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Ludwig Wittgenstein

Knowledge Identifier: +Ludwig_Wittgenstein

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Ludwig Wittgenstein

Austrian-British philosopheradd

Category: Philosophy

Born in 1889.

Countries: United Kingdom (38%), Austria (21%), Russia (7%)

Main connections: David Hume, Ireland, Bertrand Russell

Linked to: University of Cambridge, Berlin Institute of Technology, Gymnasium, King's College, Cambridge

 

Timeline


 

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Wittgenstein was born at 8:30pm on 26 April 1889 in the so-called "Wittgenstein Palace" at Alleegasse 16, now the Argentinierstrasse, near the Karlskirche. add something


1891

It was Russell who introduced Wittgenstein to David Pinsent (1891–1918) in the summer of 1912. add something


1892

At the age of four, Waugh writes, Hans could identify the Doppler effect in a passing siren as a quarter-tone drop in pitch, and at five started crying "Wrong/ Wrong/" when two brass bands in a carnival played the same tune in different keys. add something


1898

As a result of his decision in 1898 to invest substantially overseas, particularly in the Netherlands, Switzerland and the US, the family was to an extent shielded from the hyperinflation that hit Austria in 1922. add something


1900

Several commentators have argued that a school photograph of Hitler may show Wittgenstein in the lower left corner, but Hamann says the photograph stems from 1900 or 1901, before Wittgenstein's time. add something


1902

But he died in mysterious circumstances in May 1902, when he ran away to America and disappeared from a boat in Chesapeake Bay, most likely having committed suicide. add something


1903

In 1903, when he was 14, he began his three years of formal schooling there, lodging nearby in term time with the family of a Dr. Srigl, a master at the local gymnasium, the family giving him the nickname Luki. add something

 

Weininger commited suicide, shooting himself in 1903, shortly after publishing the book. add something


1906

He began his studies in mechanical engineering at the Technische Hochschule in Charlottenburg, Berlin, on 23 October 1906, lodging with the family of a professor there, Dr Jolles. add something


1908

He attended for three semesters, and was awarded a diploma on 5 May 1908, after developing an interest in aeronautics. add something


1910

Cambridge University Press, first published 1910. add something


1911

He worked on the design of a propeller with small jet engines on the end of its blades, something he patented in 1911 and which earned him a research studentship from the university in the autumn of 1908. add something

 

Wittgenstein wanted to study with Frege, but Frege suggested he attend the University of Cambridge to study under Russell, so on 18 October 1911 Wittgenstein arrived unannounced at Russell's rooms in Trinity College. Russell was having tea with C. K. Ogden, when, according to Russell, "... an unknown German appeared, speaking very little English but refusing to speak German. He turned out to be a man who had learned engineering at Charlottenburg, but during this course had acquired, by himself, a passion for the philosophy of mathematics & has now come to Ca add something


1912

A Portrait of Wittgenstein as a Young Man: From the Diary of David Hume Pinsent 1912-1914. add something

 

A mathematics undergraduate and descendant of David Hume, Pinsent soon became Wittgenstein's closest friend, The men worked together on experiments in the psychology laboratory about the role of rhythm in the appreciation of music, and Wittgenstein delivered a paper on the subject to the British Psychological Association in Cambridge in 1912. add something

 

In 1912 Wittgenstein joined the Cambridge Moral Sciences Club, an influential discussion group for philosophy dons and students, delivering his first paper there on 29 November that year, a four-minute talk defining philosophy as "all those primitive propositions which are assumed as true without proof by the various sciences. add something

 

Monk writes that Wittgenstein's thoughts of suicide, which receded to an extent only when Russell began to admire his work in 1912, suggest he had embraced Weininger's bleak outlook. add something

 

Wittgenstein is widely regarded to have fallen in love with at least three men: David Hume Pinsent in 1912, Francis Skinner in 1930, and Ben Richards in the late 1940s. add something

 

The latter told a friend, David Pinsent, that when Bertrand Russell first encouraged him in his philosophy in January 1912, it had ended nine years of loneliness and wanting to die, though Russell was so worried about his state of mind that he predicted Wittgenstein would kill himself by February 1914. add something

 

He wrote in May 1912 that Wittgenstein had just begun to study the history of philosophy: "e expresses the most naive surprise that all the philosophers he once worshipped in ignorance are after all stupid and dishonest and make disgusting mistakes/" The last time they saw each other was at a Birmingham railway station on 8 October 1913, when they said goodbye before Wittgenstein left to live in Norway. add something


1913

Wittgenstein came to feel that he could not get to the heart of his most fundamental questions while surrounded by other academics, and so in 1913 he retreated to the village of Skjolden in Norway, where he rented the second floor of a house for the winter. add something

 

Karl Wittgenstein died on 20 January 1913, and on receiving his inheritance Wittgenstein became one of the wealthiest men in Europe. add something

 

Review of P. Coffey's Science of Logic: a polemical book review, written in 1912 for the March 1913 issue of The Cambridge Review when Wittgenstein was an undergraduate studying with Russell. add something


1914

At Wittgenstein's insistence, Moore (G.E._Moore), who was now a Cambridge don, visited him in Norway in 1914, reluctantly because Wittgenstein exhausted him. add something


1916

In March 1916, he was posted to a fighting unit on the front line of the Russian front, as part of the Austrian 7th Army, where his unit was involved in some of the heaviest fighting, defending against the Brusilov Offensive. add something

 

Despite the physical distance that had grown between them because of the war—Pinsent's last letter to Wittgenstein was dated 14 September 1916—when Pinsent died in a plane crash in May 1918, Wittgenstein was distraught to the point of being suicidal, and three years later dedicated the Tractatus to him. add something


1918

In 1918 he was promoted to lieutenant and sent to the Italian front as part of an artillery regiment. add something

 

In the summer of 1918 Wittgenstein took military leave and went to stay in one of his family's Vienna summer houses, Neuwaldegg. add something

 

For his part in the final Austrian offensive of June 1918, he was recommended for the Gold Medal for Valour, the highest honour in the Austrian army, but was instead awarded the Band of the Military Service Medal with Swords — it being decided that this particular action, although extraordinarily brave, had been insufficiently consequential to merit the highest honour. add something

 

The second eldest brother, Kurt, an officer and company director, shot himself on 27 October 1918 at the end of World War I, when the Austrian troops he was commanding refused to obey his orders and deserted en masse. add something


1919

He returned to his family in Vienna on 25 August 1919, by all accounts physically and mentally spent. add something

 

In September 1919 he enrolled in the Lehrerbildungsanstalt in the Kundmanngasse in Vienna . add something


1920

In 1920 Wittgenstein was given his first job as a primary school teacher in Trattenbach, under his real name, in a remote village of a few hundred people. add something

 

In the summer of 1920, Wittgenstein worked as a gardener for a monastery. add something


1921

While Wittgenstein was living in isolation in rural Austria, the Tractatus was published to considerable interest, first in German in 1921 as Logisch-Philosophische Abhandlung, part of Wilhelm Ostwald's journal Annalen der Naturphilosophie, though Wittgenstein was not happy with the result and called it a pirate edition. add something

 

His first letters describe it as beautiful, but in October 1921, he wrote to Russell: "I am still at Trattenbach, surrounded, as ever, by odiousness and baseness. add something

 

Philosophy - In 1921, Ludwig Wittgenstein, who studied under Russell at Cambridge, published his "Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus", which gave a rigidly "logical" account of linguistic and philosophical issues


1922

Finally in 1922 an agreement was reached with Wittgenstein that Kegan Paul would print a bilingual edition with Russell's introduction and the Ramsey-Ogden translation. add something

 

Introduction, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, May 1922. add something


1923

Frank Ramsey visited Wittgenstein in Puchberg am Schneeberg in September 1923. add something


1924

He moved schools again in September 1924, this time to Otterthal, near Trattenbach; the socialist headmaster, Josef Putre, was someone Wittgenstein had become friends with while at Trattenbach. add something


1926

From 1926, with the members of the Vienna Circle, Wittgenstein would take part in many discussions. add something

 

In 1926, Wittgenstein was again working as a gardener for a number of months, this time at the monastery of Hütteldorf, where he had enquired about becoming a monk. add something

 

Wittgenstein worked on Haus Wittgenstein between 1926 and 1929. add something

 

On 28 April 1926, Wittgenstein handed in his resignation to Wilhelm Kundt, a local school inspector, who tried to persuade him to stay, but Wittgenstein was adamant that his days as a schoolteacher were over. add something


1927

Friedrich Waismann - Intermittently, from 1927 until 1936, Waismann had extensive conversations with Ludwig Wittgenstein about topics in philosophy of mathematics and philosophy of language


1928

The house was finished by December 1928, and the family gathered there at Christmas to celebrate its completion. add something


1929

At the urging of Ramsey and others, Wittgenstein returned to Cambridge in 1929. add something

 

It was examined in 1929 by Russell and Moore (G.E._Moore); at the end of the thesis defence, Wittgenstein clapped the two examiners on the shoulder and said, "Don't worry, I know you'll never understand it. add something

 

The two did not speak again until 1929. add something


1931

He wrote in 1931: "My bad spelling in youth, up to the age of about 18 or 19, is connected with the whole of the rest of my character. add something


1933

Illustration of a "duckrabbit", discussed in the Philosophical Investigations, section XI, part IIThe Blue Book, a set of notes dictated to his class at Cambridge in 1933–1934, contains seeds of Wittgenstein's later thoughts on language, and is widely read as a turning-point in his philosophy of language. add something


1935

Sofya Yanovskaya - She persuaded Ludwig Wittgenstein when he was visiting Soviet Union in 1935 to give up his idea to relocate to the Soviet Union


1936

From 1936 to 1937, Wittgenstein lived again in Norway, where he worked on the Philosophical Investigations. add something

 

Ten years later, in 1936, as part of a series of "confessions" he engaged in that year, Wittgenstein appeared without warning at the village saying he wanted to confess personally and ask for pardon from the children he had hit. add something


1938

In 1938, he travelled to Ireland to visit Maurice O'Connor Drury, a friend who became a psychiatrist, and considered such training himself, with the intention of abandoning philosophy for it. add something

 

While he was in Ireland in March 1938, Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss; the Viennese Wittgenstein was now a citizen of the enlarged Germany and a Jew under the 1935 Nuremberg racial laws, because three of his grandparents had been born as Jews. add something

 

Paul had escaped to Switzerland and the US in July 1938, and disagreed with the negotiations, leading to a permanent split between the siblings. add something


1939

E. Moore (G.E._Moore) resigned the chair in philosophy in 1939, Wittgenstein was elected, and acquired British citizenship soon afterwards. add something

 

Skinner had given up academia, thanks at least in part to Wittgenstein's influence, and had been working as a mechanic in 1939, with Kirk as his apprentice. add something

 

There is a report Wittgenstein visited Moscow a second time in 1939, travelling from Berlin, and again met the philosopher Sophia Janowskaya. add something

 

In July 1939 he travelled to Vienna to assist Gretl and his other sisters, visiting Berlin for one day to meet an official of the Reichsbank. add something

 

The required Befreiung was granted in August 1939. add something


1941

In September 1941 he asked John Ryle, the brother of the philosopher Gilbert Ryle, if he could get a manual job at Guy's Hospital in London. add something


1943

Grant offered Wittgenstein a position as a laboratory assistant at a wage of £4 per week, and he lived in Newcastle from 29 April 1943 until February 1944. add something


1946

Most of the 693 numbered paragraphs in Part I were ready for printing in 1946, but Wittgenstein withdrew the manuscript. add something


1947

He resigned the professorship at Cambridge in 1947 to concentrate on his writing, and travelled to Ireland in 1947 and 1948, staying in Ross's Hotel in Dublin and a farmhouse in Red Cross, in County Wicklow, where he began the manuscript volume MS 137, Band R. Seeking solitude he moved to Rosro, a holiday cottage in Connemara owned by Maurice O'Connor-Drury. add something


1948

Jani Christou - In 1948 he gained an MA in philosophy after having studied with Ludwig Wittgenstein and Bertrand Russell in Cambridge


1949

He made the trip in April 1949, although he told Malcolm he was too unwell to do philosophical work: "I haven't done any work since the beginning of March & I haven't had the strength of even trying to do any. add something


1951

Ludwig Wittgenstein died in 1951 add something

 

Paul Feyerabend - In 1951, Feyerabend was granted a British Council scholarship to study under Wittgenstein


1956

Anscombe, a selection of his work on the philosophy of logic and mathematics between 1937 and 1944. add something


1958

The Blue and Brown Books, notes dictated in English to Cambridge students in 1933–1935. add something


1960

J. L. Austin - In the 1960s, Austin and Ludwig Wittgenstein were the two most influential figures in post- World War II Anglo-American linguistic philosophy, a time when many Anglo-American philosophers abandoned logical positivism in favor of the more sophisticated ordinary language philosophy


1961

Wittgenstein's English was poor at the time, and Ramsey was a teenager who had only recently learned German, so philosophers often prefer to use a 1961 translation by David Pears and Brian McGuinness add something


1970

Nicholas Lash - One of Lash's strongest intellectual influences seems to have been the recovery of Aquinas's theology, using forms of philosophical argument influenced by Ludwig Wittgenstein, which became influential in the 1970s, associated with Cornelius Ernst and Fergus Kerr


1978

Burton Dreben - From 1978 onwards, Dreben gave a series of lectures at Harvard which had as their primary topics the works of Ludwig Wittgenstein and W.V. Quine


1989

Joseph Kosuth - Also in 1989 Kosuth curated the show 'Le Jeu de l'Indicible: Ludwig Wittgenstein et l'Art du Xxe Siècle' to commemmorate the 100th birthday of the philosopher, in which he showed numerous works by fellow artists


1993

Wittgenstein is the subject of the 1993 film "Wittgenstein", by English director Derek Jarman, which is loosely based on his life story as well as his philosophical thinking add something

 

Paul Wittgenstein - Paul Wittgenstein appears as a character in Derek Jarman's 1993 film "Wittgenstein", about his brother Ludwig Wittgenstein


1999

In 1999, the Baruch Poll ranked the "Investigations" as the most important book of 20th-century philosophy, standing out as " add something


2003

In the 2003 novel "The Oxford Murders" and in the film of the same name, the characters play with the idea of knowing the truth, in this case about a series of mathematically-linked murders add something


2005

A first edition sold in 2005 for £75,000 add something


2008

Taylor & Francis, 2008; and Nelson, John O. ://onlinelibrary add something


2010

Carlo Penco - Saggi su Ludwig Wittgenstein, Mimesis, 2010


2011

In 2011 two new boxes of Wittgenstein papers were found add something


2015

Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2015 add something