Louis Riel

Knowledge Identifier: +Louis_Riel

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Louis Riel

Canadian politician, a founder of the province of Manitoba, and a political and spiritual leader of the M add

Category: Politics

Born in 1844.

Countries: Canada (68%), United States (24%), France (3%)

Education: undef.

Main connections: Red River Rebellion, Montana, Louis Riel (opera)

Linked to: Canadian Party, Conservative Party of Quebec, Democratic Party, Liberal Party of Canada

 

Timeline


 

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Louis Riel was born in 1844 add something


1846

Leif Newry Fitzroy Crozier - "'Leif Newry Fitzroy Crozier"' , commonly known as "'L.N.F. Crozier"', was a Canadian militia officer and a superintendent of the North-West Mounted Police, now best remembered for his role in the North-West Rebellion of 1885, a resistance movement headed by Métis leader Louis Riel in what is now the modern province of Saskatchewan


1858

In 1858 Taché arranged for Riel to attend the Petit Séminaire of the Collège de Montréal, under the direction of the Sulpician order add something


1864

Following news of his father's premature death in 1864, Riel lost interest in the priesthood and he withdrew from the college in March 1865 add something


1866

Compounding this disappointment, Riel found legal work unpleasant, and by early 1866 he had resolved to leave Canada East add something


1869

In late August, Riel denounced the survey in a speech, and on 11 October 1869, the survey's work was disrupted by a group of Métis that included Riel add something

 

John Christian Schultz - During the Red River Rebellion of 1869 – 1870, Schultz emerged as one of the leading opponents of Louis Riel's provisional government

 

Red River Rebellion - The "'Red River Rebellion"' was the sequence of events related to the 1869 establishment of a provisional government by the Métis leader Louis Riel and his followers at the Red River Colony, in what is now the Canadian province of Manitoba

 

Charles Tupper - With the outbreak of the Red River Rebellion in 1869, Tupper was distressed to find that his daughter Emma's husband was being held hostage by Louis Riel and the rebels

 

Charles Mair - "Negligible as verse," says "The Canadian Encyclopedia," "the volume gained interest when Mair escaped after being captured by Louis Riel during the Red River disturbances of 1869-70

 

John Black (judge) - Black presided over the council on 23 October 1869 when Louis Riel was summoned to explain his rational for preventing lieutenant governor-designate William McDougall from entering the Red River Colony

 

William Cowan (fur trader) - On November 2, 1869, Louis Riel and the National Committee took control of Upper Fort Garry


1870

Meetings between Riel and the Ottawa delegation took place on January 5 and 6, 1870, but when these proved fruitless, Smith chose to present his case in a public forum add something

 

This was essentially the same strategy that had worked to such great effect during the 1870 rebellion add something

 

It was not until 2 September 1870 that the new lieutenant-governor Adams George Archibald arrived and set about the establishment of civil government add something

 

However the results of the first provincial election in December 1870 were promising for Riel, as many of his supporters came to power add something

 

William Mactavish - He was imprisoned by Louis Riel and resigned on 15 January 1870


1872

With Federal elections coming in 1872, Macdonald could ill afford further rift in Quebec-Ontario relations add something


1873

Famously, Riel was the only Member of Parliament who was not present for the great Pacific Scandal debate of 1873 that led to the resignation of the Macdonald government in November add something

 

Cartier won by acclamation, but Riel's hopes for a swift resolution to the amnesty question were dashed following Cartier's death on 20 May 1873 add something

 

In the ensuing by-election in October 1873, Riel ran unopposed as an Independent, although he had again fled, a warrant having been issued for his arrest in September add something


1874

Liberal leader Alexander Mackenzie became the interim prime minister, and a general election was held in January 1874 add something

 

Jean-Baptiste Romuald Fiset - A notable moment in his career in the house took place on 30 March 1874 when Fiset guided a hooded Louis Riel into the parliament buildings so that he might sign the parliamentary registry and thereby become an official Member of Parliament


1875

However, a solution was forthcoming when, acting on his own initiative, the Governor General Lord Dufferin commuted Lépine's sentence in January 1875 add something

 

John Christian Schultz - These positions may appear strikingly out of character of Schultz's previous actions, but they can probably be explained by the reduced influence of Louis Riel in the Canadian west after 1875


1876

But after Riel disrupted a religious service, Lee arranged to have him committed in an asylum in Longue Pointe on 6 March 1876 under the assumed name "Louis R. David" add something


1880

But by the 1880s, it had become clear that westward migration was no panacea for the troubles of the Métis and the plains Indians add something


1881

He married in 1881 while in exile in Montana, and fathered three children add something


1882

Riel soon became involved in the politics of Montana, and in 1882, actively campaigned on behalf of the Republican Party add something


1883

This was exacerbated by a reduction in government assistance in 1883, and by a general failure of Ottawa to live up to its treaty obligations add something

 

In response, Riel applied for United States citizenship and was naturalized on 16 March 1883 add something

 

Nicholas Flood Davin - In 1883, he founded and edited the "Regina Leader", the first newspaper in Assiniboia; the paper carried his detailed reports of the 1885 trial of Louis Riel


1884

Virtually all parties therefore had grievances, and by 1884 English settlers, Anglo-Métis and Métis communities were holding meetings and petitioning a largely unresponsive government for redress add something

 

With two young children, he had by 1884 settled down and was teaching school at the St. Peter's Jesuit mission in the Sun River district of Montana add something


1885

Highway 11, stretching from Regina to just south of Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, has been named " Louis Riel Trail" by the province; the roadway passes near locations of the 1885 rebellion add something

 

This resistance escalated into a military confrontation known as the North-West Rebellion of 1885 add something


Louis Riel died in 1885 add something

 

On 11 February 1885, a response to the petition was received add something

 

Battle of Fish Creek - Knowing that he could not defeat the Canadians in direct confrontation, Dumont had hoped to force the Canadians to negotiate by engaging in a long-drawn out campaign of guerrilla warfare; Dumont realised a modest success along these lines at the Battle of Fish Creek on 24 April 1885 add something

 

Several individuals closely tied to the government requested that the trial be held in Winnipeg in July 1885 add something

 

The trial began on 28 July 1885, and lasted only five days add something

 

The jury found him guilty but recommended mercy; nonetheless, Judge Hugh Richardson sentenced him to death, with the date of his execution initially set for 18 September 1885 add something

 

Following the May trial, Louis Riel was hanged November 16, 1885 add something

 

Britton Bath Osler - He first rose to national prominence by helping to secure the conviction of Louis Riel on charges of treason following the North-West Rebellion of 1885

 

George Burbidge - He is noted for having conducted the prosecution of Louis Riel during his trial for treason following the North-West Rebellion of 1885

 

Thomas Wardlaw Taylor - He was the presiding judge at the 1885 trial of Manitoba Métis leader Louis Riel

 

Gabriel Dumont (Metis leader) - Here, 300 Métis and Indians led by Louis Riel and Gabriel Dumont fought a force of 800 men commanded by Major-General Mileton between May 9 and 12, 1885

 

Thomas Chase-Casgrain - In 1885, he was named to the legal team representing the Crown in the trial of Louis Riel

 

John Sparrow David Thompson - The question of what to do with Louis Riel, who had been sentenced to hang for leading the 1885 North-West Rebellion, was now the responsibility of Thompson

 

John Wilson Bengough - While he sympathized with the plight of Canada's native peoples, he condemned the 1885 Red River Rebellion and called for the execution of Métis rebel leader Louis Riel, and celebrated Major-General Frederick Dobson Middleton's victory at the Battle of Batoche in Saskatchewan with a poem


1886

On 12 December 1886, his remains were laid in the churchyard of the Saint-Boniface Cathedral following the celebration of a requiem mass add something


1887

The Saskatchewan Métis' requested land grants were all provided by the government by the end of 1887, and the government resurveyed the Métis river lots in accordance with their wishes add something

 

The federal election of 1887 likewise saw significant gains by the federal Liberals, again at the expense of the Conservatives add something


1896

This led to the victory of the Liberal party under Sir Wilfrid Laurier in the federal election of 1896, which in turn set the stage for the domination of Canadian federal politics by the Liberal party in the 20th century add something


1905

Saskatchewan did not attain provincehood until 1905 add something


1925

In 1925, the French writer Maurice Constantin-Weyer who lived 10 years in Manitoba published in French a fictionalized biography of Louis Riel titled "La Bourrasque" add something


1960

From the late 1960s until the early 1990s, the city of Saskatoon hosted " Louis Riel Day", a summer celebration that included a relay race that combined running, backpack carrying, canoeing, hill climbing, and horseback riding along the South Saskatchewan River in the city's downtown core add something


1967

An opera about Riel entitled " Louis Riel" was commissioned for Canada's centennial celebrations in 1967 add something

 

The Canadian Opera Company produced and performed the first run of the opera in September and October, 1967 add something


1970

It was unveiled in 1970 and stood in the grounds of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba for 23 years add something


1979

An episode of the TV-series "How the West Was Won" from 1979 was named "L'Affaire Riel", featuring Louis Riel while in exile in the United States add something


1994

It was replaced in 1994 with a statue designed by Miguel Joyal depicting Riel as a dignified statesman add something

 

That Riel's name still has resonance in Canadian politics was evidenced on 16 November 1994, when Suzanne Tremblay, a Bloc Québécois member of parliament, introduced private members' bill C-228, "An Act to revoke the conviction of Louis David Riel" add something


1995

The unsuccessful bill was widely perceived in English Canada as an attempt to arouse support for Quebec nationalism before the 1995 referendum on Quebec sovereignty add something


1996

The unveiling ceremony was on 16 May 1996, in Winnipeg add something

 

Bill C-297 to revoke the conviction of Louis Riel was introduced to the House of Commons October 21 and November 22, 1996, however the motion lacked unanimous consent from the House and was dropped add something


2003

On 22 October 2003, the Canadian news channel CBC Newsworld and its French-language equivalent, Réseau de l'information, staged a simulated retrial of Riel add something


2007

The RCMP Heritage Centre, in Regina, opened in May 2007 add something

 

On 26 September 2007, Manitoba legislature passed a bill establishing a statutory holiday on the third Monday in February as " Louis Riel Day", the same day some other provinces celebrate Family Day, beginning in 2008 add something


2008

In the spring of 2008, the Government of Saskatchewan Tourism, Parks, Culture and Sport Minister Christine Tell proclaimed in Duck Lake that "the 125th commemoration, in 2010, of the 1885 Northwest Resistance is an excellent opportunity to tell the story of the prairie Métis and First Nations peoples' struggle with Government forces and how it has shaped Canada today add something

 

On 18 February 2008, the province of Manitoba officially recognized the first Louis Riel Day as a general provincial holiday add something

 

The first Louis Riel Day was celebrated on 18 February 2008 add something


2009

A track entitled "Snowin' Today: A Lament for Louis Riel" appears on the 2009 album "Live: Two Nights In March" by Saskatchewan singer/guitarist Little Miss Higgins; a studio version features on her 2010 release "Across The Plains" add something