Iranian Revolution

Knowledge Identifier: !Iranian_Revolution

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Iranian Revolution

Relatively non-violent revolution, and helped to redefine the meaning and practice of modern revolutionsadd

Category: Politics

Activity starting in 1978.

Countries: Iran (54%), (12%), United States (11%)

Main connections: Ruhollah Khomeini, Muhammad, Islamism

Linked to: Tudeh Party of Iran, SAVAK, Leftist guerrilla groups of Iran, BBC

 

Timeline


 

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1978

By late 1978 the Shah was in search of a prime minister and offered the job to a series of liberal oppositionists add something

 

By late 1978, Khomeini and his supporters courted the secular democratic opposition as well, and they joined as well for similar reasons as the leftists add something

 

By late 1978, it became widely preached among leftists that "Islam" and "Marxism" were perfectly compatible , and allowed for the politicization of religion, which previously had been unheard of in Shia Islamic history add something

 

By summer 1978, these workers, often from traditional rural backgrounds, joined the street protests in massive numbers add something

 

Finally, in the last days of 1978, Dr. Shapour Bakhtiar, a long time opposition leader, accepted the post and was promptly expelled from the oppositional movement add something

 

While 500,000 people had taken part in pre-martial law demonstrations, by the end of 1978 the numbers had risen to 7-8 million, with the people largely mobilized and organized in part by Khomeini's media outreach add something

 

The article was published on January 7, 1978 add something

 

A span of four months, between October 1978 and January 1979, would prove to be the decisive period that would result in the overthrow of the Shah's government add something

 

Between August and December 1978 strikes and demonstrations paralyzed the country add something


1979

From early 1979 to either 1982 or 1983 Iran was in a "revolutionary crisis mode" add something

 

In this interim period of "disaffected calm" the budding Iranian revival began to undermine the idea of Westernization as progress that was the basis of the Shah's secular reign, and to form the ideology of the 1979 revolution add something

 

Muslim Brotherhood - Iranian Revolution - At that time Navab Safavi now based in the UK where associates and allies of Ayatollah Khomeini who went on to become a figure in the Iranian Revolution of 1979

 

Ahmed Zaki Yamani - Iranian Revolution - In 1979 the Iranian Revolution resulted in the 1979 energy crisis

 

Ahmad Khomeini - Iranian Revolution - Khomeini was close to his father, the leader of the Iranian Revolution of 1979

 

Nuclear program of Iran - Iranian Revolution - The participation of the United States and Western European governments in Iran's nuclear program continued until the 1979 Iranian Revolution that toppled the Shah of Iran

 

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi - Iranian Revolution - The rumors and constant talk of his, and his family's corruption greatly damaged his reputation and lead to the creation of the Pahlavi Foundation in the same year and the return of some 2,000 villages inherited by his father back to the people often at very low and discount prices, however it can be argued that this was too little too late as the royal family's wealth and corruption can be seen as one of the factors behind the Iranian revolution in 1979

 

Mehdi Hashemi - Iranian Revolution - Upon his release from prison by the successor security agency SAVAMA, following the 1979 Iranian Revolution, Hashemi was celebrated as a "religious hero

 

Shapour Bonyad - A few months after the 1979 Iranian Revolution, Bonyad returned to Iran but because of his political beliefs could not continue his activities in his homeland

 

Marsden Point Oil Refinery - A second global oil shock in 1979, this time due to the Iranian revolution, greatly increased the price of oil again

 

Heshmat Mohajerani - After 1979 Islamic Revoloution in Iran, Mohajerani moved to the United Arab Emirates and pursued his coaching with of Al-Shaab in Sharjah

 

Shohreh Aghdashloo - After establishing a theatre and film career in Iran, Aghdashloo moved to England during the Iranian Revolution in 1979, and subsequently became a citizen of the United States

 

Javad Allahverdi - After the Iranian Revolution he remained playing for Persepolis winning the Iranian nationwide tournament Espandi Cup and the Tehran Hazfi Cup in 1979 as well as reaching the runners-up position in Tehran Province League and in Tehran Hazfi Cup in 1981

 

Googoosh - After the Iranian Revolution in 1979, she is famously known for remaining in Iran until 2000 and not performing again due to the ban on female singers

 

Imperial Bank of Persia - After the Iranian Revolution of 1979, all the Iranian activities of this bank were transferred to Bank Tejarat

 

Anoushiravan Rohani - After the Iranian Revolution of 1979, he continued his composing in the Western world, principally based in Los Angeles and Germany, where he recorded albums under the MZM records labels

 

Loris Tjeknavorian - After the Iranian Revolution of 1979, he emigrated to the Soviet Union and to Austria, where he received Austrian citizenship under Chancellor Bruno Kreisky

 

Mohammad-Ali Najafi - After the Iranian revolution of 1979, Najafi returned to Iran, immediately beginning his political career

 

Deutsche Babcock - After the 1979 Iranian Revolution the shareholding in Krupp and Deutsche Babcock remained the largest Iranian investments in Germany

 

Mohammad Heydari - After the 1979 Iranian Revolution, Mohammad Heydari left the country for Italy and a few years later moved to Los Angeles , where he continued his activities as a soloist and songwriter

 

Mohammad Ali Fardin - After the 1979 Iranian Revolution, he starred in only one more film, and his earlier films were eventually banned

 

Mehdi Dibaj - After the 1979 Iranian revolution he encountered difficulties

 

Heshmat Sanjari - After the 1979 Iranian revolution, the new government look to music as a promotion of western culture, against Islamic values, so Sanjari and orchestra played only a few concerts in 10 years after revolution, the pressure of this new situation made him seriously sick in 1989 and after 5 years he died on January 4, 1995

 

Cold War - Although President Jimmy Carter tried to place another limit on the arms race with a SALT II agreement in 1979, his efforts were undermined by the other events that year, including the Iranian Revolution and the KGB-backed Nicaraguan Revolution, which both ousted pro-US regimes, and his retaliation against Soviet intervention in Afghanistan in December 0

 

Samuel M. Jordan - Although after the 1979 Iranian Revolution this street's name was changed , the old name is still widely used

 

Mir-Hossein Mousavi - Anti-Ahmadinejad protesters chanted the English-language phrase in numbers not seen since the 1979 Iranian Revolution, in an attempt to receive international attention

 

Reza Aslan - Aslan's family came to the United States from Tehran in 1979, fleeing the Iranian Revolution

 

Farhad Mehrad - Before the 1979 Iranian Revolution and during the political conflicts of the 1970s in Iran, Farhad recorded six songs with revolutionary messages that became the Iranian's voice of unity

 

Roya Hakakian - Born and raised in a Persian Jewish family in Tehran, Hakakian lived through the Iranian Revolution in 1979 and actively supported it along with other liberals

 

Shirin Ebadi - Following the Iranian revolution in 1979, conservative clerics insisted that Islam prohibits women from becoming judges and Ebadi was demoted to a secretarial position at the branch where she had previously presided

 

Marzieh (singer) - Following the Islamic Revolution of 1979 public performances and broadcasts of record albums by solo female singers were banned outright for ten years

 

Abdul Alim Musa - Following the 1979 Iranian Revolution, Musa publicly expressed his support for the Islamic Republic and its leader Ayatollah Khomeini

 

Bahrain - Following the 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran in 1981, the Bahraini Shia population orchestrated a failed coup attempt under the auspices of a front organisation, the Islamic Front for the Liberation of Bahrain

 

Mitch Pileggi - For a while he worked in Iran as a defense contractor, until the 1979 Iranian revolution caused him and his brother to have to flee the country, escaping to Greece

 

Hadi Khorsandi - He has lived in exile in London since the 1979 Iranian Revolution, following criticism of the new regime

 

Hasan Arfa - He left Iran at the time of the Iranian Revolution of 1979 and died in France in 1984

 

Kalim Siddiqui - He publicly declared his support for the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and was later a defender of Ayatullah Khomeini's fatwa against Salman Rushdie

 

Javad Yasari - He released five albums in Iran before the 1979 Iranian Revolution

 

Iraj Pezeshkzad - He served as a diplomat until the Iranian revolution in 1979, and left the Foreign Service to reside in France after the revolution, where he joined Shapour Bakhtiar and his party the National Movement of Iranian Resistance against the Islamic regime established in Iran

 

Hussein-Ali Montazeri - He was one of the leaders of the Iranian Revolution in 1979

 

Lockheed C-5 Galaxy - However no C-5 aircraft were ever ordered by Iran, as the prospect was firmly halted by the Iranian Revolution in 1979

 

Bahram Bayzai - However, despite the value of his films and his substantial knowledge of the arts, like other Iranian film directors such as Abbas Kiarostami, the Government of Iran has never supported his career, neither before nor after the 1979 Iranian Revolution

 

Feminism - However, during the Iranian revolution of 1979, many of the rights that women had gained from the women's movement were systematically abolished, such as the Family Protection Law

 

Michel Foucault - In 1979 Foucault made two tours of Iran, undertaking extensive interviews with political protagonists in support of the new interim government established soon after the Iranian Revolution.

 

Mehdi Karroubi - In 1979, he joined the Iranian Revolution

 

William Tuohy - In 1979, when fellow Los Angeles Times correspondent Joe Alex Morris Jr. was killed in the early days of the Iranian Revolution, Tuohy hired a Learjet and flew into Tehran airport, even though the airport was closed to traffic and occupied by the Revolutionary Guards

 

National Iranian Oil Company - In Iran, IOP continued to operate until the Islamic Revolution in 1979

 

Islamism - In a major shock to the rest of the world, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini led the Iranian Revolution of 1979 to overthrow the oil-rich, well-armed, Westernized and pro-American secular monarchy ruled by Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi

 

Morteza Motahhari - In honor of Morteza Motahhari, a major street in Tehran was named after him upon his death shortly after the Iranian revolution in 1979

 

The Muslim Institute - In the wake of the 1979 Iranian Revolution, Siddiqui became a strong supporter of the regime in Iran

 

Reza Zanjani - In the years before the 1979 Islamic Revolution he is said to have "retained close contacts with the secular National Front as well as the religious-minded Freedom Movement of Iran

 

Muhammad Iqbal - Iqbal's "Asrare-i-Khudi" and famous "Bal-i-Jibreel" enjoy mass popularity in Iran and are taken as a way of life, while many scholars in Iran have recognised the importance of Iqbal's poetry in inspiring and sustaining the Iranian Revolution of 1979

 

Wine - Iran had previously had a thriving wine industry that disappeared after the Islamic Revolution in 1979

 

Mobarakeh Steel Company - It was first commissioned after the Iranian Revolution in 1979 and officially initiated operations during 1993

 

Ross Perot - Just prior to the 1979 Iranian Revolution, the government of Iran imprisoned two EDS employees in a contract dispute

 

Kazem Rajavi - Kazem Rajavi was Iran's first Ambassador to the United Nations headquarters in Geneva following the 1979 Iranian Revolution

 

Masoud Dehnamaki - Massoud Dehnamaki took part in the 1979 Iranian revolution

 

Tahmineh Milani - Milani is known for touching controversial and sensitive issues, including women's rights and the 1979 Iranian Revolution

 

Brigitte Gabriel - She cites examples such as the Iranian Revolution of 1979 and the rise of Hamas as bringing to the forefront radical Islamic ideologies that are rooted in "religious hatred, humiliation, and resentment" of Israel and the West

 

Kurds - Since the Iranian Revolution of 1979, accusations of "discrimination" by Western organizations and of "foreign involvement" by Iranian side have become very frequent

 

World Jewish Congress - Since the Islamic revolution in 1979, and in particular following the terrorist attacks against the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires in February 1992 and the AMIA Jewish center in Buenos Aires in July 1994, in which over 100 people were killed and which Iran's leadership was accused of having masterminded, the World Jewish Congress has been vocal in denouncing what it calls the Iranian threat

 

Saddam Hussein - The Ba'ath Party was increasingly concerned about potential Shi'a Islamist influence following the Iranian Revolution of 1979.

 

Democratic Revolutionary Front for the Liberation of Arabistan - The DRFLA claims to have taken part in the Iranian Revolution of 1979, assisting Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini's coup d'etat which overthrew the Shah

 

Union of Iranian Communists (Sarbedaran) - The UIC expanded its activities inside the Iran after the Iranian Revolution in 1979 and some other groups such as Group of struggle in the path of working class liberation and Red Battle joined

 

Islamic Republic of Iran Army - The number of CH-47Cs in service was estimated as 20 though 57 were delivered before the 1979 Iranian Revolution

 

Union of Communist Militants - The organization took part in the Iranian Revolution of 1979 marked by the creation of workers' councils

 

The Tehran Times - These codes of dress are enforced by the Basij, the morality police of the Iranian regime established by Ayatollah Khomeini in 1979 after the Iranian Revolution

 

Esfandiar Rahim Mashaei - They accuse Mashaei of plotting to oust the generation of clerics who have ruled Iran since the 1979 Iranian Revolution and of promoting direct relations with God, instead of through clerical intermediaries

 

Ali Larijani - They moved to Iran after the Iranian Revolution in 1979

 

Javad Mojabi - This group ceased functioning in 1979 following the Iranian revolution

 

Paul Bucha - When several EDS employees were detained during the 1979 Iranian Revolution, he was involved in the effort to free them

 

Tehran Times - "'Tehran Times"' began in 1979 as a foreign-language newspaper to air the voice of the Islamic Revolution

 

On January 16, 1979 the Shah and the empress left Iran add something

 

The Shah left Iran for exile on January 16, 1979 as the last Persian monarch, leaving his duties to a regency council and an opposition based prime minister add something

 

Despite this the guerrillas did help play an important part in the final February 1979 overthrow add something

 

Ahmad Khomeini - He helped coordinate affairs during and after the Iranian Revolution, in Khomeini's office in Paris and subsequent to the ayatollah's return to Iran in February 1979

 

Chobham armour - When this order was cancelled in February 1979 because of the Iranian Revolution, the British government, under pressure to modernise its tank fleet to maintain a qualitative superiority relative to the Soviet tank forces, decided to use the sudden surplus production capacity to procure a number of vehicles very close in design to the Shir-2, called the Challenger 1

 

On February 1, 1979 Ayatollah Khomeini returned to Tehran in a chartered Air France Boeing 747 add something

 

These revolts began in April 1979 and lasted between several months to over a year, depending on the region add something

 

Iran voted by national referendum to become an Islamic Republic on April 1, 1979, and to approve a new theocratic-republican constitution whereby Khomeini became Supreme Leader of the country, in December 1979 add something

 

In May 1979, the Furqan Group assassinated an important lieutenant of Khomeini, Morteza Motahhari add something

 

The Revolutionary Guard, or "Pasdaran-e Enqelab", was established by Khomeini on May 5, 1979 as a counterweight both to the armed groups of the left, and to the Shah's military add something

 

In June 1979 the Freedom Movement released its draft constitution for the Islamic Republic that it had been working on since Khomeini was in exile add something

 

Bank Saderat Iran - On 7 June 1979, after the Iranian Revolution, all Iranian private banks were nationalized, quite to the dismay of the founding families, and became state-owned

 

In succession the National Democratic Front was banned in August 1979, the provisional government was disempowered in November, the Muslim People's Republican Party banned in January 1980, the People's Mujahedin of Iran guerrillas came under attack in February 1980, a purge of universities was begun in March 1980, and leftist Islamist Abolhassan Banisadr was impeached in June 1981 add something

 

In late October 1979, the exiled and dying Shah was admitted into the United States for cancer treatment add something

 

Special Activities Division - In November 1979, a group of Islamist students and militants took over the American embassy in support of the Iranian Revolution

 

On November 4, 1979 youthful Islamists, calling themselves Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, invaded the embassy compound and seized its staff add something

 

The provisional government fell shortly after American Embassy officials were taken hostage on 4 November 1979 add something

 

Pashtun people - After the Iranian Revolution, deaths of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and Nur Muhammad Taraki, the Soviet Union invaded its southern neighbor Afghanistan in December 1979 to help the Afghan government defeat a nationwide insurgency


1980

Overall, Iran's Human development Index rating has climbed significantly from 0,569 in 1980 to 0,732 in 2002, on par with neighbour Turkey add something

 

Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan - Established in the early 1980s in Jhang by Maulana Haq Nawaz Jhangvi, its stated goal is to primarily to deter major Shiite influence in Pakistan in the wake of the Iranian Revolution

 

Walid al-Kubaisi - He notes that the hijab was only created in the 1980s after Ayatollah Khomeini's Iranian revolution, and that it unlike national Islamic dresses like the burqa, is a dress exclusively created for the universal political Islamist movement

 

Nader Naderpour - Naderpour fled the Iranian Revolution in 1980 for France and resided there until 1987

 

Presidential election - The first Presidential election in Iran was held in 1980, following the Iranian Revolution of 1979 which resulted in the overthrow of the monarchy, although the President's power is second to the Supreme Leader who has absolute power in the government

 

By January 1980 "at least 582 persons had been executed add something

 

In January 1980 Abolhassan Banisadr was elected president of Iran add something

 

In September 1980 the Arab Nationalist and Sunni Muslim-dominated regime of Saddam Hussein of neighboring Iraq invaded Iran in an attempt to take advantage of revolutionary chaos and destroy the revolution in its infancy add something


1981

Mohsen Nourbakhsh - Nourbakhsh first came into office shortly after the Iranian Revolution as the deputy finance minister until 1981 after his bid for finance minister was rejected by president Abolhassan Banisadr who later defected

 

Defense Industries Organization - The Iranian Revolution halted all the military activities of the MIO. Plagued by the upheavals of the time, the MIO was left unable to operate without foreign specialists and technicians; by 1981 it had lost much of its management ability and control over its industrial facilities ://www

 

Pars Khodro - These were built until 1981, the Iranian Revolution forcing the cessation of their manufacture and links with GM.

 

It ended with the signing of the Algiers Accords in Algeria on January 19, 1981 add something

 

When leaders of the National Front called for a demonstration in June 1981 in favor of Banisadr, Khomeini threatened its leaders with the death penalty for apostasy "if they did not repent add something

 

The MEK retaliated with a campaign of terror against the IRP. On the June 28, 1981, a bombing of the office of the IRP killed around 70 high-ranking officials, cabinet members and members of parliament, including Mohammad Beheshti, the secretary-general of the party and head of the Islamic Republic's judicial system add something


1982

By early 1982 Iran regained almost all the territory lost to the invasion add something

 

Yet, by 1982 Khomeini and his supporters had crushed the rival factions, defeated local rebellions and consolidated power add something

 

Peter Jennings - Jennings reported on the Iranian Revolution and subsequent hostage crisis, the assassination of Sadat, the Falklands war, Israel's 1982 invasion of Lebanon, and Pope John Paul II's 1983 visit to Poland


1988

Population growth was first encouraged, but discouraged after 1988 add something


1989

The Ayatollah Khomeini's 1989 fatwa calling for the killing of Indian-born British citizen Salman Rushdie had international impact add something

 

Ali Khamenei - Seyyed Ali Khamenei succeeded Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the Iranian Revolution, after Khomeini's death, being elected as the new Supreme Leader by the Assembly of Experts on 4 June 1989


1993

Farhad Mehrad - His first concert after the Iranian Revolution was held in 1993

 

Nasser Yeganeh - Yeganeh fled to the United States following the Iranian revolution and on 15 November, 1993 committed suicide on his boat in Washington, D.C.


2001

In 2001, an Iranian newspaper was shut down after it implied that Khomeini himself ordered the attack add something

 

Karafarin Bank - Established in 2001, it is now one of Iran's leading private banks and the first private bank to be established since the Iranian revolution in 1979


2002

By 2002, illiteracy rates dropped by more than half add something


2004

" Cambridge, MA & London: Harvard University Press, 2004 add something


2009

Masoud Jafari Jozani - His 2009 film "In the Wind's Eye", the conclusion to his television series "Dar Chashm-e Baad", was partially filmed in Los Angeles, making it the first Iranian production to be shot in the United States since the 1979 Iranian Revolution

 

Islamic Republic of Iran Army - The number of AH-1Js in service was estimated by the IISS in 2009 as 50, though 202 were delivered before the 1979 Iranian Revolution

 

Iran and the West - "'Iran and the West"' is the name of a three-part British documentary series shown in February 2009 on BBC Two to mark the 30th anniversary of the Iranian Revolution


2011

Selected findings on 2011 Population and Housing Census add something


2014

Transparency International, the international anti-corruption lobby, ranks Iran 136th out of 175 countries in transparency or lack of corruption for 2014 index add something


2019

Effective 15 April 2019,US put Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps ,IRGC in Foreign Terrorist Organizations add something