Joseph Chamberlain

Knowledge Identifier: +Joseph_Chamberlain


Joseph Chamberlain

British politician and statesman add

Category: Politics

Born in 1836.

Countries: United Kingdom (56%), United States (8%), UK (8%)

Main connections: William Ewart Gladstone, Benjamin Disraeli, Arthur Balfour

Linked to: British South Africa Company, Liberal Party, Home Secretary, Franco-Prussian War




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Joseph Chamberlain was born in 1836 add something


Chamberlain prepared to end the Free Trade consensus that had dominated British economics since the repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846 add something


He was educated at University College School between 1850 and 1852, excelling academically and gaining prizes in French and mathematics add something


Chamberlain married Harriet Kenrick, the daughter of Archibald Kenrick, member of a Unitarian family from Birmingham who originally occupied Wynn Hall in Ruabon, Wrexham, Wales, in July 1861 add something


Their daughter Beatrice was born in May 1862 add something


Harriet, who had had a premonition that she would die in childbirth, became ill two days after the birth of their son Joseph Austen in October 1863, and died three days later add something


In 1866, Lord John Russell's Liberal administration submitted a Reform Bill to create 400,000 new voters, but the Bill was opposed by the 'Adullamite' Liberals for disrupting the social order, and criticised by Radicals for not conceding the secret ballot or household suffrage add something


Chamberlain was one of the 250,000, including the Mayor, who marched for Reform in Birmingham on 27 August 1866; he recalled that "men poured into the hall, black as they were from the factories add something


In 1867, with Jesse Collings, he helped found the Birmingham Education League, which noted that of about 4,25 million children of school age, 2 million children, mostly in urban areas, did not attend school, with a further 1 million in uninspected schools add something


Lord Derby's minority Conservative administration passed a Reform Act in 1867, nearly doubling the electorate from 1,430,000 to 2,470,000 and the Liberal Party won the 1868 election add something


In 1868, Chamberlain married for the second time, to Harriet's cousin, Florence Kenrick, daughter of Timothy Kenrick add something


The Birmingham Education League evolved into the National Education League, which held its first Conference in Birmingham in 1869 and proposed a school system funded by local rates and government grants, managed by local authorities subject to government inspection add something


In November 1869, he was elected to the Birmingham Council for St. Paul's ward add something


By 1870, the League had more than one hundred branches, mostly in cities and peopled largely by men of trades unions and working men's organisations add something


However, the Education Bill abolished the 2,568 school boards established under W.E. Forster's 1870 Act, bodies that were popular with Nonconformists and Radicals, replacing them with Local Education Authorities that would administer a state centred system of primary, secondary and technical schools add something


William Edward Forster, Vice-President of the Committee of Council on Education, proposed an Elementary Education Bill in January 1870 add something


Chamberlain arranged for a delegation of 400 branch members and 46 MPs to visit the Prime Minister's residence at 10 Downing Street on 9 March 1870 add something


In 1873 a Liberal majority was elected to the Birmingham School Board, with Chamberlain as chairman add something


In November 1873 the Liberal Party swept the municipal elections and Chamberlain was elected mayor of Birmingham add something


During the business's most prosperous period, it produced approximately two-thirds of all metal screws made in England, and by the time of Chamberlain's retirement from business in 1874 it was exporting to the USA, Europe, India, Japan, Canada and Australia add something


Chamberlain had been consulted by the Home Secretary, Richard Assheton Cross during the preparation of the Artisan's and Labourers' Dwellings Improvement Act 1875, during Disraeli's social improvement programme add something


On 13 February 1875, Florence gave birth to their fifth child, but she and the child died within a day add something


In July 1875 Chamberlain tabled an improvement plan involving slum clearance in Birmingham 's city centre add something


Deploring the rising death rate from contagious diseases in the poorest parts of the city, in January 1876, Chamberlain forcibly purchased Birmingham 's waterworks for a combined sum of £1,350,000, creating &Birmingham_Corporation_Water_Department, having declared to a House of Commons Committee that 'We have not the slightest intention of making profit add something


Chamberlain eventually rejected the possibility of standing in Sheffield again, and when George Dixon to retired from his Birmingham seat in May 1876, Chamberlain was returned unopposed for the Birmingham constituency, after a period of anxiety following his nomination in which he denounced the Prime Minister, Benjamin Disraeli, accusing him of being 'a man who never told the truth except by accident add something


On 4 August 1876, Chamberlain made his maiden speech in the House of Commons during a debate on elementary schools add something


With the Liberal Party actively opposing Disraeli's foreign policy during the Russo-Turkish War, Gladstone addressed approximately 30,000 people at Bingley Hall on 31 May 1877 to found the National Liberal Federation, a federation of the country's Liberal Associations add something


Second Afghan War - Unlike many Liberals, Chamberlain's was not an anti-imperialist, for although he berated the government for its Eastern policy, the Second Afghan War of 1878 and the Zulu War of 1879, he had supported Disraeli's purchase of Suez Canal Company shares in November 1875 add something


Although Gladstone did not regard the NLF highly, he recognised the part it had played in winning the 1880 election, and was eager to reconcile Chamberlain and other Radicals to the mainly Whig cabinet add something


Chamberlain joined the Liberal denunciations of the Conservative Party's foreign policy in the 1880 general election, and Gladstone returned as Prime Minister with assistance from the NLF. add something


Chamberlain's scope for manoeuvre was restricted between 1880 and 1883 by the Cabinet's preoccupation with Ireland, Transvaal Colony and Egypt, but he was able to introduce the Grain Cargoes Bill, for the safer transportation of grain, an Electric Lighting Bill, enabling municipal corporations to establish electricity supplies, and a Seaman's Wages Bill, which ensured a fairer system of payment for seamen add something


Having taken the counsel of Bright, Gladstone invited Chamberlain on 27 April 1880 to become President of the Board of Trade add something


When the Republic of South Africa formally rejected the notion of British suzerainty as allegedly described by the peace treaty of 1881, Chamberlain and Balfour prompted Salisbury to initiate discussions with Portugal regarding Delagoa Bay add something


In April 1881, Gladstone's government introduced the Irish Land Act, but in response, Charles Stewart Parnell, leading the Irish nationalists, encouraged tenants to withhold rents add something


As a result, Parnell and other leaders, including John Dillon and William O'Brien, were imprisoned in Kilmainham Gaol on 13 October 1881 add something


Chamberlain supported their imprisonment rather than further concessions, and used their incarceration to bargain with them in 1882 add something


Forster resigned and the new Chief Secretary, Lord Frederick Cavendish, was murdered by Irish terrorists on 6 May 1882, leaving the 'Kilmainham Treaty' almost useless add something


After 1883, Chamberlain was more productive add something


Chamberlain earned a reputation for provocative speeches during the period, especially during debate on the 1884 County Franchise Bill, which was opposed by the Whig Liberals Lord Hartington and George Goschen, as well as the Conservative leader Lord Salisbury, who argued that the Bill gave the Liberals an unfair electoral advantage and was prepared to block the Bill in the House of Lords unless it was accompanied by redistribution of seats into the suburbs add something


In 1884 the Liberals proposed a Third Reform Bill, which would give hundreds of thousands of rural labourers the vote add something


The Third Reform Act of 1884 was followed by a Redistribution Act in 1885, negotiated by Gladstone and Lord Salisbury add something


Despite being endorsed by Tory Democrats Lord Randolph Churchill and John Eldon Gorst, the Liberal government was unwilling to grant Chamberlain its full support and the Bill was withdrawn in July 1884 add something


At the time, Chamberlain was notable for his attacks on the Conservative leader Lord Salisbury, and in the 1885 general election he proposed the "Unauthorised Programme" of benefits for newly enfranchised agricultural labourers add something


This was rejected by the Whigs in Cabinet on 9 May 1885 add something


' Seeking a contest with the Whigs, Chamberlain and Sir Charles Dilke presented their resignations to Gladstone on 20 May 1885, when the Cabinet rejected Chamberlain's scheme for the creation of National Councils in England, Scotland and Wales and when a proposed Land Purchase Bill did not have any provision for the reform of Irish local government add something


In August 1885, the Salisbury ministry asked for a dissolution of Parliament add something


The Liberals won the general election in November 1885, but fell just short of an overall majority against the Conservatives and the Irish Nationalists, the latter holdng the balance between the two parties add something


David Lloyd George - By he was politically active, having campaigned for the Liberal Party in the 1885 election, attracted by Joseph Chamberlain's "unauthorised programme" of reforms


Chamberlain is the only individual to have divided both major British political parties - Gladstone's Liberals in 1886 and the Unionists in 1903 - in each case helping to wreck the political prospects of that party add something


Chamberlain resigned from Gladstone's Third Government in 1886 in opposition to Irish Home Rule, and after the Liberal Party split he became a Liberal Unionist, a party which included a bloc of MPs based in and around Birmingham add something


The Liberals returned to power in January 1886, after a Radical-inspired amendment by Collings was carried by 79 votes in the House of Commons, although Hartington, Goschen and 18 Liberals had voted with the Conservatives add something


His resignation was made public on 27 March 1886 add something


In November 1886, Churchill announced his own 'Unauthorised Programme' at Dartford, the content of which had much in common with Chamberlain's own recent manifesto, including smallholdings for rural labourers and greater local government add something


Conservative Party (UK) - In 1886 the party formed an alliance with Lord Hartington and Joseph Chamberlain's new Liberal Unionist Party and, under the statesmen Lord Salisbury and Arthur Balfour, held power for all but three of the following twenty years before suffering a heavy defeat in 1906 when it split over the issue of free trade


Liberal Unionist Party - The anti-Home Rule Liberals formed a 'Committee for the Preservation of the Union' in early 1886 and were soon joined by a smaller radical faction led by Joseph Chamberlain and John Bright


Chamberlain had always been a keen imperialist and an advocate of a stronger empire; in 1887 in Toronto, he had declared that "I should think our patriotism was warped and stunted indeed if it did not embrace the Greater Britain beyond the seas" add something


After January 1887, a series of Round Table Conferences took place between Chamberlain, Trevelyan, Harcourt, Morley and Lord Herschell, in which the participants sought an agreement about the Liberal Party's Irish policy add something


In August 1887, Lord Salisbury invited Chamberlain to lead the British delegation in a Joint Commission to resolve a fisheries dispute between the United States and Newfoundland add something


An 1888 treaty established an Anglo-U.S.-German tripartite protectorate of Samoa, and when King Malietoa Laupepa died in 1898, a contest over the succession ensued add something


Between 1888 and 1889, democratic County Councils were established in Great Britain add something


In 1888 Chamberlain married for the third time in Washington, DC. His bride was Mary Crowninshield Endicott, daughter of the US Secretary of War, William Crowninshield Endicott add something


The Liberal Association in Birmingham could no longer be relied upon to provide loyal support, so Chamberlain created the Liberal Unionist Association in 1888, associated with the National Radical Union, having extracted his supporters from the old Liberal organisation add something


Before he left the United States in March 1888, Chamberlain proposed to Mary, describing her as 'one of the brightest and most intelligent girls I have yet met' add something


In November 1888, Chamberlain married Mary in Washington, D.C., wearing white violets, rather than his trademark orchid add something


The London School of Tropical Medicine was located in Albert Dock Seamen's Hospital, which itself had opened in 1890 and would later become known as the Hospital for Tropical Diseases add something


By 1891, measures for the provision of smallholdings had been made, and the extension of free, compulsory education to the entire country add something


In the 1892 general election, the Liberal Unionists won most of the city, even winning elections in neighbouring towns in the Black Country add something


By now, Chamberlain's son, Austen, had entered the House of Commons unopposed for East Worcestershire in March 1892 add something


Obliged to compromise with the Irish Nationalists, Gladstone introduced the Second Home Rule Bill in February 1893 add something


In his 'Memorandum of a Programme for Social Reform' sent to Salisbury in 1894, Chamberlain made a number of suggestions, including old age pensions, the provision of loans to the working class for the purchase of houses, an amendment to the Artisans' Dwellings Act to encourage street improvements, compensation for industrial accidents, cheaper train fares for workers, tighter border controls and shorter working hours add something


With his party divided, Gladstone prepared to dissolve Parliament on the issue of the House of Lords' veto, but was compelled to resign in March 1894 by his colleagues, being replaced by Lord Rosebery add something


Chamberlain sanctioned the conquest of the Ashanti in 1895, with Colonel Sir Francis Scott successfully occupying Kumasi and annexing the territory to the Gold Coast add something


Chamberlain warned of the dangers of socialism in his 1895 play "The Game of Politics", characterising its proponents as the instigators of class conflict add something


From the 1895 general election the Liberal Unionists were in coalition with the Conservative Party, under Chamberlain's former opponent Lord Salisbury add something


Much had been proposed with regards to an imperial federation, a more coherent system of imperial defence and preferential tariffs, yet by 1895 when Chamberlain arrived at the Colonial Office, little had been achieved add something


Having agreed to a set of policies, the Conservatives and Liberal Unionists formed a government on 24 June 1895 add something


In July 1895, American Secretary of State Richard Olney demanded that Britain submit a boundary dispute with Venezuela to impartial arbitration, invoking the Monroe Doctrine add something


Chamberlain took formal charge of the Colonial Office on 1 July 1895, shortly before his fifty-ninth birthday, with victory assured in the 1895 general election add something


Chamberlain favoured a more belligerent stance, but Salisbury chose to tread tentatively, and even the Prime Minister's cautious reply to the American demand provoked President Grover Cleveland to imply in December 1895 that war might be the result of British non-compliance add something


During the trial of Jameson, Rhodes' solicitor, Bourchier Hawksley, refused to produce cablegrams that had passed between Rhodes and his agents in London in November and December 1895 add something


Cecil Rhodes - In 1895, Rhodes supported an attack on the Transvaal, the infamous Jameson Raid, which proceeded with the tacit approval of Secretary of State for the Colonies Joseph Chamberlain


Oliver Russell, 2nd Baron Ampthill - In 1895, Russell was appointed Assistant Secretary to Colonial Secretary Joseph Chamberlain and elevated to Private Secretary in 1897


Oliver Russell, 2nd Baron Ampthill - Russell served as the Assistant Private Secretary to Joseph Chamberlain in 1895 to 1897 and Private Secretary from 1897 to 1900, when he was appointed Governor of Madras


Chamberlain visited the USA in the autumn of 1896 to negotiate with Olney add something


The Prime Minister calmed fears of war by agreeing to an arbitration treaty in February 1896, in which two American judges, two British judges, and a Russian would decide the issue add something


In June 1896, Chamberlain offered his resignation to Salisbury, having shown the Prime Minister one or more of the cablegrams implicating him in the Raid's planning add something


Chamberlain was dismayed to learn in 1897 that the French had expanded from Dahomey to Bussa, a town claimed by Goldie add something


The government appointed Sir Alfred Milner to the posts of High Commissioner and Governor-General of the Cape in August 1897 to pursue the issue more decisively add something


University of Birmingham - As the result of the Mason University College Act 1897 it became incorporated as Mason University College on 1 January 1898, with Joseph Chamberlain becoming the President of its Court of Governors


Queen Victoria - The Queen requested that any special celebrations be delayed until 1897, to coincide with her Diamond Jubilee, which was made a festival of the British Empire at the suggestion of Colonial Secretary Joseph Chamberlain


Spanish-American War - The discussions were cordial, thereby improving Anglo-American relations and resulting in Britain's pro-U.S. neutrality during the Spanish-American War of 1898 add something


On 29 March 1898, Hermann von Eckardstein, who had described Chamberlain as "unquestionably the most energetic and enterprising personality of the Salisbury ministry", arranged a meeting between the Colonial Secretary and the German Ambassador in London, Paul von Hatzfeldt add something


On 18 March, Eckardstein asked Chamberlain to resume alliance negotiations, and although the Colonial Secretary reaffirmed his support, he was unwilling to commit himself, remembering von Bülow's rebuke in 1899 add something


With Chamberlain's support, Patrick Manson founded the world's first medical facility dedicated to tropical medicine in 1899 add something


' Chamberlain successfully persuaded the Prime Minister, John Gordon Sprigg, to hold elections as soon as possible, a positive act considering the hostile nature of the Cape Parliament since 1899 add something


Salisbury's decision to attend to his sick wife allowed Chamberlain to assume control of British policy in July 1899 add something


By the beginning of October 1899, nearly 20,000 British troops were based in the Cape and Natal, with thousands more en route add something


In October 1899, the tribunal agreed to an award based loosely on the Schomburgk Line add something


On 21 November 1899, at a banquet in St. George's Hall, Windsor Castle, Chamberlain reiterated his desire for an agreement between Britain and Germany to Wilhelm II. The Kaiser spoke positively about relations with Britain but added that he did not want to exacerbate relations with Russia, and indicated that Salisbury's traditional strategy of reneging on peacetime commitments made any Anglo-German agreement problematic add something


In mid-December 1899, during 'Black Week', the British Army suffered reverses at Stormberg, Magersfontein and Colenso add something


Leonard Courtney, 1st Baron Courtney of Penwith - When the crisis with the Transvaal came in 1899, Courtney's views, which remained substantially what they were when he supported the settlement after Majuba in 1881, had plainly become incompatible with his position even as a nominal follower of Lord Salisbury and Joseph Chamberlain


Second Boer War - In this job, he presided over the Second Boer War and was the dominant figure in the Unionist Government's re-election at the "Khaki Election" in 1900 add something


The occupation of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State in 1900 did not subdue the Boers, who waged a guerrilla campaign throughout 1901 until the end of the war in May 1902 add something


British fortunes changed after January 1900 with the appointment of Lord Roberts to command British forces in South Africa add something


When in January 1900 the government faced a vote of censure in the House of Commons concerning the management of the war, Chamberlain conducted the defence add something


Neville Chamberlain - During the "Khaki election" of 1900 he made speeches in support of Joseph Chamberlain's Liberal Unionists


William Ashley (economic historian) - During the years 1900-1906, Ashley wielded some political influence on the Conservative government's economic policy, notably supporting Joseph Chamberlain's plans for tariff reform


University of Birmingham - Special Collections contains the Chamberlain collection of papers from Neville Chamberlain, Joseph Chamberlain and Austen Chamberlain, the Avon Papers belonging to Antony Eden with material on the Suez Crisis, the Cadbury Papers relating to the Cadbury firm from 1900 to 1960, the Mingana Collection of Middle Eastern Manuscripts of Alphonse Mingana, the Noël Coward Collection, the papers of Edward Elgar, Oswald Mosley, and David Lodge, and the records of the English YMCA and of the Church Missionary Society


University of Leeds - The interests of the universities and respective cities in creating independent institutions was further spurred by the granting of a charter to the University of Birmingham in 1900 after lobbying from Joseph Chamberlain


During the autumn of 1901, Chamberlain took more interest in proceedings when the scandal intensified, strengthening civilian governance add something


At Chatsworth House on 16 January 1901, Chamberlain and Devonshire made it known to Eckardstein that they still planned to make Britain part of the Triple Alliance add something


Chamberlain had begun negotiations to settle colonial differences with the French Ambassador, Paul Cambon, in March 1901, although neither Lansdowne nor Cambon had moved as quickly as Chamberlain would have liked add something


Franco-Prussian War - On 25 October 1901, Chamberlain defended the British Army's tactics in South Africa against European press criticism, arguing that the conduct of British soldiers was much more respectable than that of troops in the Franco-Prussian War, a statement directed at Germany add something


By 1902, the death rate in the camps had halved, and was soon to decrease below the usual mortality rate in rural South Africa add something


Chamberlain himself was less concerned, assuring Balfour's Private Secretary in February 1902 that 'I have my own work to do and add something


In February 1902, at a banquet at Marlborough House held by King Edward VII, Chamberlain and Cambon resumed their negotiations, with Eckardstein reputedly listening to their conversation and only successfully managing to comprehend the words "Morocco" and "Egypt" add something


In April 1902 Boer negotiators accepted Chamberlain's insistence upon the loss of independence of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State add something


A few days later, 7 July 1902, Chamberlain was travelling in a cab from the Colonial Office to the Athenaeum Club when at Trafalgar Square, the horse drawing the cab slipped, pulling the carriage forward violently add something


When he first met Theodor Herzl on 23 October 1902, Chamberlain expressed his sympathy to the Zionist cause add something


Chamberlain was confident his proposals were gathering popularity, and he brought the matter before the Cabinet before embarking on a tour of South Africa in December 1902 add something


Chamberlain visited South Africa between 26 December 1902 and 25 February 1903, seeking to promote Anglo-Afrikaner conciliation and the colonial contribution to the British Empire, and trying to meet people in the newly unified South Africa, including those who had recently been enemies during the Boer War. In Natal, Chamberlain was given a rapturous welcome add something


In 1903, he resigned from the Cabinet to campaign for tariff reform add something


In March 1903, before Chamberlain's return, Ritchie asked Balfour to schedule a meeting to propose the budget to the Cabinet add something


When it became evident that these efforts were coming to naught, Chamberlain, on 24 April 1903, offered Herzl a territory in East Africa add something


On 6 October 1903, Chamberlain began the campaign with a speech at Glasgow add something


On 4 November 1903, Chamberlain spoke at Bingley Hall, Birmingham and put the loaves on display, raising them aloft add something


George Lloyd, 1st Baron Lloyd - In 1903 he first became involved with the tariff reform movement of Joseph Chamberlain


Arish - In 1903, Joseph Chamberlain, the British colonial secretary, agreed to consider Arish, and Herzl commissioned the lawyer David Lloyd George a charter draft, but his application was turned down once an expedition, led by Leopold Kessler had returned and submitted a detailed report to Herzl, which outlined a proposal to divert some of the Nile waters to the area for the purpose of settlement


Sir Arthur Pearson, 1st Baronet - Pearson was a strong supporter of Joseph Chamberlain's tariff-reform movement, and organised the Tariff Reform League in 1903, becoming its first chairman


Leo Chiozza Money - These were timely given the increasingly fervent political and public debate about Imperial Preference, a cause which led Joseph Chamberlain to resign from Arthur Balfour's Conservative government in 1903


Chamberlain had contributed to making possible the Anglo-French Entente Cordiale that would occur in 1904 add something


' By the end of 1904, the Tariff Reform League's numerous branches were challenging the Conservative National Union add something


Suffering from gout and neuralgia, Chamberlain took a two month holiday in February 1904 add something


Graham Wallas - He was to resign in 1904 in protest at Fabian support for Joseph Chamberlain's tariff policy


Millicent Fawcett - In 1904 she resigned from the party on the issue of Free Trade when Joseph Chamberlain gained control in his campaign for Tariff Reform


Chamberlain ignored this and intensified his campaign in November 1905, resulting directly in Balfour's resignation on 4 December add something


He obtained the support of most Unionist MPs for this stance, but the split contributed to the landslide Unionist defeat at the 1906 general election add something


Reconciliation appeared imminent when Balfour agreed to a general election after the 1906 Colonial Conference, in which tariff reform would be discussed add something


With the Unionists divided and out of favour with many of their former supporters, the Liberal Party won the 1906 general election by a landslide, with the Unionists reduced to just 157 seats in the House of Commons add something


Chamberlain asked for a Party meeting, and Balfour, now returned to the Commons, agreed on 14 February 1906 in the 'Valentine letters' to concede that add something


On 8 July 1906, Chamberlain celebrated his seventieth birthday and Birmingham was enlivened for a number of days by official luncheons, public addresses, parades, bands and an influx of thousands of congratulatory telegrams add something


Arthur Balfour - After the disaster of 1906 Balfour remained party leader, his position strengthened by Joseph Chamberlain's removal from active politics after his stroke in July 1906, but he was unable to make much headway against the huge Liberal majority in the House of Commons


Bonar Law - The party was struck a blow in July 1906, when two days after a celebration of his seventieth birthday, Joseph Chamberlain suffered a stroke and was forced to retire from politics


The name "Chamberlain School" was chosen by Mr. William Salvage, a British immigrant and prosperous farmer, who donated the land for the construction of the school in 1910 add something

Joseph Chamberlain died in 1914 add something


In January 1914, Chamberlain decided to not seek re-election add something


Neville Chamberlain - After working in business and local government and after a short spell as Director of National Service in 1916 and 1917, Chamberlain followed his father, Joseph Chamberlain, and older half-brother, Austen Chamberlain, in becoming a Member of Parliament in the 1918 general election at age 49


"Joseph Chamberlain: Radical and Imperialist", Longman Higher Education, 1974 add something


"Joseph Chamberlain", Thames and Hudson Ltd, 1977 add something


"Radical Joe: Life of Joseph Chamberlain", H Hamilton, 1977 add something


In "The Centenary Companion to Australian Federation", edited by Helen Irving, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1989 add something


Obliged to compromise with the Irish Nationalists, Gladstone introduced the Second Home Rule Bill in February 2893 add something


Chamberlain warned of the dangers of socialism in his unpublished 1995 play "The Game of Politics", characterising its proponents as the instigators of class conflict add something