The Hobbit
Peter Jackson
(Movies & TV)
C. S. Lewis
Blackwell UK
Joseph Stalin

See also

J. R. R. Tolkien

Knowledge Identifier: +J._R._R._Tolkien


J. R. R. Tolkien

English writer, poet, philologist, and university professoradd

Category: Literature

Born in 1892.

Countries: United Kingdom (59%), United States (12%), (12%)

Main connections: The Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit, Merton College, Oxford

Linked to: Pembroke College, Oxford, Exeter College, Oxford, King Edward's School, Birmingham, British Army




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J. R. R. Tolkien was born in 1892 add something


Tolkien had one sibling, his younger brother, Hilary Arthur Reuel, who was born on 17 February 1894. add something


Soon after, in 1896, they moved to Sarehole, a Worcestershire village, later annexed to Birmingham . add something


Mabel Tolkien was received into the Roman Catholic Church in 1900 despite vehement protests by her Baptist family, who stopped all financial assistance to her. add something


Tolkien attended King Edward's School, Birmingham , and later St. Philip's School, before winning a Foundation Scholarship and returning to King Edward's School. add something


In 1904, when Tolkien was 12, she died of acute diabetes at Fern Cottage in Rednal, which she was renting. add something


At the age of 16, Tolkien met Edith Mary Bratt, who was three years older, when he and his brother Hilary moved into the boarding house in which she lived. add something


During the summer of 1909, they decided that they were in love. add something


In 1911, Tolkien went on a summer holiday in Switzerland, a trip that he recollects vividly in a 1968 letter, noting that Bilbo's journey across the Misty Mountains ("including the glissade down the slithering stones into the pine woods") is directly based on his adventures as their party of 12 hiked from Interlaken to Lauterbrunnen and on to camp in the moraines beyond Mürren. add something


In 1911, while they were at King Edward's School, Birmingham , Tolkien and three friends, Rob Gilson, Geoffrey Smith and Christopher Wiseman, formed a semi-secret society which they called the "T.C.B.S.", the initials standing for "Tea Club and Barrovian Society", alluding to their fondness for drinking tea in Barrow's Stores near the school and, secretly, in the school library. add something


The 1911 census of England and Wales shows Tolkien (occupation "school") lodging at 4 Highfield Road, Edgbaston, along with his brother Hilary (occupation "hardware merchant's clerk"). add something


Edith and Ronald were formally engaged in Birmingham , in January 1913, and married at Warwick, England, at Saint Mary Immaculate Catholic Church on 22 March 1916. add something


In 1914, the United Kingdom entered World War I. Tolkien's relatives were shocked when he elected not to immediately volunteer for the British Army. add something


One has indeed personally to come under the shadow of war to feel fully its oppression; but as the years go by it seems now often forgotten that to be caught in youth by 1914 was no less hideous an experience than to be involved in 1939 and the following years. add something


After leaving school, the members stayed in touch and, in December 1914, they held a "council" in London at Wiseman's home. add something


Instead, Tolkien entered a program wherein he delayed enlisting until completing his degree in July 1915. add something


Blackwell UK - Blackwell's began the careers of many writers: in 1915 J. R. R. Tolkien's first poem, "Goblin's Feet", was published


On 27 October 1916 Tolkien came down with trench fever, a disease carried by the lice which were common in the dugouts. add something


Tolkien was invalided to England on 8 November 1916. add something


It was first conceived in a small woodland glade filled with hemlocks at Roos in Yorkshire. add something


The Harrogate plaque commemorates a residence where Tolkien convalesced from trench fever in 1917, while the Oxford plaque marks his home from 1953–1968 at 76 Sandfield Road, Headington. add something


The Tolkiens had four children: John Francis Reuel Tolkien (17 November 1917 – 22 January 2003), Michael Hilary Reuel Tolkien (22 October 1920 – 27 February 1984), Christopher John Reuel Tolkien and Priscilla Mary Anne Reuel Tolkien. add something


In 1920, he became Reader in English Language at the University of Leeds, where he claimed credit for raising the number of students of linguistics from five to twenty. add something


In 1920, he took up a post as Reader in English Language at the University of Leeds, and became the youngest professor there. add something


In 1925, he returned to Oxford as Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon, with a fellowship at Pembroke College. add something


When in 1925, aged thirty-three, Tolkien applied for the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professorship of Anglo-Saxon at Pembroke College, Oxford, he boasted that his students of Germanic philology in Leeds had even formed a "Viking Club". add something


C. S. Lewis - R. Tolkien (J._R._R._Tolkien), whom he seems to have met for the first time on 11 May 1926, and by the book The Everlasting Man by G. K. Chesterton.


C. S. Lewis - After his conversion to theism in 1929, Lewis converted to Christianity in 1931, following a long discussion and late-night walk with his close friends Tolkien (J._R._R._Tolkien) and Hugo Dyson.


Tolkien considered languages inseparable from the mythology associated with them, and he consequently took a dim view of auxiliary languages: in 1930 a congress of Esperantists were told as much by him, in his lecture A Secret Vice, "Your language construction will breed a mythology", but by 1956 he had concluded that "Volapük, Esperanto, Ido, Novial, c, c, are dead, far deader than ancient unused languages, because their authors never invented any Esperanto legends". add something


He published a philological essay in 1932 on the name "Nodens", following Sir Mortimer Wheeler's unearthing of a Roman Asclepeion at Lydney Park, Gloucestershire, in 1928. add something


The story was inspired by Tolkien's own vehicular mishaps with his first car, purchased in 1932. add something


From around 1936, Tolkien began to extend this framework to include the tale of The Fall of Númenor, which was inspired by the legend of Atlantis. add something


Tolkien's 1936 lecture, "Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics," had a lasting influence on Beowulf research. add something

Major work

1937 - The Hobbit by J. R. R. Tolkien


In 1938, the publishing house Rütten & Loening Verlag was preparing to release The Hobbit in Nazi Germany. add something


In January 1939, he was asked whether he would be prepared to serve in the cryptographical department of the Foreign Office in the event of national emergency. add something


In 1945, Tolkien moved to Merton College, Oxford, becoming the Merton Professor of English Language and Literature, in which post he remained until his retirement in 1959. add something


Merton College, Oxford - Author J. R. R. Tolkien was Merton Professor of English Language and Literature and Fellow of Merton from 1945 to 1959


Merton College, Oxford - The college is associated with a number of notable people, including author J. R. R. Tolkien who was Merton Professor of English Language and Literature from 1945 to 1959


In 1946, he rejected suggestions for illustrations by Horus Engels for the German edition of The Hobbit as "too Disnified . add something


Tolkien completed The Lord of the Rings in 1948, close to a decade after the first sketches. add something


In a 1951 letter to Milton Waldman, Tolkien wrote about his intentions to create a "body of more or less connected legend", of which "he cycles should be linked to a majestic whole, and yet leave scope for other minds and hands, wielding paint and music and drama". add something


In 1954 Tolkien received an honorary degree from the National University of Ireland. add something


Thank you for sending me the projected 'blurbs', which I return. add something


Preadolescence - The term was previously used in J. R. R. Tolkien's 1954 novel "The Lord of the Rings" to refer to Hobbits in their twenties: "tweens" as Hobbits called the irresponsible twenties between childhood and the coming of age at thirty-three


H. Auden in 1955, "I am a West-midlander by blood. add something


Privately, Tolkien was attracted to "things of racial and linguistic significance", and in his 1955 lecture English and Welsh, which is crucial to his understanding of race and language, he entertained notions of "inherent linguistic predilections", which he termed the "native language" as opposed to the "cradle-tongue" which a person first learns to speak. add something

Major work

1955 - The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien


During his life in retirement, from 1959 up to his death in 1973, Tolkien received steadily increasing public attention and literary fame. add something


However, in 1961, Tolkien sharply criticized a Swedish commentator who suggested that The Lord of the Rings was an anti-communist parable and identified the Dark Lord with Stalin. add something


Joseph Wright (linguist) - Writing to his son Michael in 1963, J. R. R. Tolkien reflected on his time studying with Wright thus: "Years before I had rejected as disgusting cynicism by an old vulgarian the words of warning given me by old Joseph Wright


He commented in 1965, while editing The Hobbit for a third edition, that he would have preferred to completely rewrite the book because of the style of its prose. add something


Tolkien translated the Book of Jonah for the Jerusalem Bible, which was published in 1966. add something


In a 1967 letter to W. H. Auden, Tolkien wrote, "Thank you for your wonderful effort in translating and reorganizing The Song of the Sibyl. add something


He was not implacably opposed to the idea of a dramatic adaptation, however, and sold the film, stage and merchandise rights of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings to United Artists in 1968. add something


In 1968, he objected to a description of Middle-earth as "Nordic", a term he said he disliked because of its association with racialist theories. add something


I never called Edith Luthien – but she was the source of the story that in time became the chief part of the Silmarillion. add something


Tolkien was appointed by Queen Elizabeth II a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the New Year Honours of 1 January 1972 and received the insignia of the Order at Buckingham Palace on 28 March 1972. add something


J. R. R. Tolkien died in 1973 add something


When Tolkien died 21 months later on 2 September 1973, at the age of 81, he was buried in the same grave, with Beren added to his name. add something


Ralph Bakshi - In late 1976, Bakshi learned that John Boorman was contracted to direct an adaptation of "The Lord of the Rings", in which J. R. R. Tolkien's three-volume novel would be condensed into a single film


Tolkien had appointed his son Christopher to be his literary executor, and he organized some of his father's unpublished material into a single coherent volume, published as The Silmarillion in 1977—his father had previously attempted to get a collection of "Silmarillion" material published in 1937 before writing The Lord of the Rings. add something


It received the Locus award for Best Fantasy novel in 1978 add something


In 1980 Christopher Tolkien published a collection of more fragmentary material, under the title "Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth" add something


The book was published in 1982 as a facsimile of Tolkien's difficult-to-read illustrated manuscript, with a typeset transcription on each facing page add something


Toos van Holstein - Her work has been inspired by as well medieval writings as the Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri and the Germanic Edda found on Iceland as the more modern writers like Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Tolkien (J._R._R._Tolkien).


Peter Jackson - Peter Jackson won the rights to film J. R. R. Tolkien's epic in 1997 after meeting with producer Saul Zaentz.


A gaff-topsail schooner of Netherlands registry used for passenger cruises on the Baltic Sea and elsewhere in European waters was named "J.R. Tolkien" in 1998 add something


In a 1999 poll of customers, "The Lord of the Rings" was judged to be their favourite "book of the millennium" add something


From 2001 to 2003, New Line Cinema released "The Lord of the Rings" as a trilogy of live-action films that were filmed in New Zealand and directed by Sir Peter Jackson add something


In 2002 Tolkien was voted the 92nd "greatest Briton" in a poll conducted by the BBC, and in 2004 he was voted 35th in the SABC3's Great South Africans, the only person to appear in both lists add something


In the 2003 "Big Read" survey conducted by the BBC, "The Lord of the Rings" was found to be the UK's "Best-loved Novel" add something


Since 2003 The Tolkien Society has organized Tolkien Reading Day, which takes place on 25 March in schools around the world add something


His popularity is not limited to the English-speaking world: in a 2004 poll inspired by the UK's "Big Read" survey, about 250,000 Germans found "The Lord of the Rings" to be their favourite work of literature add something


Homo floresiensis - "Homo floresiensis" was unveiled on 28 October 2004, and was swiftly nicknamed the "Hobbit", after the fictional race popularized in J. R. R. Tolkien's book "The Hobbit", and a proposed scientific name for the species was "Homo hobbitus"


More recently, in 2007, the collection was completed with the publication of "The Children of Húrin" by HarperCollins and Houghton Mifflin add something


In 2008, "The Times" ranked him sixth on a list of "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945" add something


In 2009, "The Daily Telegraph" claimed Tolkien turned down a £500-a-year offer to become a full-time recruit for unknown reasons add something


In 2009, a partial draft of "Language and Human Nature", which Tolkien had begun co-writing with C.S. Lewis but had never completed, was discovered at the Bodleian Library add something


In February 2009, "Publishers Weekly" announced that Houghton Mifflin Harcourt had acquired the American rights to Tolkien's unpublished work "The Legend of Sigurd and Gudrún" add something


The work, which was released worldwide on 5 May 2009 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt and HarperCollins, retells the legend of Sigurd and the fall of the Niflungs from Germanic mythology add something


On 1 December 2012 it was announced in the New Zealand press that a bid was launched for the New Zealand Geographic Board to add something


In April 2013, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt released "The Fall of Arthur", a poem which Tolkien had composed during the early 1930s add something


"The Fall of Arthur", published on 23 May 2013, is a long narrative poem composed by Tolkien in the early-1930s add something


It was finally edited by his son and published in 2014, more than forty years after Tolkien's death and almost 90 years since its completion add something


E. V. Gordon - In 2014, the estate of Gordon's eldest daughter Bridget sold a collection of letters written variously to E. V. Gordon and his wife Ida by J. R. R. Tolkien to the Brotherton Library of the University of Leeds


It is to be published as a standalone book edited by Christopher Tolkien under the title "Beren and Lúthien" in 2017 add something


The Lord of the Rings - On 13 November 2017, it was announced that Amazon had acquired the global television rights to "The Lord of the Rings" add something


"The Fall of Gondolin" is a tale of a beautiful, mysterious city destroyed by dark forces, that called "the first real story" of Middle-earth, will be published in August 2018 as a standalone book, edited by Christopher Tolkien and illustrated by Alan Lee add something


An upcoming biographical film "Tolkien" is set to be released on 10 May 2019, focusing on Tolkien's early life and war experiences add something