Margaret Sanger

Knowledge Identifier: +Margaret_Sanger

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Margaret Sanger

American birth control activist, sex educator, and nurse add

Category: Politics

Born in 1879.

Countries: United States (42%), New York (21%), United Kingdom (8%)

Education: undef.

Main connections: Harlem, Mary Dennett, Lena Levine

Linked to: New York University, Claverack College, Smith College, Stony Brook University

 

Timeline


 

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Margaret Sanger was born in 1879 add something


1896

She returned home in 1896 following her father's request that she come home to nurse her mother, who died three years later in 1899 add something


1910

Feminism - The movement started in the 1910s in the U.S. under Margaret Sanger and elsewhere under Marie Stopes


1911

Starting in 1911, Sanger wrote a series of articles about sexual education entitled "What Every Mother Should Know" and "What Every Girl Should Know" for the socialist magazine "New York Call" add something


1912

In 1912, after a fire destroyed their home in Hastings-on-Hudson, the Sanger family moved back to New York City, where Margaret began working as a nurse in the East Side slums of Manhattan add something


1913

Endres cites Kennedy, p 19, as pointing out that some materials on birth control were available in 1913 add something

 

In 1913, Sanger worked as a nurse at Henry Street Settlement in New York's Lower East Side, often with poor women who were suffering due to frequent childbirth and self-induced abortions add something

 

Sanger became estranged from her husband in 1913, and the couple's divorce was finalized in 1921 add something


1914

During the early years of her activism, Sanger viewed birth control primarily as a free-speech issue, rather than a feminist issue, and when she started publishing "The Woman Rebel" in 1914, she did so with the express goal of provoking a legal challenge to the Comstock laws banning dissemination of information about contraception add something

 

In 1914, Sanger launched "The Woman Rebel", an eight-page monthly newsletter which promoted contraception using the slogan "No Gods, No Masters" add something

 

In 1914, prompted by suffering she witnessed due to frequent pregnancies and self-induced abortions, she started a monthly newsletter, "The Woman Rebel" add something

 

While traveling in Europe in 1914, Sanger met Ellis add something

 

Sanger was indicted in August 1914 on three counts of violating obscenity laws and a fourth count of "inciting murder and assassination" add something

 

Mary Dennett - In 1914, Dennett met Margaret Sanger, a birth control advocate

 

Emma Goldman - When Margaret Sanger, an advocate of access to contraception, coined the term "birth control" and disseminated information about various methods in the June 1914 issue of her magazine "The Woman Rebel", she received aggressive support from Goldman


1915

Some countries in northwestern Europe had more liberal policies towards contraception than the United States at the time, and when Sanger visited a Dutch birth control clinic in 1915, she learned about diaphragms and became convinced that they were a more effective means of contraception than the suppositories and douches that she had been distributing back in the United States add something

 

Sanger's ally Upton Sinclair wrote an open letter of support for Sanger and her husband in "The Masses" and during her absence, a groundswell of support grew in the United States, and Margaret returned to the United States in October 1915 add something

 

Edith How-Martyn - She met the American family planning leader Margaret Sanger in 1915 and had been impressed by her ideas, subsequently organising the 1927 World Population Conference in Geneva with Sanger and becoming honorary director of the Birth Control International Information Centre in London in 1930

 

Mary Dennett - The arrest of William Sanger in 1915 for distributing Margaret Sanger's birth control pamphlet catalyzed the birth control movement in the United States, and this time Dennett decided to get involved


1916

Both were later published in book form in 1916 add something

 

From 1916 onward, she frequently lectured—in churches, women's clubs, homes, and theaters—to workers, churchmen, liberals, socialists, scientists, and upper-class women add something

 

In 1916, Sanger opened the first birth control clinic in the United States, which led to her arrest for distributing information on contraception add something

 

Noted attorney Clarence Darrow offered to defend Sanger free of charge, but, bowing to public pressure, the government dropped the charges in early 1916 add something

 

On October 16, 1916, Sanger opened a family planning and birth control clinic at 46 Amboy St. in the Brownsville neighborhood of Brooklyn, the first of its kind in the United States add something


1917

In 1917, she started publishing the monthly periodical "The Birth Control Review add something

 

The first issue of "Birth Control Review" was published Feb 1917 add something


1918

An initial appeal was rejected, but in a subsequent court proceeding in 1918, the birth control movement won a victory when Judge Frederick E. Crane of the New York Court of Appeals issued a ruling which allowed doctors to prescribe contraception add something


1920

Between 1920 and 1926, 567,000 copies of "Woman and the New Race" and "The Pivot of Civilization" were sold add something

 

Cohen, p 63 During the 1920s, Sanger received hundreds of thousands of letters, many of them written in desperation by women begging for information on how to prevent unwanted pregnancies add something

 

She wrote several books in the 1920s which had a nationwide impact in promoting the cause of birth control add something

 

Lena Levine - Levine's interest in birth control dated from the 1920s, when she had met Margaret Sanger


1921

After World War I, Sanger shifted away from radical politics, and she founded the American Birth Control League in 1921 to enlarge her base of supporters to include the middle class add something

 

In 1921, Sanger founded the American Birth Control League, which later became the Planned Parenthood Federation of America add something

 

These principles were adopted at the first meeting of the ABCL in late 1921 add something

 

Birth Control Review, October 1921, page 5 add something

 

"The Birth Control Review", Vol V. Num 12, December 1921, Margaret Sanger , p 18 add something

 

Rose Witcop - From 1921 she concentrated her efforts on the issue of birth control and in 1923 she and Aldred were arrested and charged for publishing and distributing Margaret Sanger's "Family Limitation"


1922

In 1922, she traveled to China, Korea, and Japan add something


1923

After Sanger discovered that physicians were exempt from the law that prohibited the distribution of contraceptive information to women—provided it was prescribed for medical reasons—she established the Clinical Research Bureau in 1923 to exploit this loophole add something


1924

John D. Rockefeller Jr. donated five thousand dollars to her American Birth Control League in 1924 and a second time in 1925 add something


1925

"The Child Who Was Mother to a Woman" from "The New Yorker", April 11, 1925, page 11 add something


1926

In 1926, Sanger gave a lecture on birth control to the women's auxiliary of the Ku Klux Klan in Silver Lake, New Jersey add something


1928

In 1928, conflict within the birth control movement leadership led Sanger to resign as the president of the ABCL and take full control of the CRB, renaming it the Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau , marking the beginning of a schism in the movement that would last until 1938 add something

 

The number of letters is reported as "a quarter million", "over a million", or "hundreds of thousands" in various sources Five hundred of these letters were compiled into the 1928 book, "Motherhood in Bondage add something


1929

In 1929, James H. Hubert, a black social worker and leader of New York's Urban League, asked Sanger to open a clinic in Harlem add something

 

In 1929, Sanger formed the National Committee on Federal Legislation for Birth Control in order to lobby for legislation to overturn restrictions on contraception add something

 

In 1929, she formed the National Committee on Federal Legislation for Birth Control, which served as the focal point of her lobbying efforts to legalize contraception in the United States add something


1930

In 1930, Sanger opened a family planning clinic in Harlem that sought to enlist support for contraceptive use and to bring the benefits of family planning to women who were denied access to their city's health and social services add something

 

Sanger secured funding from the Julius Rosenwald Fund and opened the clinic, staffed with African-American doctors, in 1930 add something

 

Lena Levine - In the 1930s she worked for the Birth Control Federation of America and became medical secretary of the International Planned Parenthood Federation based in London , and worked at the Margaret Sanger Research Bureau, where she became the assistant director under Abraham Stone


1932

In "A Plan for Peace", a 1932 essay, she proposed a congressional department to address population problems add something

 

Julia Lynch Olin - Another speaker was Margaret Sanger in January 1932


1936

This 1936 contraception court victory was the culmination of Sanger's birth control efforts, and she took the opportunity, now in her late 50s, to move to Tucson, Arizona, Arizona, intending to play a less critical role in the birth control movement add something


1937

This court victory motivated the American Medical Association in 1937 to adopt contraception as a normal medical service and a key component of medical school curriculums add something


1942

Although Sanger continued in the role of president, she no longer wielded the same power as she had in the early years of the movement, and in 1942, more conservative forces within the organization changed the name to Planned Parenthood Federation of America, a name Sanger objected to because she considered it too euphemistic add something


1946

In 1946, Sanger helped found the International Committee on Planned Parenthood, which evolved into the International Planned Parenthood Federation in 1952, and soon became the world's largest non-governmental international family planning organization add something


1950

In spite of her original intentions, she remained active in the movement through the 1950s add something


1952

From 1952 to 1959, Sanger served as president of the International Planned Parenthood Federation add something


1957

In 1957, the American Humanist Association named her Humanist of the Year add something


1965

In 1965, the case had struck down one of the remaining contraception-related Comstock laws in Connecticut and Massachusetts add something


1966

In 1966, Planned Parenthood began issuing its Margaret Sanger Awards annually to honor "individuals of distinction in recognition of excellence and leadership in furthering reproductive health and reproductive rights add something

 

Sanger's work with minorities earned praise from Martin Luther King, Jr., in his 1966 acceptance speech for the Margaret Sanger award add something

 

She died in 1966, and is widely regarded as a founder of the modern birth control movement add something


Margaret Sanger died in 1966 add something

 

Martin Luther King, Jr. - In 1966, the Planned Parenthood Federation of America *awarded King the Margaret Sanger *award for "his courageous resistance to bigotry and his lifelong dedication to the advancement of social justice and human dignity"


2001

Sanger, "Pivot of Civilization", 2001 reprint edited by Michael W. Perry, p 409 add something


2005

Esser-Stuart, Joan E., "Margaret Higgins Sanger", in "Encyclopedia of social welfare history in North America", Herrick, John and Stuart, Paul , SAGE, 2005 p 323 In the early 1950s, Sanger encouraged philanthropist Katharine McCormick to provide funding for biologist Gregory Pincus to develop the birth control pill add something