Claude Debussy
Gabriel Faure
Igor Stravinsky
Pictures at an Exhibition
Erik Satie
Pierre Monteux

See also

Maurice Ravel

Knowledge Identifier: +Maurice_Ravel


Maurice Ravel

French composer known especially for his melodies, orchestral and instrumental texturesadd

Category: Music (650)

Born in 1875.

Countries: France (37%), (15%), United States (10%)

Education: undef.

Main connections: Claude Debussy, Gabriel Faure, Igor Stravinsky

Linked to: Conservatoire de Paris, Fayard, Groupe Flammarion, Yale University Press




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Ravel was born in the Basque town of Ciboure, near Biarritz, close to the border with Spain, in 1875. add something


Although he considered his small stature and light weight an advantage to becoming an aviator, and he tried every means of securing service as a flyer, during the First World War Ravel was not allowed to enlist as a pilot because of his age and weak health. add something


He awoke from the surgery, called for his brother Édouard, lapsed into a coma and died shortly afterwards at the age of 62. add something


He was particularly impressed by the new Russian works conducted by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov at the Exposition Universelle in 1889. add something


His earliest public piano recital was in 1889 at age fourteen. add something


He received a first prize in the piano student competition in 1891. add something


Lisa Roma - "'Lisa Roma"' was an American soprano who toured in the United States with composer Maurice Ravel in 1928


Around 1893, Ravel created his earliest compositions, and he was introduced by his father to the cafe pianist Erik Satie, whose distinctive personality and unorthodox musical experiments proved influential. add something


Erik Satie - In 1893 he met the young Maurice Ravel for the first time, Satie's style emerging in the first compositions of the youngster.


After failing to meet the requirement of earning a competitive medal in three consecutive years, Ravel was expelled in 1895. add something


Alfredo Casella - Alfredo entered the Conservatoire de Paris in 1896 to study piano under Louis Diémer and composition under Gabriel_Fauré; in these classes, George Enescu and Maurice Ravel were among his fellow students


Charles Koechlin - From 1896 he was a pupil of Gabriel Fauré, where his fellow-pupils now included Ravel and Jean Roger-Ducasse


In 1899, Ravel conducted his first orchestral piece, Sheherazade, and was greeted by a raucous mixture of boos and applause. add something


Pavane pour une infante defunte - "'Pavane pour une infante défunte"' is a well-known piece written for solo piano by the French composer Maurice Ravel in 1899 when he was studying composition at the Conservatoire de Paris under Gabriel Fauré


Around 1900, Ravel joined with a number of innovative young artists, poets, critics, and musicians who were referred to as the Apaches, a name coined by Vines to represent his band of "artistic outcasts". add something


In 1900, Ravel was invited to Debussy’s home and they played each other’s works. add something


Warsaw Philharmonic Orchestra - Between 1901 and the outbreak of World War II in 1939, several virtuoso- and conductor-composers regularly performed their works with the orchestra, including Edvard Grieg, Arthur Honegger, Leoncavallo, Prokofiev, Rachmaninoff, Maurice Ravel, Camille_Saint-Saëns, Richard Strauss, and Igor Stravinsky


Andre Caplet - He exhibited an unusual talent and originality during his musical education, and won the Prix de Rome in 1901 ahead of Maurice Ravel


Vines performed the public premiere of this piece and Ravel's other early masterpiece Pavane pour une infante defunte in 1902. add something


The Rite of Spring - He showed the manuscript to Maurice Ravel, who was enthusiastic and predicted, in a letter to a friend, that the first performance of the "Le Sacre" would be as important as the 1902 premiere of Debussy's "Pelléas et Mélisande"


Erik Satie - Meanwhile, Debussy was having one of his first major successes with Pelleas et Melisande in 1902, leading a few years later to ‘who-was-precursor-to-whom’ debates between the two composers, in which Maurice Ravel would get involved.


He remained an auditor with Faure until he left the Conservatoire in 1903. add something


Some of Joseph's inventions were quite important, including an early internal-combustion engine and a notorious circus machine, the "Whirlwind of Death", an automotive loop-the-loop that was quite a success until a fatal accident at the Barnum & Bailey Circus in 1903. add something


Arthur Rubinstein - In 1904, Rubinstein moved to Paris to launch his career in earnest, where he met the composers Maurice Ravel and Paul Dukas and the violinist Jacques Thibaud


Alfred Edwards, editor of Le Matin, who had taken particular interest in the incident, took Ravel on a seven-week canal trip on his yacht Aimee through the Low Countries in June and July of 1905, the first time Ravel traveled abroad. add something


By 1905, factions formed for each composer and the two groups began feuding in public. add something


In 1905, Ravel's final year of eligibility for the Prix de Rome, Ravel did not even pass the preliminary test, despite being favored to win one of the two first prizes available. add something


The next of Ravel’s piano compositions to become famous was Miroirs, five piano pieces which marked a “harmonic evolution” and which one commentator described as “intensely descriptive and pictorial. add something


Conservatoire de Paris - Lenepveu had been expected to succeed Dubois as director, but after the "Affaire Ravel" in 1905, Ravel's teacher Gabriel Fauré became director instead


Histoires naturelles - "'Histoires naturelles"' is a song cycle by Maurice Ravel, composed in 1906


In 1907 on Misia's boat L'Aimee, Ravel completed L'heure espagnole and the Rapsodie espagnole, and at the premiere of Daphnis et Chloe, Ravel arrived late and did not go to his box but to Misia's, where he offered her a Japanese doll. add something


Philippe Gaubert - In 1907 he participated in the first performance of Maurice Ravel's "Introduction and Allegro" for harp, flute, clarinet and string quartet


He was inspired by various dances, his favorite being the minuet, composing the Menuet sur le nom d'Haydn in 1908, to commemorate the centenary of the death of Joseph Haydn. add something


Ralph Vaughan Williams - His earlier works sometimes show the influence of Maurice Ravel, his teacher for three months in Paris in 1908.


Gaspard de la nuit - """ is a suite of pieces for solo piano by Maurice Ravel, written in 1908


Looking to expand his contacts and career, Ravel made his first foreign tours to England and Scotland during 1909 and 1911. add something


Charles Koechlin - In 1909 he began regular work as a critic for the "Chronique des Arts" and in 1910 was one of the founders, with Ravel, of the Société musicale indépendante, with whose activities he was intensely associated


In 1910, the society presented the premiere of Ravel’s Ma mère l'oye in its original piano duet version. add something


Pierre Monteux - He came to prominence when, for Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets Russes company between 1911 and 1914, he conducted the world premieres of Stravinsky's "The Rite of Spring" and other prominent works including "Petrushka", Ravel's "Daphnis et Chloé", and Debussy's "Jeux"


Louis Aubert - In 1911 he premiered Maurice Ravel's "Valses nobles et sentimentales", which were written for and dedicated to him


Alexis Roland-Manuel - In 1911, Satie introduced Roland-Manuel to Maurice Ravel, whose pupil, friend and biographer he soon became


In 1912, Ravel's Ma mère l'oye was performed as a ballet after being first transcribed from piano to orchestra. add something


Henry Eichheim - After about 1912 he became more interested in conducting and composition than in violin performance; he was an early promoter of the works of contemporary French composers, particularly Debussy, Ravel and Gabriel Fauré, in the United States


Khovanshchina - In 1913 Igor Stravinsky and Maurice Ravel made their own arrangement at Sergei Diaghilev's request


Khovanshchina - "Khovanshchina" reached the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées in Paris in 1913, where Emil Cooper conducted a Diaghilev production, in a new orchestration written collaboratively by Igor Stravinsky and Maurice Ravel


During 1914, just as World War I began, Ravel composed his Piano Trio with its Basque themes. add something


Francis Poulenc - He was introduced to Ricardo Vines in 1914, a champion of the music of Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel, and became his pupil shortly afterwards.


Among the most famous of his orchestral transcriptions is his own Le Tombeau de Couperin of which he orchestrated the Prelude, Forlane, Minuet, and Rigaudon movements in 1919. add something


With his mother’s death in 1917, his fondest relationship ended and he fell into a “horrible despair”, adding to his ill health and the general gloom over the suffering endured by the people of his country during the war. add something


Ravel was exhausted and lacking creative spirit at the war’s end in 1918. add something


Louis Durey - At a 1918 concert this work attracted the interest of Maurice Ravel, who recommended him to his publisher


Victor de Sabata - In 1918, at the age of 26, de Sabata was appointed conductor of the Monte Carlo Opera, performing a wide variety of late-19th century and contemporary works, and earning acclaim from Maurice Ravel


However, during the war years, Ravel did manage some compositions, including one of his most popular works, Le tombeau de Couperin, a commemoration of the musical ideals of François Couperin, the early 18th century composer, which premiered in 1919. add something


Ravel served as a juror with Florence Meyer Blumenthal in awarding the Prix Blumenthal, a grant given between 1919 and 1954 to young French painters, sculptors, decorators, engravers, writers, and musicians. add something


Andre Jolivet - Claude Debussy, Paul Dukas, and Maurice Ravel were to be his next influences after he heard a concert of their work in 1919; he composed several piano pieces while training to become a teacher before going to study with Le Flem


Around 1920, Diaghilev commissioned Ravel to write $La_valse, originally named Wien, which was to be used for a projected ballet. add something


In 1920, the French government awarded Ravel the Legion d'honneur, but he refused it. add something


Around 1922, Ravel completed his famous orchestral arrangement of Mussorgsky’s Pictures at an Exhibition, commissioned by Serge Koussevitzky, which through its widespread popularity brought Ravel great fame and substantial profit. add something


In 1922, Ravel completed his Sonata for Violin and Cello. add something


In this version, produced in 1922, Ravel omits the Promenade between "Samuel" Goldenberg und "Schmuÿle" and Limoges and applies artistic license to some particulars of dynamics and notation as well as putting forth the virtuoso effort of a master colourist throughout. add something


As Faure stated in a letter to Ravel in October 1922, “I am happier than you can imagine about the solid position which you occupy and which you have acquired so brilliantly and so rapidly. add something


Robert Casadesus - Beginning in 1922, Casadesus collaborated with the composer Maurice Ravel on a project to create piano rolls of a number of his works


Pictures at an Exhibition - The version by Maurice Ravel, produced in 1922 on a commission by Serge Koussevitzky, represents a virtuoso effort by a master colourist


Leo Funtek - As an arranger, Funtek is best known for his orchestral arrangement of "Pictures at an Exhibition", which he published in July 1922, just months before an orchestration by the French composer Maurice Ravel, of whose project Funtek was seemingly unaware


Germaine Tailleferre - In 1923, Tailleferre began to spend a great deal of time with Maurice Ravel at his home in Monfort-L'Amaury


By 1925, by virtue of the unwelcomed pressure of a performance deadline, he finally finished his opera L'enfant et les sortilèges, with its significant jazz and ragtime accents. add something


Subsequently, it became a popular concert work and when the two men met again in 1925, Ravel refused to shake Diaghilev's hand. add something


Robert Soetens - In 1925 Soetens gave the first performance of Maurice Ravel's "Tzigane" , and he went on a Scandinavian tour with Ravel


Vlado Perlemuter - In 1925 he met Maurice Ravel, and in 1927 he studied all of Ravel's solo works for piano with the composer himself for a period of six months


Victor de Sabata - In 1925, he conducted the world premiere of "L'enfant et les sortilèges" by Ravel


Arthur Benjamin - He had a lasting admiration for Maurice Ravel, whose influence is most obvious in "Tombeau de Ravel" and the much earlier "Suite" of 1926 for piano solo


Emil Oberhoffer - On 8 July 1926, he conducted the first performance by the LA Philharmonic of Maurice Ravel's "Alborada del gracioso"


In 1927, Ravel’s String Quartet received its first complete recording. add something


Leon-Paul Fargue - One of his poems, "Rêves", was set to music by Ravel in 1927


Ravel at the piano, accompanied by Canadian singer Éva Gauthier, during his American tour, March 7, 1928. add something


George Gershwin - Birthday party honoring Maurice Ravel in New York City, March 8, 1928.


Paul Doguereau - Doguereau met Maurice Ravel in 1928 in New York during Ravel's American tour


San Francisco Symphony - In 1928, Maurice Ravel conducted some of his music


Ida Rubinstein - She commissioned and performed in Maurice Ravel's "Boléro" in 1928

Major work

1928 - Bolero by Maurice Ravel


Nikita Magaloff - He numbered Ravel among his friends there, who, when he graduated in 1929, said 'In Magaloff a great, a truly extraordinary musician is born


Ravel made one of the few recordings of his own music when he conducted his Bolero with the Lamoureux Orchestra in 1930. add something


Pictures at an Exhibition - However, he withdrew his version when Maurice Ravel's orchestration was published and banned every public performance in the 1930s in deference to Ravel's work


Lisa Roma - In 1930, she made a tour of Europe "as interpreter for the famous French composer, Maurice Ravel


Pierre Monteux - The first of these, with the OSP, is judged by Canarina to be indifferently played; recordings by Monteux of music by Ravel and Berlioz made in 1930 and 1931, Canaria believes, were more impressive


In 1932, Ravel suffered a major blow to the head in a taxi accident. add something


Ravel dedicated the work to his favorite pianist, Marguerite Long, who played it and popularized it across Europe in over twenty cities, and they recorded it together in 1932. add something


Ravel probably died as a result of the brain surgery, with the underlying cause arguably being a brain injury caused by the automobile accident in 1932, and not from a brain tumor as some believe. add something


In 1933, Wittgenstein played the work in concert for the first time to instant acclaim. add something


Charles-Marie Widor - He was the Director until 1934, when he was succeeded by Maurice Ravel


In late 1937, Ravel consented to experimental brain surgery. add something


Maurice Ravel died in 1937 add something


George Martin - Encouraged by Sidney Harrison Martin used his veteran's grant to attend the Guildhall School of Music and Drama from 1947 to 1950, where he studied piano and oboe, and was interested in the music of Rachmaninov and Ravel, as well as Porter and Dankworth


Walter Gieseking - Today, though, he is particularly remembered as one of the greatest interpreters of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and the two French impressionist masters Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel, virtually all of whose solo piano music he recorded on LP for EMI in the early 1950s , after recording much of it with even greater youthful vitality for Columbia in the 1930s and 1940s, some of which have been re-released on CD.


Jacqueline Brumaire - In 1956 she debuted at La Scala, Milan as Fiordiligi in "Così fan tutte", in 1957 as Louise in the opera of the same name by Charpentier, in the season of 1956-57 as Concepción in "L'heure espagnole" by Maurice Ravel


Leopold Stokowski - Although he officially used the Ravel orchestration of the finale to Mussorgsky's "Pictures at an Exhibition" in his 1957 Capitol recording, he did add a few additional percussion instruments to the score


Peter Ustinov - During the 1960s, with the encouragement of Sir Georg Solti, Ustinov directed several operas including Puccini's "Gianni Schicchi", Ravel's "L'heure espagnole", Schoenberg's "Erwartung" and Mozart's "The Magic Flute"


Albert Wolff (conductor) - In 1960 he conducted the Ravel Piano Concerto in G major in Stockholm with the eminent Swedish pianist Lars Sellergren


Eileen Joyce - During that tour, which included Hong Kong, she announced she was retiring, and her final recital was at a festival in Stirling, Scotland on 18 May 1960, where she played two sonatas by Domenico Scarlatti, Beethoven's "Appassionata" sonata, and works by Mendelssohn, Debussy, Chopin, Ravel, Granados and Liszt


Pierre Monteux - Monteux's final studio recordings were with the London Symphony Orchestra in works by Ravel at the end of February 1964


Monique Haas - The later recording, made in 1965, on the other hand, is far more "Mozartean", reflecting Ravel's self-confessed debt to Mozart when he wrote the concerto


Julius Katchen - $London Symphony Orchestra - His last public appearance was with the London Symphony Orchestra on December 12, 1968, playing Ravel's Concerto for the Left Hand


Pierre Boulez - In 1974, he recorded Maurice Ravel's little-known orchestral version of "Une Barque sur l'océan" from "Miroirs", when there was still no printed score


Emmanuel Chabrier - In a 1975 study of the two composers, the French musical scholar Roger Delage wrote, "In truth there are few works by Ravel which do not to some extent echo one or another work of Chabrier and of which the harmonic procedures are not derived from him"


Canadian filmmaker Larry Weinstein has produced two documentaries about Ravel, Ravel and Ravel's Brain. add something


Marius Constant - In 1990 he made an orchestral arrangement of the piano composition "Gaspard de la nuit" by Maurice Ravel


Emmanuel Chabrier - Ravel so loved the piece that he said he would rather have written it than Wagner's "Ring" cycle; reviewing a rare revival in 2003 the critic Edward Greenfield commented that despite the plot, the music made one see Ravel's point


Gabriel Tacchino - His recordings include the complete music for piano by Poulenc, which was reissued by EMI on five CDs in 2005; the complete piano concertos by Saint-Saëns and Prokofiev for Vox; and works by J. S. Bach, Mozart, Chopin, Franck, Grieg, Debussy, Satie, Ravel, Gershwin, Addinsell, and others for recording labels such as Erato and Pierre Verany


Philippe Entremont - In September 2007, Entremont returned to New Orleans as soloist to open the Louisiana Philharmonic Orchestra's second post-Katrina season with Ravel's Piano Concerto in G major


On April 8, 2008, the New York Times published an article suggesting Ravel may have been in the early stages of frontotemporal dementia during 1928, and this might account for the repetitive nature of Bolero. add something


On April 8, 2008, the "New York Times" published an article suggesting Ravel may have been in the early stages of frontotemporal dementia during 1928, and this might account for the repetitive nature of "Boléro" add something


According to SACEM, as recently as 2009 Ravel is on the list of the top 20 artists whose works have generated the most royalties abroad add something


Bolero - In a 2011 article for the "Cambridge Quarterly", Michael Lanford noted that "throughout his life, Maurice Ravel was captivated by the act of creation outlined in Edgar Allan Poe's "Philosophy of Composition


British Paraorchestra - The Paraorchestra made its first public appearance on 1 July 2012 during Hazlewood's music festival "Orchestra in a Field" at Glastonbury Abbey; the performance included its versions of "Greensleeves" and Maurice Ravel's "Boléro"


Writing of the piano music the critic Andrew Clark commented in 2013, "A successful Ravel interpretation is a finely balanced thing add something


In 2014 "The Times" criticised Khatia Buniatishvili's "Gaspard" for exaggerated tempi add something