1970 and 1974 was the issue of British membership of the European Community, the forerunner of the present European Union add something

 

Between 1964 and 1968, benefits in kind were significantly progressive, in that over the period those in the lower half of the income scale benefited more than those in the upper half add something

 

Between 1964 and 1968, cash benefits rose as a percentage of income for all households but more so for poorer than for wealthier households add something

 

Costing £70,000, the statue designed by sculptor Ian Walters, is based on photographs taken in 1964 and depicts Lord Wilson in walking pose at the start of his first term as Prime Minister add something

 

During Wilson's time in office from 1964 to 1970, more new houses were built than in the last six years of the previous Conservative government add something

 

Following its victory in the 1964 general election, Wilson's government began to increase social benefits add something

 

From 1964 to 1969, low-wage earners did substantially better than other sections of the population add something

 

Government intervention in industry was greatly enhanced, with the National Economic Development Office greatly strengthened, with the number of little Neddies was increased, from eight in 1964 to twenty-one in 1970 add something

 

It is estimated that, between 1964 and 1970, 45,000 government jobs were created outside London , 21,000 of which were located in the Development Areas add something

 

Labour won the 1964 general election with a narrow majority of four seats, and Wilson became Prime Minister add something

 

On average those receiving state benefits benefited more in terms of increases in real disposable income than the average manual worker or salaried employee between 1964 and 1969 add something

 

Prior United States military involvement in Vietnam intensified following the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution in 1964 add something

 

The Industrial Training Act of 1964 set up an Industrial Training Board to encourage training for people in work add something

 

The determination expressed in the diverse policies to give this unfortunate group the help it needed was among the most humane and important initiatives of the 1964-70 government add something

 

This partly reflected the preceding government's expansive fiscal policy in the run-up to the 1964 election, and the incoming Wilson team tightened the fiscal stance in response add something

 

Wilson's 1964 election campaign was aided by the Profumo Affair, a 1963 ministerial sex scandal that had mortally wounded the Conservative government of Harold Macmillan and was to taint his successor Sir Alec Douglas-Home, even though Home had not been involved in the scandal add something

 

This restriction was slightly relaxed just before the July 1964 election, when authorities were allowed to provide places where this would enable married women to return to teaching add something

 

Secretary of State for International Development - A separate Ministry of Overseas Development was established by Harold Wilson when he came to office in 1964

 

Hugh Foot, Baron Caradon - After Harold Wilson won the 1964 election, Foot became Minister of State for Foreign Affairs and British Ambassador to the United Nations from 1964-1970

 

Tom Driberg - After the General Election of 1964, which narrowly returned Labour to power under Harold Wilson, he was not offered a place in the new government, and soon found himself in opposition to Wilson's policies on Vietnam, the Common Market, immigration and other major issues

 

Ernest Fernyhough - Fernyhough was Parliamentary Private Secretary to Prime Minister Harold Wilson from 1964 and a junior minister for Employment and Productivity from 1968 to 1969

 

Clement Attlee - He lived to see Labour return to power under Harold Wilson in 1964, but to see his old constituency of Walthamstow West fall to the Conservatives in a by-election in September 1967

 

Anthony Greenwood, Baron Greenwood of Rossendale - He served successively from 1964 to 1969 as Secretary of State for the Colonies, Minister of Overseas Development and Minister for Housing and Local Government in Harold Wilson's governments

 

Reg Freeson - He was elected as MP for Willesden East with a majority of less than 2,000 votes in the 1964 general election, taking the seat from Conservative Trevor Skeet, and Harold Wilson's Labour government took power with a slim majority of only five seats, which was quickly reduced to three

 

Sydney Irving - In Harold Wilson's Labour Government 1964-1970, he was the government's Deputy Chief Whip and Treasurer of the Household from 1964 to 1966, and served as a Deputy Speaker of the House of Commons from 1966 to 1970, when he lost his seat to the Conservatives

 

Edward Shackleton, Baron Shackleton - In Harold Wilson's government, he served as Minister of Defence for the RAF 1964-1967, Minister without Portfolio 1967-1968 and Paymaster General 1968

 

John Desmond Cronin - In 1964, Cronin wrote a report for Harold Wilson entitled "Ministerial Control of Civil Aviation" in which in he argued for the Ministries of Shipping and Aviation to be combined

 

Ken Livingstone - Livingstone solidified his leftist views when he began to feel optimistic about the new Labour Party government led by Prime Minister Harold Wilson that was elected into power in 1964

 

Ifor Davies - Under Harold Wilson, Davies was a Lord Commissioner of the Treasury and Welsh whip from 1964 to 1966 and a junior minister at the Welsh Office from 1966 to 1969

 

Horace King, Baron Maybray-King - When Harold Wilson was elected as the first Labour Prime Minister for 13 years in 1964, Dr King was selected as the Chairman of Ways and Means and the Deputy Speaker

 

Eirene White, Baroness White - When Labour came to power under Harold Wilson in 1964, White became parliamentary under-secretary at the Colonial Office, in 1966 Minister of State for Foreign Affairs and in 1967 Minister of State at the Welsh Office for three years

 

George Thomas, 1st Viscount Tonypandy - When the Labour Party came to power under Harold Wilson in 1964, Thomas was made joint Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department, In April 1966 he was appointed Minister of State for Wales, and was one of the first on the scene of the Aberfan disaster in October 1966

 

B. V. Bowden, Baron Bowden - On 18 January 1964, he was created a life peer as "'Baron Bowden"', of Chesterfield in the County of Derbyshire and later in this year, Harold Wilson appointed him Minister for Education and Science

 

Frank Cousins - Cousins served as Minister of Technology in Harold Wilson's Labour government from October 1964 until his resignation in July 1966

 

George Thomson, Baron Thomson of Monifieth - He served in the Wilson government as Minister of State, Foreign Office from October 1964 to April 1966, as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster from 1966 to 1967 and again from 1969 to 1970, Secretary of State for Commonwealth Affairs from 1967 to 1968, and Minister without Portfolio from 1968 to 1969

 

Edward Heath - His Labour predecessor as prime minister, Harold Wilson, had inherited an unemployment count of around 400,000 at the time of his general election win of October 1964 but seen unemployment peak at 631,000 during the spring of 1967, though it had fallen to 582,000 by the time Heath seized power in June 1970

 

Secretary of State for Economic Affairs - It was established by Harold Wilson in October 1964

 

Billy Blyton, Baron Blyton - He was created a life peer as Baron Blyton, of South Shields in the County of Durham, by Harold Wilson on 16 December 1964


1965

A policy was introduced in 1965 whereby any new government organisation should be established outside London and in 1967 the government decided to give preference to development areas add something

 

Allowing for demolitions, 1,3 million new homes were built between 1965 and 1970, To encourage home ownership, the government introduced the Option Mortgage Scheme , which made low-income housebuyers eligible for subsidies add something

 

During 1965, this was reduced to a single seat as a result of by-election defeats, but in May 1966 Wilson called another general election and this time won it by a 96-seat majority add something

 

In 1965, the Labour government provided a further relaxation which allowed authorities to expand so long as they provided some extra places for teachers to whom priority was to be given add something

 

Increases in national insurance benefits in 1965, 1967, 1968 and 1969 ensured that those dependant on state benefits saw their disposable incomes rise faster than manual wage earners, while income differentials between lower income and higher income workers were marginally narrowed add something

 

Mastering Economic and Social History by David Taylor Polytechnics were established in 1965 through the amalgamation of existing institutions such as colleges of technology, art, and commerce add something

 

Nevertheless, the number of children under five in maintained nursery, primary, and special schools increased only slightly, from 222,000 in 1965 to 239,000 in 1969 add something

 

Owner-occupation in Britain by Stephen Merrett and Fred Gray Altogether, between 1965 and 1970, over 2 million homes had been constructed , more than in any other five-year period since 1918 add something

 

Redundancy payments were introduced in 1965 to lessen the impact of unemployment, earnings-related benefits for unemployment, sickness, industrial injuries and widowhood were introduced in 1966, followed by the replacement of flat-rate family allowances with an earnings-related scheme in 1968 add something

 

The 1965 Housing Act continued a provision for home owners of unfit dwellings purchased between 1939 and 1955 to be compensated at market values add something

 

The Commons Registration Act 1965 provided for the registration of all common land and village greens, whilst under the Countryside Act 1968, local authorities could provide facilities for enjoyment of such lands to which the public has access add something

 

The New Towns Acts of 1965 and 1968 together gave the government the authority to designate any area of land as a site for a New Town add something

 

The Race Relations Act of 1965 outlawed direct discrimination on the grounds of race, colour, and ethnic or national origin in some public places add something

 

Trade unions benefited from the passage of the Trade Dispute Act in 1965 add something

 

The single pension was raised by 12s 6d in March 1965, b y10s in 1967 and by a further 10s in 1969 add something

 

Of longer term significance, Capital Gains Tax was introduced in the UK on 6 April 1965 add something

 

Wilson exhibited his populist touch in June 1965 when he had The Beatles honoured with the award of MBE add something

 

John Desmond Cronin - In 1965, he was offered a peerage; Harold Wilson used George Brown as his intermediary, but Cronin declined, telling Brown that the House of Commons was the best club in the country, and he was reluctant to leave it

 

Geoffrey de Freitas - There was no front bench role for him with Harold Wilson as party leader, but de Freitas led the Labour delegation to the Council of Europe in 1965 and was President of the Council from 1966-1969

 

Patrick Gordon Walker - He was still appointed to the Foreign Office by Harold Wilson and stood for the safe Labour constituency of Leyton in the Leyton by-election in January 1965, losing again, and was forced to resign as Foreign Secretary

 

Hawker Siddeley P.1154 - However, on 2 February 1965, the incoming Labour government, led by Harold Wilson, cancelled the P.1154 on the grounds of cost, along with several other aircraft such as the BAC TSR-2 strike aircraft and Hawker Siddeley HS.681 VSTOL transport

 

BT Group - In March 1965, Tony Benn, the acting Postmaster General, wrote to Harold Wilson, the Prime Minister, proposing that studies be undertaken aimed at converting the Post Office into a nationalised industry


1966

Among the most damaging of the numerous strikes during Wilson's periods in office was a six-week stoppage by the National Union of Seamen, beginning shortly after Wilson's re-election in 1966, and conducted, he claimed, by "politically motivated men" add something

 

Despite various cutbacks after 1966, expenditure on services such as education and health was still much higher as a proportion of national wealth than in 1964 add something

 

From 1966, a circular from several Whitehall ministries was sent to local authorities across the country urging them to provide permanent caravan sites for gypsies add something

 

In 1966, Wilson was created the first Chancellor of the newly created University of Bradford, a position he held until 1985 add something

 

In 1966, five development areas were established, while subsidies were provided for employers recruiting new employees in the Development Areas add something

 

In 1966, the period for which flat rate unemployment was payable was extended to twelve months, while the earnings limit for pensioners was extended add something

 

In 1966, the system of national assistance was overhauled and renamed Supplementary Benefit add something

 

It still stood 371,000 by early 1966 after a steady fall during 1965, but by March 1967 it stood at 631,000 add something

 

Section 11 of the 1966 Local Government Act enabled local authorities to claim grants to recruit additional staff to meet special needs of Commonwealth immigrants add something

 

Such reforms were mostly via private member's bills on 'free votes' in line with established convention, but the large Labour majority after 1966 was undoubtedly more open to such changes than previous parliaments had been add something

 

The 1966 Rating Act introduced the rating of empty properties and provided for the payment of rates in instalments add something

 

The Building Control Act of 1966 introduced building licensing to give priority to housing construction add something

 

The Family Provision Act of 1966 amended a series of pre-existing estate laws mainly related to persons who died interstate add something

 

The National Insurance Act of 1966 introduced more generous provisions for the assessment of certain types of serious disablement caused by industrial injury add something

 

The National Insurance Act of 1966, which introduced supplementary earnings-related benefits for short-term sickness and unemployment, had far-reaching distributional consequences by guaranteeing that insurance benefits rose at the same rate as wages in the late 1960s add something

 

The two leaders met for discussions aboard British warships, in 1966 and in 1968 add something

 

Under the 1966 Social Security Act, newly unemployed individuals were no longer denied assistance during their first month of unemployment, while men who had had their unemployment benefit disallowed for six weeks were no longer subjected to a harsh rule applied by the National Assistance confining their payments to below benefit rate add something

 

Under the Supplementary Benefit Act of 1966, an owner occupier on benefits was entitled to an allowance for repairs, insurance, rates, and reasonable interest charges on a mortgage add something

 

On 28 June 1966 Wilson 'dissociated' his Government from American bombing of the cities of Hanoi and Haiphong add something

 

Christopher Mayhew - After the Wilson government decided to shift British airpower from carrier-based planes to land-based planes and cancel the CVA-01 aircraft carrier programme, in 1966, Mayhew, along with the First Sea Lord, Sir David Luce, resigned

 

Robert Neild - Also in 1966, he was appointed by Harold Wilson as a member of the Fulton Committee on the Civil Service

 

Stuart Blanch, Baron Blanch - In 1966, the Prime Minister, Harold Wilson, invited Blanch to succeed Clifford Martin as Bishop of Liverpool

 

Gordon Oakes - Oakes served as Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Home Secretary from 1966, and in the government of Harold Wilson as a junior minister and as a Minister of State under James Callaghan

 

Edward Heath - The general election of 1966 saw the Labour government of Harold Wilson achieve a large increase in seats, however Heath remained Conservative leader


1967

A new Special Development Status was introduced in 1967 to provide even higher levels of assistance add something

 

After a costly battle, market pressures forced the government into devaluation in 1967 add something

 

An Ombudsman was appointed in 1967 to consider complaints against government departments and to impose remedies, while censorship of plays by the Lord Chamberlain was abolished add something

 

In 1967, Wilson had a different interaction with a musical ensemble add something

 

In 1967, homosexuality was decriminalised by the passage of the Sexual Offences Act. add something

 

In 1967, local authorities were empowered to provide family planning advice to any who requested it and to provide supplies free of charge add something

 

In 1967, the earnings limits for retirement pensioners were raised, while other changes were made in the administration of the earnings rule add something

 

In 1967, the government issued a circular which urged authorities to adopt and publicise rent rebate schemes add something

 

Other co-operative bills enacted during this period included a new Clean Air Act, a bill removing restrictions on off-licences, and a bill to promote agriculture co-operatives passed in 1967, which established "A scheme administered by a new Central Council for Agriculture and Horticulture Co-operation with a budget to organise and promote co-operation with agriculture and horticulture" add something

 

Public expenditure on roads steadily increased and stricter safety precautions were introduced, such as the breathalyser test for drunken driving, under the 1967 Road Traffic Act. The Transport Act gave a much needed financial boost to British Rail, treating them like they were a company which had become bankrupt but could now, under new management, carry on debt-free add something

 

Tax allowances were replaced by grants in order to extend coverage to include firms which were not making a profit, and in 1967 a Regional Employment Premium was introduced add something

 

The 1967 Act increased subsides on new houses to such an extent that it became the largest individual source of subsidy after a previous housing subsidy act of 1946 add something

 

The Criminal Justice Act of 1967 introduced suspended prison sentences and allowed a ten to two majority vote for jury decisions add something

 

Wilson's Government took strong action against the controversial, self-styled "Church" of Scientology in 1967, banning foreign Scientologists from entering the UK, a prohibition which remained in force until 1980 add something

 

After initially hesitating over the issue, Wilson's Government in May 1967 lodged the UK's second application to join the European Community add something

 

Part of the price paid by Wilson after talks with President Johnson in June 1967 for US assistance with the UK economy was his agreement to maintain a military presence East of Suez add something

 

In July 1967 Defence Secretary Denis Healey announced that Britain would abandon her mainland bases East of Suez by 1977, although airmobile forces would be retained which could if necessary be deployed in the region add something

 

Consett Iron Company - Consett Steel Works was renationalised in 1967, this time by Harold Wilson's government, into the British Steel Corporation, at a time when iron, coal and shipbuilding were all in steady decline in Britain

 

Eric Varley - Despite rebelling against the government's application to join the Common Market in 1967, Varley became an Assistant Whip later that year, and Parliamentary Private Secretary to Prime Minister Harold Wilson in November 1968

 

Claus Moser, Baron Moser - However, this did not seem to be a problem when in 1967 Harold Wilson appointed him Director of the Central Statistical Office

 

British Iron and Steel Federation - It continued to exist until 1967 when the industry was nationalized as British Steel during Harold Wilson's first term in government

 

Peggy Duff - She resigned from the Labour Party on 10 May 1967 over Harold Wilson's diplomatic support for the United States in the Vietnam war and refusal to condemn the Greek dictatorship of 'the Colonels'

 

British Steel - BSC was formed from the assets of former private companies which had been nationalised, largely under the Labour government of Harold Wilson, on 28 July 1967

 

Tata Steel Europe - "British Steel Corporation" was a large British steel producer, consisting of the assets of former private companies which had been nationalised on 28 July 1967 by the Labour Party government of Harold Wilson

 

Alfred Robens, Baron Robens of Woldingham - After the report was published in August 1967 he wrote to the Minister of Power offering his resignation, but the Minister and PM Harold Wilson rejected it, although several cabinet members argued strongly that Robens should have been removed

 

National Liberation Front (Yemen) - With the British withdrawing from Aden by the end of November 1967, earlier than had been planned by British Prime Minister Harold Wilson and without an agreement on the succeeding governance

 

Charles de Gaulle - Claiming continental European solidarity, de Gaulle again rejected British entry when they next applied to join the community in December 1967 under the Labour leadership of Harold Wilson.


1968

A Town and Country Planning Act introduced in 1968 provided more local autonomy in town planning add something

 

A further Race Relations Act was passed in 1968, which made discrimination in letting or advertising housing illegal, together with discrimination in hiring and promotion add something

 

Amongst the controversial austerity measures introduced included higher dental charges, the abolition of free school milk in all secondary schools in 1968, increased weekly national insurance contributions, the postponement of the planned rise in the school leaving age to 16, and cuts in road and housing programmes, which meant that the government's house-building target of 500,000 per year was never met add something

 

Due to austerity measures following an economic crisis, prescription charges were re-introduced in 1968 as an alternative to cutting the hospital building programme, although those sections of the population who were most in need were exempted from charges add something

 

From 1968 to 1970, 150 new schools were built under the educational priority programme add something

 

Improvements were made in conditions for nursing staff following the publication of a report by the NBPI in 1968 on the pay of nurses add something

 

In 1968, arguably in response to sensationalist stories about supposed scroungers and welfare cheats, the government made the decision to introduce a controversial new rule terminating benefits for single men under the age of 45 was introduced add something

 

In 1968, the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Social Security were amalgamated into the Department of Health and Social Security, the purpose of which was to coordinate benefits in cash with benefits in kind since the services needed to deal with social insecurity are not cash benefits only, but health and welfare as well add something

 

In 1968, the Nurseries and Child-Minders Regulation Act 1948 was updatedto include more categories of childminders add something

 

In 1968, the Trade Descriptions Act was enacted by parliament, and a farm and garden chemicals bill became law that same year add something

 

In 1968, the universal family allowance was raised for the first time in a decade add something

 

In addition, medical training was expanded following the Todd Report on medical education in 1968 add something

 

In addition, subsidies for farmers were increased, while under the Health Services and Public Health Act of 1968, largely as a result of their insistence, local authorities were granted powers to promote the welfare of elderly people in order to allow them greater flexibility in the provision of services add something

 

In addition, the government's austerity measures led to an unpopular squeeze on consumption in 1968 and 1969 add something

 

That same year, partners were given an equal share of household assets following divorce via the Matrimonial Property Act. The Race Relations Act was extended in 1968 and in 1970 the Equal Pay Act was passed add something

 

The 1968 Transport Act established the principle of government grants for transport authorities if uneconomic passenger services were justified on social grounds add something

 

The Health Services and Public Health Act 1968 empowered local authorities to maintain workshops for the elderly either directly or via the agency of a voluntary body add something

 

This was followed by the Caravan Sites Act, introduced by the Liberal MP Eric Lubbock in 1968, which obliged local authorities to carry out the recommendations of the 19566 circular add something

 

Shortly afterward, in January 1968, Wilson announced that the proposed timetable for this withdrawal was to be accelerated, and that British forces were to be withdrawn from Singapore, Malaysia, and the Persian Gulf by the end of 1971 add something

 

Cudlipp arranged for Mountbatten to meet King on 8 May 1968 add something

 

Eddie Calvert - By 1968 Calvert had become disillusioned with life under the Labour government of Harold Wilson and was especially critical of London's policy towards Rhodesia

 

David Owen - From 1968 to 1970, Owen served as Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for the Navy in Harold Wilson's first government

 

James Wentworth Day - On 6 November 1968 he addressed the Conservative Monday Club on several issues commencing with a defence of the House of Lords following Harold Wilson's White Paper for its reform


1969

By 1969, the Labour Party was suffering serious electoral reverses, and by the turn of 1970 had lost a total of 16 seats in by-elections since the previous general election add something

 

In 1969, a save-as-you-earn scheme was introduced, designed to encourage new savings over a contracted period add something

 

Increases were made in some of the minor allowances in the 1969 Finance Act, notably the additional personal allowance, the age exemption and age relief and the dependent relative limit add something

 

The Children and Young Persons Act of 1969 reformed the juvenile court system and extended local authority duties to provide community homes for juvenile offenders add something

 

The Divorce Reform Act was passed by parliament in 1969 add something

 

The First Wilson Government made assistance to deprived urban communities a specific policy of national government in 1969 with the passage of the Local Government Grants Act, which empowered the Home Secretary to dispense grants to assist local authorities in providing extra help to areas of special social need add something

 

The Housing Improvement Act of 1969, for example, made it easier to turn old houses into new homes by encouraging rehabilitation and modernisation through increased grants to property owners add something

 

The devaluation, with accompanying austerity measures, successfully restored the balance of payments to surplus by 1969 add something

 

The franchise was extended with the reduction of the voting age from twenty-one to eighteen in 1969 add something

 

These allowances were further increased in the tax years 1969-70 and 1970-71 add something

 

With public frustration over strikes mounting, Wilson's government in 1969 proposed a series of changes to the legal basis for industrial relations in the UK, which were outlined in a White Paper "In Place of Strife" put forward by the Employment Secretary Barbara Castle add something

 

In response to a request from the Stormont government, the government agreed to deploy the British Army in August 1969 in an effort to maintain the peace add something

 

However, the large increases in pay given to manual workers in local government in September 1969 subsequently set off a spiral of wage demands in industry, which meant that the improvement in the relative position of the local government manual worker was not sustained add something

 

Percy Cradock - Back in London , Cradock became head of the Planning Staff of the Foreign Office from 1969 to 1971, and an Under-Secretary and head of the Assessments Staff of the Cabinet Office, serving under two Prime Ministers, firstly, Sir Edward Heath, and secondly, Harold Wilson

 

Bob Mellish, Baron Mellish - Mellish was appointed by Harold Wilson as a Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasury which he held during Labour Governments from 1969 to 1970 and again from 1974 to 1976

 

JT Group Limited - This followed on from the takeover of postal services in 1969 after the Harold Wilson government's restructuring of the GPO. The maintenance of the postal telegraph services was taken over by the newly formed States Telecommunications Board


1970

Although national rates of unemployment were higher in 1970 than in the early 1960s, unemployment rates in the development areas were lower and had not increased for three years add something

 

Apart from the age relief, further adjustments in these concessions were implemented in 1970 add something

 

By 1970, income in Britain was more equally distributed than in 1964, mainly because of increases in cash benefits, including family allowances add something

 

By 1970, the economy was showing signs of improvement, and by May that year, Labour had overtaken the Conservatives in the opinion polls add something

 

Economic conditions during the 1970s were becoming more difficult for the UK and many other western economies as a result of the ending of the Bretton Woods Agreement and the 1973 oil shock, and the Heath government in its turn was buffeted by economic adversity and industrial unrest towards the end of 1973, and on 7 February 1974 Heath called a snap election for 28 February add something

 

In 1970, the unemployment rate in development areas was 1,67 times the national average, compared to 2,21 times in 1964 add something

 

Most of these improvements, such as for nurses, came in the pay settlements of 1970 add something

 

The 1970 Chronically Sick & Disabled Persons Act, regarded as a groundbreaking measure, was the first kind of legislation in the world to recognise and give rights to disabled people, and set down specific provisions to improve access and support for people with disabilities add something

 

The bad figures were announced just before polling in the 1970 general election, and are often cited as one of the reasons for Labour's defeat add something

 

This line of argument partly blames Wilson for the civil unrest of the late 1970s , and for the electoral success of the Conservative party and its ensuing 18-year rule add something

 

This unexpectedly turned into a small deficit again in 1970 add something

 

Wilson coined the term 'Selsdon Man' to refer to the anti-interventionist policies of the Conservative leader Edward Heath, developed at a policy retreat held at the Selsdon Park Hotel in early 1970 add something

 

It fell again towards the end of the decade, standing at 582,000 by the time of the general election in June 1970 add something

 

By September 1970, general improvement areas covering 23,254 dwellings had been declared, with work having been completed on 683 dwellings add something

 

John Redcliffe-Maud, Baron Redcliffe-Maud - Accepted by the Labour government of Harold Wilson with minor changes, the opposition from rural areas convinced the Conservative opposition to oppose it and no further action was taken after the Conservatives won the 1970 general election

 

Labour Party (UK) - After losing the 1970 general election, Labour returned to opposition, but retained Harold Wilson as Leader

 

Brian Crozier - Crozier provided advice to the British Secret Intelligence Service, the Information Research Department of the British Foreign Office, and the CIA. Lecturing to Britain's staff college for army officers during the early 1970s, when the Labour Party was in power under Harold Wilson, Crozier stated if the government went too far, it was the armed forces' duty to intervene

 

Eric Miller (businessman) - In the early 1970s, Eric Miller began contributing to the running of Harold Wilson's private office and became a close personal supporter

 

Desmond Brayley, Baron Brayley - On the Prime Minister's defeat in 1970 Sir Desmond made his personal chauffer, Rolls-Royce and London home available to Harold Wilson, who later recommended Brayley for a Knighthood

 

David Edgar (playwright) - The ugly sisters, Harold Wilson and Roy Jenkins, won't let "Tedderella" go to the Common Market Ball when the 1970 general election intervenes

 

Simon Dee - In June 1970, Dee joined his former Radio Caroline boss, Ronan O'Rahilly, to campaign for pirate radio and against the Labour government's Marine Broadcasting Offences Act, issuing a poster of Prime Minister Harold Wilson dressed as Chinese dictator Mao Zedong


1971

Out of office in the autumn of 1971, Wilson formulated a 16-point, 15 year programme that was designed to pave the way for the unification of Ireland add something

 

Michael Milner, 2nd Baron Milner of Leeds - Milner was Assistant Labour Whip from 1971 to 1974 and retired when Harold Wilson became prime minister again


1972

David Owen - He first quit as Labour's spokesman on defence in 1972 in protest at the Labour leader Harold Wilson's attitude to the EEC; he left the Labour Shadow cabinet over the same issue later; and over unilateral disarmament in November 1980 when Michael Foot became Labour leader


1974

In 1974, as many as 750,000 people were liable to pay the top-rate of income tax add something

 

Labour's 1974 manifesto included a pledge to renegotiate terms for Britain's membership and hold a referendum on whether to stay in the EC on the new terms add something

 

The Health and Safety at Work Act of 1974 set up a Health and Safety Commission and Executive and set up a legal framework for health and safety at work add something

 

The Rent Act of 1974 extended security of tenure to tenants of furnished properties and allowed access to rent tribunals add something

 

The second Wilson government implemented a wide-ranging programme of social reform during its two years in office, with spending on education, health, price controls, and housing rents expanded from 1974 to 1976, amongst other reforms add something

 

When Labour won more seats than the Conservative Party in February 1974 and Heath was unable to persuade the Liberals to form a coalition, Wilson returned to 10 Downing Street on 4 March 1974 as Prime Minister of a minority Labour Government add something

 

In May 1974, when back in office as leader of a minority government, Wilson condemned the Unionist-controlled Ulster Workers Council Strike as a "sectarian strike", which was "being done for sectarian purposes having no relation to this century but only to the seventeenth century" add something

 

He gained a three-seat majority in another election later that year, on 10 October 1974 add something

 

Sean Hughes (politician) - He became chairman of Huyton Constituency Labour Party in 1974, an office which had additional significance because the local Labour MP was Harold Wilson who was Prime Minister

 

Harold Walker, Baron Walker of Doncaster - He was a junior whip and junior employment minister in the first Harold Wilson government, and continued being spokesman on employment in opposition, returning to the ministry in 1974

 

Michael Foot - His first Cabinet appointment was as Employment secretary under Harold Wilson in 1974, and later served as Leader of the House of Commons under James Callaghan

 

Christopher Mayhew - Mayhew had been feeling increasingly uneasy with Labour policies under Harold Wilson and in 1974, he defected to the Liberals, being the first Member of Parliament to cross the floor to the Liberals in several decades

 

Charles Morris (politician) - Morris served as Parliamentary Private Secretary to Harold Wilson, as Minister of State at the Department of the Environment from 1974

 

Colin Wallace - The journalist Paul Foot, in his book 'Who framed Colin Wallace', suggested that Wallace may have been framed for the killing, possibly by renegade members of the security services in a bid to discredit his allegations that members of the intelligence community had attempted to rig the 1974 general election after which Harold Wilson came to power with a minority government

 

Michael Foot - When, in 1974, Labour returned to office under Harold Wilson, Foot became Secretary of State for Employment

 

Norton Villiers Triumph - This coincided with the Conservative government of Ted Heath winning the re-election, and the subsidy in light of the Three-Day Week was withdrawn from June 1974, until the Labour Government of Harold Wilson was voted in

 

John Smith (Labour Party leader) - In October 1974, Harold Wilson offered Smith the post of Solicitor General for Scotland

 

Labour Party (UK) - In a bid to gain a proper majority, a second election was soon called for October 1974 in which Labour, still with Harold Wilson as leader, managed a majority of three, gaining just 18 seats and taking its total to 319


1975

A lifelong Gilbert and Sullivan fan, in 1975, Wilson joined the Board of Trustees of the D'Oyly Carte Trust at the invitation of Sir Hugh Wontner, who was the Lord Mayor of London add something

 

Despite its achievements in social policy, however, Wilson's government came under scrutiny in 1975 for the rise in the unemployment rate, with the total number of Britons out of work passing 1,000,000 by April of that year add something

 

In 1975 Wilson secretly offered Libya's Muammar Gaddafi £14 million to stop arming the IRA, but Gaddafi demanded a far greater sum of money add something

 

In 1975, a state earnings related pension scheme was introduced add something

 

The Employment Protection Act of 1975 set up the Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Services to arbitrate in industrial disputes, enlarged the rights of employees and trade unions, extended the redundancy payments scheme, and provided redress against unfair dismissal add something

 

The Social Security Act of 1975 introduced a maternity allowance fund, while the Sex Discrimination Act of 1975 set up an Equal Opportunities Commission and outlawed gender discrimination add something

 

The Social Security Pensions Act of 1975 introduced equal treatment in pension schemes and eliminated the contributions test which limited state pensions for women add something

 

To combat child poverty, legislation to create a universal Child Benefit was introduced in 1975 add something

 

The electorate voted on 5 June 1975 to continue membership, by a substantial majority add something

 

Arthur Davidson (politician) - He was a minister in the Attorney General's Department between 1975 and 1979 under Harold Wilson and James Callaghan

 

David Pitt, Baron Pitt of Hampstead - In 1975, the Prime Minister, Harold Wilson, recommended Pitt's appointment to the House of Lords as a life peer, and he was created "'Baron Pitt of Hampstead"', of Hampstead in Greater London and of Hampstead in Grenada


1976

Beyond this, by 1976 he might already have been aware of the first stages of early-onset Alzheimer's disease, which was to cause both his formerly excellent memory and his powers of concentration to fail dramatically add something

 

On 16 March 1976, Wilson surprised the nation by announcing his resignation as Prime Minister add something

 

Albert Stallard, Baron Stallard - He became a government whip in early 1976, when Jim Callaghan replaced Harold Wilson

 

Reg Freeson - He retained his ministerial office when James Callaghan took over from Harold Wilson in 1976, becoming a privy counsellor that year, and retained his office until Labour's defeat at the 1979 general election

 

Francis Newall, 2nd Baron Newall - He took his seat as a Conservative member of the Lords shortly following the return to power of Labour Prime Minister Harold Wilson, and served as an opposition spokesman and whip from 1976, his tenure ending upon the victory and accession to power of Margaret Thatcher

 

Bob Mellish, Baron Mellish - He was loyal to the Labour Party leader Harold Wilson and apparently wept when he heard the news that he had resigned as Prime Minister in 1976

 

Don Concannon - Under Harold Wilson and James Callaghan , he served as a Government whip and as Northern Ireland minister, and was appointed a member of the Privy Council in 1978

 

Michael Winstanley, Baron Winstanley - Winstanley was made a life peer, with the title of Baron Winstanley, of Urmston in Greater Manchester, on 23 January 1976 during Harold Wilson's second term as Prime Minister


1978

At Christmas 1978, Wilson appeared on the "Morecambe and Wise" Christmas Special add something


1979

In the third ballot on 5 April, Callaghan defeated Foot in a parliamentary vote of 176 to 137, thus becoming Wilson's successor as Prime Minister and leader of the Labour Party, and remained prime minister until May 1979, when Labour lost the general election to the Conservatives and Margaret Thatcher became Britain's first female prime minister add something

 

Sean Hughes (politician) - During the 1979 election campaign, Sir Harold Wilson intimated that it would be his last contest


1980

Labour's identification with high tax rates was to prove one of the issues that helped the Conservative Party under Margaret Thatcher and John Major dominate British politics during the 1980s and early-to-mid-1990s add something

 

Richard Hough, in his 1980 biography of Mountbatten, indicates that Mountbatten was approached during the 1960s in connection with a scheme to install an "emergency government" in place of Wilson's administration add something

 

This co-existence did not long survive his leadership, and the factionalism that followed contributed greatly to the Labour Party's electoral weakness during the 1980s add something

 

Wilson appeared on the show again in 1980 add something

 

Michael Foot - Gerald Kaufman, once Harold Wilson's press officer and during the 1980s prominent on the Labour right, described the 1983 Labour manifesto as "the longest suicide note in history"

 

Roderick MacFarquhar - He was a Fellow of the Woodrow Wilson Centre in Washington D.C. in 1980-81 and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences since 1986


1983

On leaving the House of Commons after the 1983 general election he was created "'Baron Wilson of Rievaulx"', after Rievaulx Abbey, in the north of his native Yorkshire add something

 

Sean Hughes (politician) - Sir Harold Wilson wrote in April 1983 that Huyton CLP had "consistently kept the extreme left-wing faction in check" and stated that Hughes had twice been responsible for proposing motions which defeated left-wing manoeuvring intended to take over the party – including one quite recent attempt


1984

Wilson was not especially active in the House of Lords, although he did initiate a debate on unemployment in May 1984 add something


1986

His last speech was in a debate on marine pilotage in 1986, when he commented as an elder brother of Trinity House add something

 

Stephen Hastings - In 1986 Hastings successfully sued The Observer for libel following allegations that he had been one of two Conservative MPs involved in an MI5 plot to oust Harold Wilson


1987

In March 1987, James Miller, a former agent, claimed that the Ulster Workers Council Strike of 1974 had been promoted by MI5 in order to help destabilise Wilson's government add something

 

In July 1987, Labour MP Ken Livingstone used his maiden speech to raise the 1975 allegations of a former Army Press officer in Northern Ireland, Colin Wallace, who alleged a plot to destabilise Wilson add something


1988

Not long after Wilson's retirement, his mental deterioration from Alzheimer's disease began to be apparent, and he did not appear in public after 1988 when he unveiled the Clement Attlee statue at Limehouse Library on 30 November of that year add something

 

Chris Mullin, MP, speaking on 23 November 1988, argued that sources other than Peter Wright supported claims of a long-standing attempt by MI5 to undermine Wilson's government add something

 

Clement Attlee - On 30 November 1988, a bronze statue of Clement Attlee was unveiled by Harold Wilson outside Limehouse Library in his former constituency


1994

He continued regularly attending the House of Lords until just over a year before his death; the last sitting he attended was on 27 April 1994 add something


Harold Wilson died in 1995 add something

 

Wilson died from colon cancer and Alzheimer's Disease in May 1995, aged 79 add something

 

His memorial service was held in Westminster Abbey on 13 July 1995 add something

 

Mary Wilson, Lady Wilson of Rievaulx - Mary was widowed on 24 May 1995 when Harold Wilson died of colorectal cancer and Alzheimer's disease after 10 years of illness


2000

He famously floundered in the role, and in 2000, Channel 4 chose it as one of the 100 Moments of TV Hell add something


2004

In addition, this was investigated by journalist John Pilger's in his Stealing A Nation documentary that was released in 2004 add something


2005

Files released on 1 June 2005 show that Wilson was concerned that, while on the Isles of Scilly, he was being monitored by Russian ships disguised as trawlers add something


2006

Also in 2006, a street on a new housing development in Tividale, West Midlands, was named Wilson Drive in honour of Wilson add something

 

In September 2006, Blair unveiled a second bronze statue of Wilson in his former constituency of Huyton, near Liverpool add something

 

In November 2006 it was reported that Giles had given up his teaching job and become a train driver for South West Trains add something


2009

This offer did not become publicly known until 2009 add something


2010

In 2010 newspaper reports made detailed allegations that the bugging of 10 Downing Street had been omitted from the history for "wider public interest reasons" add something


2011

An opinion poll in September 2011 found that Wilson came in third place when respondents were asked to name the best post-war Labour Party leader add something