Jane Austen

Knowledge Identifier: +Jane_Austen

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Jane Austen

English novelistadd

Category: Literature

Born in 1775.

Countries: United Kingdom (62%), (19%), United States (16%)

Main connections: Pride and Prejudice, Lady Susan, Pride and Prejudice (1995 TV series)

Linked to: BBC, Jane Austen's House Museum, YouTube, HarperCollins

 

Timeline


 

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Jane Austen was born in 1775 add something


1783

In 1783, according to family tradition, Jane and Cassandra were sent to Oxford to be educated by Mrs. Ann Cawley and they moved with her to Southampton later in the year. add something


1785

Austen was subsequently educated at home, until leaving for boarding school with her sister Cassandra early in 1785. add something


1786

After returning from school in 1786, Austen "never again lived anywhere beyond the bounds of her immediate family environment". add something

 

By December 1786, Jane and Cassandra had returned home because the Austens could not afford to send both of their daughters to school. add something


1787

Austen later compiled "fair copies" of 29 of these early works into three bound notebooks, now referred to as the Juvenilia, containing pieces originally written between 1787 and 1793. add something

 

Perhaps as early as 1787, Austen began to write poems, stories, and plays for her own and her family's amusement. add something


1789

Honan speculates that at some point not long after writing Love and Freindship in 1789, Austen decided to "write for profit, to make stories her central effort", that is, to become a professional writer. add something


1793

Beginning in about 1793, she began to write longer, more sophisticated works. add something

 

Between 1793 and 1795, Austen wrote Lady Susan, a short epistolary novel, usually described as her most ambitious and sophisticated early work. add something

 

In 1793, Austen began and abandoned a short play, later entitled Sir Charles Grandison or the happy Man, a comedy in 6 acts, which she returned to and completed around 1800. add something


1794

Lady Susan - "'Lady Susan"' is a short epistolary novel by Jane Austen, possibly written in 1794 but not published until 1871


1795

When Austen was twenty, Tom Lefroy, a nephew of neighbours, visited Steventon from December 1795 to January 1796. add something


1796

Austen began work on a second novel, First Impressions, in 1796. add something

 

Thomas Langlois Lefroy - In 1796, Lefroy began a flirtation with English novelist Jane Austen, who was a friend of an older female relative


1797

She completed the initial draft in August 1797 when she was only 21; as with all of her novels, Austen read the work aloud to her family as she was working on it and it became an "established favourite". add something

 

Following the completion of First Impressions, Austen returned to Elinor and Marianne and from November 1797 until mid-1798, revised it heavily; she eliminated the epistolary format in favour of third-person narration and produced something close to Sense and Sensibility. add something

 

In November 1797, George Austen wrote to Thomas Cadell, an established publisher in London, to ask if he would consider publishing "a Manuscript Novel, comprised in three Vols. add something


1798

During the middle of 1798, after finishing revisions of Elinor and Marianne, Austen began writing a third novel with the working title Susan—later Northanger Abbey—a satire on the popular Gothic novel. add something


1800

In Chawton, life was quieter than it had been since the family's move to Bath, Somerset in 1800. add something

 

In December 1800, Mr Austen unexpectedly announced his decision to retire from the ministry, leave Steventon, and move the family to Bath, Somerset. add something


1802

In December 1802, Austen received her only proposal of marriage. add something


1803

In early 1803, Henry Austen offered Susan to Benjamin Crosby, a London publisher, who paid £10 for the copyright. add something


1804

In 1804, while living in Bath, Somerset, Austen started but did not complete a new novel, The Watsons. add something


1806

They lived part of the time in rented quarters in Bath, Somerset and, beginning in 1806, in Southampton, where they shared a house with Frank Austen and his new wife. add something


1809

Around early 1809, Austen's brother Edward offered his mother and sisters a more settled life—the use of a large cottage in Chawton village that was part of Edward's nearby estate, Chawton House. add something

 

There is manuscript evidence that Austen continued to work on these pieces as late as the period 1809–11, and that her niece and nephew, Anna and James Edward Austen, made further additions as late as 1814. add something

 

On 5 April 1809, about three months before the family's move to Chawton, Austen wrote an angry letter to Richard Crosby, offering him a new manuscript of Susan if that was needed to secure immediate publication of the novel, and otherwise requesting the return of the original so she could find another publisher. add something

 

Jane, Cassandra, and their mother moved into Chawton cottage on 7 July 1809. add something


1811

Through her brother Henry, the publisher Thomas Egerton agreed to publish Sense and Sensibility, which appeared in October 1811. add something

 

Sense and Sensibility - "'Sense and Sensibility"' is a novel by Jane Austen, and was her first published work when it appeared in 1811 under the pseudonym "A Lady"


1812

Edward was adopted by his fourth cousin, Thomas Knight, inheriting Knight's estate and taking his name in 1812. add something


1813

Egerton published Pride and Prejudice, a revision of First Impressions, in January 1813. add something

 

In a letter of 16 February 1813 to her friend Martha Lloyd, Austen says (referring to the Prince's wife, whom he treated notoriously badly) "I hate her Husband". add something

 

Reviews were favourable and the novel became fashionable among opinion-makers; the edition sold out by mid-1813. add something

 

By October 1813, Egerton was able to begin selling a second edition. add something

 

Pride and Prejudice - "'Pride and Prejudice"' is a novel of manners by Jane Austen, first published in 1813


Major work

1813 - Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen


1814

In 1814, Austen wrote a letter to her niece, Fanny Knight, who had asked for advice about a serious relationship, telling her that "having written so much on one side of the question, I shall now turn around & entreat you not to commit yourself farther, & not to think of accepting him unless you really do like him. add something

 

Mansfield Park was published by Egerton in May 1814. add something


1815

In November 1815, the Prince Regent's librarian invited Austen to visit the Prince's London residence and hinted Austen should dedicate the forthcoming Emma to the Prince. add something

 

In mid-1815, Austen moved her work from Egerton to John Murray, a better known London publisher, who published Emma in December 1815 and a second edition of Mansfield Park in February 1816. add something


1816

Early in 1816, Jane Austen began to feel unwell. add something

 

In 1816, the editors of The New Monthly Magazine noted Emma's publication but chose not to review it. add something

 

The manuscript remained in Crosby's hands, unpublished, until Austen repurchased the copyright from him in 1816. add something

 

Henry Austen's bank failed in March 1816, depriving him of all of his assets, leaving him deeply in debt and losing Edward, James, and Frank Austen large sums. add something

 

She completed her first draft in July 1816. add something

 

She became dissatisfied with the ending of The Elliots and rewrote the final two chapters, finishing them on 6 August 1816. add something

 

In a letter to Cassandra dated 17/18 October 1816, Austen comments that "Mr. Murray's Letter is come; he is a Rogue of course, but a civil one. add something


1817

In January 1817, Austen began work on a new novel she called The Brothers, later titled Sanditon upon its first publication in 1925, and completed twelve chapters before stopping work in mid-March 1817, probably because her illness prevented her from continuing. add something

 

Austen died in Winchester on 18 July 1817, at the age of 41. add something

 

Cassandra and Henry Austen arranged with Murray for the publication of Persuasion and Northanger Abbey as a set in December 1817. add something


1820

Murray disposed of the remaining copies in 1820, and Austen's novels remained out of print for twelve years add something


1821

The other important early review of Austen's works was published by Richard Whately in 1821 add something


1830

Though Austen's novels were republished in Britain beginning in the 1830s and remained steady sellers, they were not bestsellers add something


1832

In 1832, publisher Richard Bentley purchased the remaining copyrights to all of Austen's novels and, beginning in either December 1832 or January 1833, published them in five illustrated volumes as part of his "Standard Novels" series add something


1833

In October 1833, Bentley published the first collected edition of Austen's works add something


1840

Philosopher and literary critic George Henry Lewes expressed this viewpoint in a series of enthusiastic articles published in the 1840s and 1850s add something


1869

Her work brought her little personal fame and only a few positive reviews during her lifetime, but the publication in 1869 of her nephew's "A Memoir of Jane Austen" introduced her to a wider public, and by the 1940s she had become widely accepted in academia as a great English writer add something

 

The publication of James Edward Austen-Leigh's "A Memoir of Jane Austen" in 1869 introduced Austen to a wider public as "dear aunt Jane", the respectable maiden aunt add something


1880

Author and critic Leslie Stephen described the popular mania that started to develop for Austen in the 1880s as "Austenolatry" add something


1890

Mark Twain - Other authors to fall under Twain's attack during this time period were George Eliot, Jane Austen, and Robert Louis Stevenson.


1911

The first important milestone was a 1911 essay by Oxford Shakespearean scholar A. C. Bradley, which is "generally regarded as the starting-point for the serious academic approach to Jane Austen" add something


1923

The second was R. W. Chapman's 1923 edition of Austen's collected works add something


1939

With the publication in 1939 of Mary Lascelles's "Jane Austen and Her Art", the academic study of Austen took hold add something


1940

In a spurt of revisionist views in the 1940s, scholars approached Austen more sceptically and argued that she was a subversive writer add something

 

The first film adaptation was the 1940 MGM production of "Pride and Prejudice" starring Laurence Olivier and Greer Garson add something


1970

BBC television dramatisations, which were first produced in the 1970s, attempted to adhere meticulously to Austen's plots, characterisations, and settings add something


 

In 1995 a great wave of Austen adaptations began to appear, with Ang Lee's film of "Sense and Sensibility", for which screenwriter and star Emma Thompson won an Academy award, and the BBC's immensely popular TV mini-series "Pride and Prejudice", starring Jennifer Ehle and Colin Firth add something

 

Andante favori - The makers of the 1995 BBC adaptation of Jane Austen's novel Pride and Prejudice used the "Andante favori" as the musical content of a concocted scene in which Elizabeth Bennet and Fitzwilliam Darcy exchange tender glances while his sister Georgiana plays the andante on the fortepiano


2000

Beginning in the middle of the 19th century, Austen family members published conclusions to her incomplete novels, and by 2000 there were over 100 printed adaptations add something


2002

In a 2002 poll to determine whom the UK public considers the greatest British people in history, Austen was ranked number 70 in the list of the "100 Greatest Britons" add something


2003

In 2003, Austen's "Pride and Prejudice" came second in the BBC's The Big Read, a national poll to find the "Nation's best-loved book add something

 

Thomas Langlois Lefroy - In his 2003 biography, "Becoming Jane Austen", Jon Spence suggests that Jane Austen actually used personalities as the models for Mr. Darcy and Elizabeth Bennett, but not in an expected way


2007

The sentimental relationship between Jane and Tom is at the centre of the 2007 biographical film "Becoming Jane" add something

 

Anne Hathaway (actress) - Hathaway was in the 2007 drama "Becoming Jane," in which she portrayed English writer Jane Austen


2008

Pride and Prejudice - A new stage production, "Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice, The New Musical", was presented in concert on 21 October 2008 in Rochester, New York, with Colin Donnell as Darcy


2009

The University of Law - Scenes for the 2009 BBC production of "Emma" by Jane Austen, starring Romola Garai and Michael Gambon, were filmed at St Mary the Virgin Church, Send near Guildford and at Loseley House

 

Pride and Prejudice - In March 2009, Quirk Books released "Pride and Prejudice and Zombies", which takes Austen's actual, original work, and mashes it up with zombie hordes, cannibalism, ninjas, and ultra-violent mayhem


2011

Pride and Prejudice - In 2011, author Mitzi Szereto expanded on the novel in "Pride and Prejudice: Hidden Lusts", a historical sex parody that parallels the original plot and writing style of Jane Austen

 

Pride and Prejudice - It was written in the style of Austen after extensive research into the period and language and published in 2011 under the pen name of Ava Farmer

 

Mansfield Park (opera) - "'Mansfield Park"' is a 2011 chamber opera in two acts by Jonathan Dove with a libretto by Alasdair Middleton based on the novel by Jane Austen


2014

Jane Austen Society of the UK, Annual General Meeting 2014 add something


2016

Lady Susan - In January of 2016 a film version of Austen's early epistolary novel "Lady Susan" directed by Whit Stillman premiered at the Sundance Film Festival starring Kate Beckinsale and Chloe Sevigny under the borrowed title of another one of Austen's early novels "Love & Friendship" add something

 

Lady Susan - In January 2016 a film version of Austen's early epistolary novel "Lady Susan" directed by Whit Stillman premiered at the Sundance Film Festival starring Kate Beckinsale and Chloe Sevigny under the borrowed title of another one of Austen's early novels "Love & Friendship" add something


2017

The notes are expected to be released in summer 2017 add something

 

On 19 July 2017 a new £10 banknote was officially issued by the Bank of England, at Winchester Cathedral, but caused "outrage" that the portrait of Austen used on it had been "airbrushed" add something