Maastricht Treaty

Knowledge Identifier: $Maastricht_Treaty

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Maastricht Treaty

The Maastricht treaty created the European Union and led to the creation of the single European currency, the euroadd

Category: Politics

Launched in 1970.

Countries: France (33%), United Kingdom (18%), Europe (15%)

Main connections: European Union, John Major, European Economic Community

Linked to: Conservative Party, Labour Party, European Economic Community, European Committee of the Regions

 

Timeline


 

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1970

Coordination in foreign policy had taken place since the beginning of the 1970s under the name of European Political Cooperation , which had been first written into the treaties by the Single European Act but not as a part of the EEC. While the Justice and Home Affairs pillar extended cooperation in law enforcement, criminal justice, asylum, and immigration and judicial cooperation in civil matters, some of these areas had already been subject to intergovernmental cooperation under the Schengen Implementation Convention of 1990 add something


1986

Altiero Spinelli - Maastricht Treaty - However, it provided an impetus for the negotiations which led to Single European Act of 1986 and the Maastricht Treaty of 1992


1987

European Council - Maastricht Treaty - In 1987, it was included in the treaties for the first time and had a defined role for the first time in the Maastricht Treaty


1988

Louis Tobback - Maastricht Treaty - From 1988 until 1994, Tobback was Belgium's Minister of the Interior in two coalitions formed by Christian Democrats and Socialists, who faced the tough task to make Belgium comply with the terms of the Maastricht Treaty

 

Marine Le Pen - The sole French laureate of the Nobel Prize in Economics , Allais had expressed concerns about the 1992 Maastricht Treaty, the single European currency, free trade and Globalization and the 2004 European Constitution


1990

Giulio Andreotti - Maastricht Treaty - In 1990 Andreotti was involved in getting all parties to agree to a binding timetable for the Maastricht Treaty

 

Fiscal adjustment - European countries experienced intense processes of fiscal adjustment during the 1990s, in order to match the Maastricht criteria and to accede to the Economic and Monetary Union


1991

The Dutch government, by virtue of holding Presidency of the Council of the European Union during the negotiations in the second half of 1991, arranged a ceremony inside the government buildings of the Limburg province on the river Maas add something

 

John Major - Maastricht Treaty - Early in his term, Major presided over British participation in the Gulf War in March 1991 and claimed to have negotiated "Game, Set and Match for Britain" at the Maastricht Treaty in December 1991

 

European Economic Community - The act was followed by work on what would be the Maastricht Treaty, which was agreed on 10 December 1991, signed the following year and coming into force on 1 November 1993 establishing the EU.


1992

Nigel Farage - $Maastricht Treaty - Farage was a founding member of UKIP, having left the Conservative Party in 1992 after the signing of the Maastricht Treaty

 

Conservative Party (UK) - Maastricht Treaty - Anticipating the growing Euroscepticism within his party, John Major negotiated a British opt-out from the single currency in the 1992 Maastricht Treaty, although several members of Major's cabinet, such as Kenneth Clarke, were personally supportive of EMU participation

 

Alexander Fermor-Hesketh, 3rd Baron Hesketh - Maastricht Treaty - During his period in office as Chief Whip he helped secure the Local Government Finance Act 1992, which introduced council taxes, and the European Communities Act 1993, which ratified the Maastricht Treaty

 

Philippe de Villiers - Maastricht Treaty - During the public debate over the Maastricht Treaty, which established the European Union, in 1992, he achieved lasting prominence in the media as an anti-Treaty activist

 

David Davis (British politician) - Maastricht Treaty - He was a government whip when parliament voted on the Maastricht Treaty in 1992, angering many of the Maastricht rebels on his own right-wing of the party

 

Holger K. Nielsen - Maastricht Treaty - However when the Maastricht Treaty came up for approval by referendum in 1992 the party remained true to its roots and recommended a 'NO' vote

 

Philippe Seguin - Maastricht Treaty - In 1992, he played a leading role in the No campaign against the Maastricht Treaty

 

Patrick Devedjian - Maastricht Treaty - In 1992, he was one of the few members of the RPR who voted to support the Maastricht Treaty

 

European integration - A prominent goal of the EU since its creation by the Maastricht Treaty in 1992 is establishing and maintaining a single market

 

Maurice Allais - In 1992, Maurice Allais criticized the Maastricht Treaty for its excessive emphasis on free trade

 

Jacques Chirac - In 1992, convinced a man could not become President whilst advocating anti-European policies, he called for a "yes" vote in the referendum on the Maastricht Treaty, against the opinion of Pasqua, Seguin and a majority of the RPR voters, who chose to vote "no".

 

Charles Pasqua - In 1992, he called a vote against the ratification of the Maastricht Treaty

 

Xavier Bertrand - In 1992, he led the campaign for the 'no' to the Maastricht Treaty in his department, the Aisne in the region of Picardy

 

Emmanuel Todd - In spite of his opposition to the Maastricht Treaty in 1992, Todd expressed himself in favour of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe in the referendum of 2005, advocating a protectionist framework at the European level for the future policies of the Union

 

Movement for France - Interestingly, his influence is waning: through considered to be pro-European in general, the department voted against the Maastricht Treaty in 1992 due to Villiers' influence, but it voted for the European Constitution in 2005

 

Marie-France Garaud - She was for the "no" for the French Maastricht Treaty referendum and for the 2005 French European Constitution referendum

 

Euro - The 1992 Maastricht Treaty obliges most EU member states to adopt the euro upon meeting certain monetary and budgetary convergence criteria, although not all states have done so

 

Euro - The euro was established by the provisions in the 1992 Maastricht Treaty

 

Gaullism - This is particularly the case with Philippe Séguin, who opposed the Maastricht Treaty in 1992 and more recently with MP Nicolas Dupont-Aignan, who founded his own party, Arise the Republic which seems to be the closest to the original Gaullism

 

European integration - Thus, European Union citizens were given voting rights in local elections by the 1992 Maastricht Treaty

 

Emmanuel Todd - Todd was opposed to the Maastricht Treaty in the 1992 referendum

 

The "' Maastricht Treaty "' was signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Community in Maastricht, Netherlands add something

 

The signing of the Treaty of Maastricht took place in Maastricht, Netherlands on 7 February 1992 add something

 

Francois Mitterrand - Maastricht Treaty - Together they fathered the Maastricht Treaty, which was signed on 7 February 1992

 

In Denmark, the first Danish Maastricht Treaty referendum was held on 2 June 1992 but a shortfall of fewer than 50,000 votes resulted in the treaty not being ratified add something

 

Uncertainty over the Danish and French referendums was one of the causes of the turmoil on the currency markets in September 1992, which led to the UK pound's expulsion from the Exchange Rate Mechanism add something


1993

European Economic Community - Maastricht Treaty - After the Maastricht treaty in 1993, these institutions became those of the European Union, though limited in some areas due to the pillar structure

 

Michael Carttiss - He was a strong eurosceptic and disliked the provisions of the Maastricht Treaty, voting against them frequently in early 1993

 

John Major - However, even these moves towards greater European integration met with vehement opposition from the Eurosceptic wing of the party and the Cabinet as the Government attempted to ratify the Maastricht Treaty in the first half of 1993

 

Kristen Nygaard - In 1993 when the EEC ratified the Maastricht treaty and became the European Union the organization changed its name to reflect this

 

European Atomic Energy Community - In 1993, the Maastricht Treaty created the European Union, which absorbed the Communities into the European Community pillar, yet Euratom still maintained a distinct legal personality

 

European Court of Justice - The Maastricht Treaty was ratified in 1993, and created the European Union

 

European Public Health Alliance - The European Public Health Alliance organisation was established in 1993 after the ratification of the Maastricht treaty of 1992 which for the first time gave the European Community responsibilities in health protection

 

European Economic Community - Upon the entry into force of the Maastricht Treaty in 1993, the EEC was renamed the "European Community" to reflect that it covered a wider range of policy

 

Nicholas Ridley, Baron Ridley of Liddesdale - The final speech he ever gave was an address against the Maastricht Treaty on 17 February 1993 in the House of Lords, which he had always vehemently opposed and voted against in 1991

 

Edward Leigh - Maastricht Treaty - Leigh served as a Minister in John Major's Government but was sacked in May 1993 over the stance he took opposing the Maastricht Treaty

 

The treaty was eventually ratified the following year on 18 May 1993 after a second referendum was held in Denmark add something

 

Caroline Cox, Baroness Cox - Maastricht Treaty - She rebelled over the Maastricht Treaty, supporting an amendment to require a nationwide referendum on ratification on July 14, 1993

 

Upon its entry into force on 1 November 1993 during the Delors Commission, it created the European Union and led to the creation of the single European currency, the euro add something


1994

Christopher Monckton, 3rd Viscount Monckton of Brenchley - In 1994, he sued the Conservative government of John Major for agreeing to contribute to the costs of the Protocol on Social Policy agreed in the 1993 Maastricht Treaty, although the UK had an opt-out from the protocol


1996

Kristen Nygaard - In 1996 and 1997 Nygaard was the coordinator of the efforts to establish The European Anti-Maastricht Movement , a cooperative network between national organizations opposing the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union and the Maastricht Treaty in European countries within and outside the EU


2002

Citizen and Republican Movement - Gulf War - Maastricht Treaty - The party replaced, in 2002, the "'Citizens' Movement"' founded by Jean-Pierre Chevènement, who left the Socialist Party in 1993 due to his opposition to the Persian Gulf War and to the Maastricht Treaty


2010

As of the end of 2010, only six EU member states, Bulgaria, Estonia, Poland, Luxembourg, Finland and the Czech Republic, still meet this target add something


2014

As of the end of 2014, of the countries in the Eurozone, only Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Luxembourg, and Finland still met this target add something


2015

On 17 November 2015, France called other member states for military assistance, on the basis of the Article 42 add something


2016

In the aftermath of the Brexit vote in Britain on June 23, 2016, the United Kingdom formally invoked Article 50 in March 2017, giving notice that it would leave the EU within two years add something