National Security Agency

Knowledge Identifier: &National_Security_Agency

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National Security Agency

Key component of the U.S. Intelligence Community, headed by the Director of National Intelligence add

Category: Politics

Founded in 1952.

Countries: United States (48%), (20%), France (4%)

Main connections: Edward Snowden, New Zealand, Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act

Linked to: Central Security Service, United States Department of Defense, IBM, Soviet Union

 

Timeline


 

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1952

The creation of NSA was authorized in a letter written by President Harry S. Truman in June 1952 add something

 

The report was completed by June 13, 1952 add something


1954

Planned in 1954, and opened in 1960, the base covered as of 1999 add something


1955

Tom Lehrer - He served in the U.S. Army from 1955 to 1957, working at the National Security Agency

 

Philco - In June 1955, the National Security Agency and the United States Navy entered into a contract with Philco to build a specialized scientific transistorized computer based on Philco's surface barrier transistor technology


1960

The NSA received criticism early on in 1960 after two agents had defected to the Soviet Union add something


1963

In 1963 the new headquarters building, nine stories tall, opened add something

 

Nonetheless, security breaches reoccurred only a year later when in an issue of "Izvestia" of July 23, 1963, a former NSA employee published several cryptologic secrets add something


1964

When in 1964 the Congress was hearing a bill giving the director of the NSA the power to fire at will any employee, the Washington Post wrote: "This is the very definition of arbitrariness add something


1965

The current NSA insignia has been in use since 1965, when then-Director, LTG Marshall S. Carter ordered the creation of a device to represent the Agency add something

 

Marshall Carter - From 1965 to 1969, he served as Director of the National Security Agency


1967

Cold War - The USS "Liberty" incident in 1967 and USS "Pueblo" incident in 1968 are examples of the losses endured during the Cold War add something


1968

In 1968 another new building was opened by the Communications Security division at Fort Meade; it was a distance away from the main NSA building add something


1970

During the development of DES by IBM in the 1970s, NSA recommended changes to some details of the design add something

 

During the early 1970s, the first of what became more than eight large satellite communications dishes were installed at Menwith Hill add something

 

Special Activities Division - Also in the 1970s, the U.S. Navy, the National Security Agency and SAD/SOG conducted Operation Ivy Bells and a series of other missions to place wire taps on Soviet underwater communications cables


1972

Central Security Service - The Central Security Service was established by Presidential Directive in 1972 to promote full partnership between the National Security Agency and the Service Cryptologic Elements of the United States Armed Forces

 

Central Security Service - The "'Central Security Service"' is an agency of the United States Department of Defense, established in 1972 by a Presidential Directive to promote full partnership between the National Security Agency and the Service Cryptologic Elements of the United States Armed Forces in the field of signals intelligence

 

Central Security Service - The Central Security Service was established by Presidential Directive in February 1972 to promote full partnership between the National Security Agency and the Service Cryptologic Elements of the Armed Forces


1976

Data Encryption Standard - In 1976, after consultation with the National Security Agency , the NBS eventually selected a slightly modified version , which was published as an official Federal Information Processing Standard for the United States in 1977


1978

After the Church Committee hearings, the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 became law, limiting circumstances under which domestic surveillance was allowed add something


1980

It has since been observed that the S-boxes in DES are particularly resilient against differential cryptanalysis, a technique which was not publicly discovered until the late 1980s, but which was known to the IBM DES team add something


1981

The DoD Computer Security Center was founded in 1981 and renamed the National Computer Security Center in 1985 add something

 

Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute - The facility was transferred from to the National Security Agency in 1981 and, as the "'Rosman Research Station"', was used as an signals intelligence gathering facility


1983

Montel Williams - In 1983 he was transferred to Ft. Meade in Maryland, where he worked with the National Security Agency


1986

Robert Morris (cryptographer) - In 1986, Morris began work at the National Security Agency

 

In September 1986 the OPS2A and 2B buildings opened, with a dedication by President Ronald Reagan add something


1990

For 50 years, NSA designed and built most of its computer equipment in house, but from the 1990s until about 2003 when U.S. Congress curtailed the practice, the agency contracted with the private sector in the fields of research and equipment add something

 

NSA was a major player in the debates of the 1990s regarding the export of cryptography add something

 

The "Yakima Herald-Republic" cited Bamford, saying that many of NSA's bases for its $Echelon program were a legacy system, using outdated, 1990s technology add something

 

This problem was apparently recognized in the 1990s but not made a priority, and "now the agency's ability to keep its operations going is threatened add something


1991

Communications Security Establishment Canada - This machine was upgraded to a Cray S-MP superserver after Cray acquired Floating Point Systems in December in 1991 and used the Folklore Operating System supplied by the NSA in the US. These machines are now retired


1992

Solomon W. Golomb - In 1992, he received the medal of the U.S. National Security Agency for his research, and has been the recipient of the Lomonosov Medal of the Russian Academy of Science and the Kapitsa Medal of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences


1993

Because of concerns that widespread use of strong cryptography would hamper government use of wiretaps, NSA proposed the concept of key escrow in 1993 and introduced the Clipper chip that would offer stronger protection than DES but would allow access to encrypted data by authorized law enforcement officials add something

 

The widely used SHA-1 and SHA-2 hash functions were designed by NSA. SHA-1 is a slight modification of the weaker SHA-0 algorithm, designed by NSA in 1993 add something


1995

I. F. Stone - In July 1995, the National Security Agency released to the public documents relating to the VENONA Project, a U.S. Signals Intelligence effort to collect and decrypt the text of Soviet KGB and GRU telegraph messages from the 1940s


1996

In 1996, author and investigative journalist, Nicky Hager, in his book entitled "Secret Power, New Zealand's role in the international spy network", provided a detailed account of $Echelon, the world-wide electronic surveillance system used by the UKUSA intelligence alliance add something

 

Restrictions on export were reduced but not eliminated in 1996 add something


1997

Lotus Software - It has been repeatedly alleged that in 1997 the United States National Security Agency had backdoored the export version of Lotus Notes, but this is a mis-characterization of what actually happened


1998

An attack for SHA-0 that does not apply to the revised algorithm was indeed found between 1998 and 2005 by academic cryptographers add something

 

In 1998 it, along with NIPRNET and $SIPRNET, had "significant problems with poor search capabilities, unorganized data and old information" add something

 

Nawaf al-Hazmi - Based on information uncovered by the FBI in the 1998 United States embassy bombings case, the National Security Agency began tracking the communications of Mihdhar's father-in-law Ahmad Muhammad Ali al-Hada, who was facilitating al-Qaeda communications, in 1999


1999

In 1999, NSA founded the NSA Hall of Honor, a memorial at the National Cryptologic Museum in Fort Meade, Maryland add something

 

Michael Hayden (general) - He was Director of the National Security Agency from 1999 to 2005

 

Michael Hayden (general) - Hayden served as the Director of the National Security Agency and Chief of the Central Security Service at Fort George G. Meade, Maryland from March 1999 to April 2005


2000

Following a major power outage in 2000, in 2003 and in follow ups through 2007, "The Baltimore Sun" reported that the NSA was at risk of electrical overload because of insufficient internal electrical infrastructure at Fort Meade to support the amount of equipment being installed add something

 

The Rainbow books were replaced by the Common Criteria, however, in the early 2000s add something

 

Trailblazer Project ramped up circa 2000 add something

 

Echelon - Its capabilities and political implications were investigated by a committee of the European Parliament during 2000 and 2001 with a report published in 2001, and by author James Bamford in his books on the National Security Agency of the United States


2001

A tradition of declassifying the stories of the fallen was begun in 2001 add something

 

The process to select SHA-3 was similar to the one held in choosing the AES, which concluded in 2001 add something

 

Thomas Kean - Following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States by al-Qaeda, political pressure grew for an independent commission to independently investigate why the attacks were not prevented by U.S. national security organizations, including the Central Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense, National Security Agency and others, and to provide recommendations for preventing future terrorist attacks


2003

The project was cancelled circa 2003-4; it was late, overbudget, and didn't do what it was supposed to do add something

 

Stevens Institute of Technology - The center was developed in response to Stevens' designations by the Department of Homeland Security and the National Security Agency as a National Center of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance Education for the academic years 2003 through 2014, and as a National Center of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance Research for the years 2008 through 2013

 

Government Communications Headquarters - The public spotlight fell on GCHQ in late 2003 and early 2004 following the sacking of Katharine Gun after she leaked to "The Observer" a confidential email from agents at the American National Security Agency addressed to GCHQ agents about the wire-tapping of UN delegates in the run-up to the 2003 Iraq war

 

Katharine Gun - On 31 January 2003, she received an e-mail from a USA National Security Agency official named Frank Koza


2004

In 2004 it was reported to have used over twenty commercial off-the-shelf operating systems add something

 

In 2004, NSA Central Security Service and the National Cyber Security Division of the Department of Homeland Security agreed to expand NSA Centers of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance Education Program add something

 

Narus (company) - In 2004, Narus employed former Deputy Director of the National Security Agency, William Crowell as a director


2005

Turbulence started circa 2005 add something

 

Vietnam War - An undated NSA publication declassified in 2005, however, revealed that there was no attack on 4 August

 

Keith B. Alexander - He assumed the positions of Director, National Security Agency and Chief, Central Security Service on August 1, 2005 and the additional duties as Commander, United States Cyber Command on May 21, 2010

 

On December 16, 2005, the "New York Times" reported that, under White House pressure and with an executive order from President George W. Bush, the National Security Agency, in an attempt to thwart terrorism, had been tapping phone calls made to persons outside the country, without obtaining warrants from the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court, a secret court created for that purpose under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act add something


2006

BellSouth - In 2006, "USA Today" published an article which claimed that three of the largest United States carriers, including BellSouth, had been supplying calling records to the National Security Agency for all international and domestic calls

 

James Risen - Risen and Eric Lichtblau were awarded the Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting in 2006 for a series of controversial investigative reports that they co-wrote about the National Security Agency's surveillance of international communications originating or terminating in the United States codenamed "Stellar Wind" and about a government program called Terrorist Finance Tracking Program designed to detect terrorist financiers, which involved searches of money transfer records in the international SWIFT database

 

Defense Intelligence Headquarters - The DIH had announced in 2006 that a liaison office was established in Washington, D.C. with the National Security Agency

 

Tom Daschle - In an appearance on "Meet the Press" on February 12, 2006, former Senator Daschle endorsed a controversial warrantless surveillance program conducted by the National Security Agency ; Daschle explained that he had been briefed on the program while he was the Democratic leader in the Senate

 

In May 2006, Mark Klein, a former AT&T employee, alleged that his company had cooperated with NSA in installing Narus hardware to replace the FBI Carnivore program, to monitor network communications including traffic between American citizens add something

 

Verizon Communications - On May 11, 2006, controversy arose when "USA Today" revealed that Verizon, along with AT&T Inc. and BellSouth, had turned over the call records of millions of U.S. citizens to the National Security Agency

 

Studs Terkel - On May 22, 2006, Terkel, along with other plaintiffs, including Quentin Young, filed a suit in federal district court against AT&T Inc., to stop the telecommunications carrier from giving customer telephone records to the National Security Agency without a court order


2007

Congress criticized Turbulence in 2007 for having similar bureaucratic problems as Trailblazer add something

 

In 2007, as BGE's largest customer, NSA bought as much electricity as Annapolis, the capital city of Maryland add something

 

NSA operates RAF Menwith Hill in North Yorkshire, United Kingdom, which was, according to BBC News in 2007, the largest electronic monitoring station in the world add something

 

NSA promoted the inclusion of a random number generator called Dual EC DRBG in the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology's 2007 guidelines add something

 

The NSA began the PRISM electronic surveillance and data mining program in 2007 add something

 

PRISM (surveillance program) - "'PRISM"' is a clandestine national security electronic surveillance program operated by the United States National Security Agency since 2007

 

Last access date January 23, 2007 The specific requirements for domestic surveillance operations are contained in the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 , which does not extend protection to non-U.S. citizens located outside of U.S. territory add something

 

On July 6, 2007 the 6th Circuit Court of Appeals vacated the decision on the grounds that the ACLU lacked standing to bring the suit add something

 

Mitch McConnell - In August 2007 McConnell introduced the Protect America Act of 2007, which allowed the National Security Agency to monitor telephone and electronic communications of suspected terrorists inside and outside the United States without obtaining a warrant

 

Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act - Speaking at National Security Agency headquarters in Fort Meade, Maryland on September 19, 2007, President George W. Bush urged Congress to make the provisions of the Protect America Act permanent


2008

United States Attorney General Eric Holder resumed the wiretapping according to his understanding of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act amendment of 2008, without explaining what had occurred add something

 

As part of the National Security Presidential Directive 54/Homeland Security Presidential Directive 23 , signed on January 8, 2008 by President Bush, the NSA became the lead agency to monitor and protect all of the federal government's computer networks from cyber-terrorism add something


2009

In 2009 the NSA intercepted the communications of American citizens, including a Congressman, although the Justice Department believed that the NSA had corrected its errors add something

 

In 2009, to protect its assets and to access more electricity, NSA sought to decentralize and expand its existing facilities in Ft. Meade and Menwith Hill, add something

 

In late 2009 NSA declassified information stating that "NSA worked closely with IBM to strengthen the algorithm against all except brute force attacks and to strengthen substitution tables, called S-boxes add something

 

Jane Harman - In April 2009, CQ Politics, quoting anonymous sources, said Harman had been captured on a National Security Agency wiretap prior to the 2006 elections, telling an "Israeli agent" that she would "waddle into" lobbying the Department of Justice on the AIPAC case.


2010

In 2010, Robert Gates called for DHS to have a "cell" that would be able to apply the full surveillance powers of NSA for domestic cyber security add something

 

One of them, Thomas Drake, was charged with in 2010 in an unusual use of espionage law add something

 

Francis Gary Powers - In 2010, CIA documents were released indicating that American officials did not believe Powers' account of the incident at the time, because it was contradicted by a classified National Security Agency report

 

Mansoor Alam - In early 2010, Alam spoke before members of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the National Security Agency regarding radicalization in Islam, as well as effective, constitutional legislation

 

Industrial espionage - In February 2010, computer experts from the U.S. National Security Agency claimed that the attacks on Google probably originated from two Chinese universities associated with expertise in computer science, Shanghai Jiao Tong University and the Shandong Lanxiang Vocational School, the latter having close links to the Chinese military


2011

In 2011, NSA at Ft. Meade was Maryland's largest consumer of power add something

 

In 2011, all 10 original charges against Drake were dropped add something

 

Bluffdale, Utah - From 2011 to 2013, the National Security Agency's data storage center, the Utah Data Center, was constructed at Camp Williams in Bluffdale

 

Global surveillance disclosures (2013-present) - The Obama Administration secretly won permission from the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court in 2011 to reverse restrictions on the National Security Agency's use of intercepted phone calls and e-mails, permitting the agency to search deliberately for Americans' communications in its massive databases

 

On January 6, 2011 a groundbreaking ceremony was held to begin construction on NSA's first Comprehensive National Cyber-security Initiative Data Center, known as the "Utah Data Center" for short add something


2012

As of 2012, NSA collected intelligence from four geostationary satellites add something

 

In 2012 John C. Inglis, the deputy director, said that the number is "somewhere between 37,000 and one billion" as a joke add something

 

In 2012, NSA began to move some of its operations at Yakima Research Station, Yakima Training Center, in Washington state to Colorado, planning to leave Yakima closed add something

 

Anonymous (group) - In 2012, Public Radio International reported that the US National Security Agency considered Anonymous a potential national security threat and had warned the president that it could develop the capability to disable parts of the US power grid

 

A new hash standard, SHA-3, has recently been selected through the competition concluded October 2, 2012 with the selection of Keccak as the algorithm add something


2013

As of 2013 about 1,000 system administrators work for the NSA. Edward Snowden's leaking of PRISM in 2013 caused the NSA to institute a "two-man rule" where two system administrators are required to be present when one accesses certain sensitive information add something

 

As of 2013, NSA intended to close operations at Sugar Grove, West Virginia add something

 

Because of weaknesses and key length restrictions in SHA-1, NIST deprecates its use for digital signatures, and approves only the newer SHA-2 algorithms for such applications from 2013 on add something

 

In 2013 "Der Spiegel" stated that the NSA had 40,000 employees add something

 

In response to a FOIA lawsuit, in 2013 the NSA released the 643-page research paper titled, "Untangling the Web: A Guide to Internet Research," written and compiled by NSA employees to assist other NSA workers in searching for information of interest to the agency on the public Internet add something

 

Ilija Trojanow - In 2013 Trojanow had criticized the National Security Agency

 

Josip Broz Tito - In 2013 a lot of media coverage was given to unclassified NSA's study in "Cryptologic Spectrum" that concluded that Tito did not speak the language as a native, and had features of other Slavic languages

 

IPsec - In 2013, as part of Snowden leaks, it was revealed that the US National Security Agency had been actively working to "Insert vulnerabilities into commercial encryption systems, IT systems, networks, and endpoint communications devices used by targets" as part of the Bullrun program

 

Electronic health record - In 2013, reports based on documents released by Edward Snowden revealed that the NSA had succeeded in breaking the encryption codes protecting electronic health records, among other databases

 

Hans-Peter Friedrich - In the wake of NSA's internet surveillance scandal around $PRISM (PRISM_(surveillance_program)) in 2013, Friedrich defended the NSA's methods and promptly demanded legislation changes, in order to be able to expand surveillance of communication traffic by the German Bundesnachrichtendienst as well

 

Cenk Uygur - Uygur heavily criticized Obama again in 2013 after the revelation of the domestic NSA spying program by Edward Snowden

 

Endgame, Inc. - Endgame announced in March 2013 that Kenneth Minihan, former Director of the National Security Agency and Managing Director at Paladin, had joined its Board of Directors

 

On April 25, 2013, the NSA obtained a court order requiring Verizon's Business Network Services to provide information on all calls in its system to the NSA "on an ongoing daily basis", as reported by "The Guardian" on June 6, 2013 add something

 

Roger Vinson - As a member of the FISA court, Vinson issued a top secret court order on April 25, 2013 requiring Verizon's Business Network Services to provide metadata on all calls in its system to the National Security Agency on an ongoing daily basis

 

In May 2013, it was revealed that the NSA runs a secretive unit called Tailored Access Operations which hacks into foreign computers to conduct cyber-espionage add something

 

NSA had a groundbreaking ceremony at Ft. Meade in May 2013 for its High Performance Computing Center 2, expected to open in 2016 add something

 

Wired (magazine) - In May 2013, "Wired" joined the Digital Video Network with the announcement of five original web series including the National Security Agency satire "Codefellas" and the animated advice series "Mister Know-It-All"

 

From NSA documents leaked by Edward Snowden in June 2013, it became clear that the NSA has following units for intercepting operations: add something

 

Polls conducted in June 2013 found divided results among Americans regarding NSA's secret data collection add something

 

Mail Isolation Control and Tracking - Computer security and information privacy expert Bruce Schneier compared MICT to the mass surveillance of the National Security Agency , revealed in June 2013 by Edward Snowden

 

Regin (malware) - German news magazine "Der Spiegel" reported in June 2013 that the US intelligence National Security Agency had conducted online surveillance on both European Union citizens and EU institutions

 

Patrick Leahy - In June 2013, following the disclosure of $PRISM (PRISM_(surveillance_program)) and other covert surveillance activities by the National Security Agency, Leahy introduced a bill that would tighten guidelines related to the acquisition of FISA warrants for domestic surveillance and shorten the current FISA authorization by two years

 

Paltalk - In June 2013, it was revealed that Paltalk was targeted by the National Security Agency's $PRISM (PRISM_(surveillance_program)) surveillance program

 

Gary Johnson - In a Google Hangout hosted by Johnson in June 2013, he criticized the US government's lack of transparency and due process in regards to the NSA's domestic surveillance programs

 

Verizon Communications - On June 5, 2013, "The Guardian" reported that it had obtained an order by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and approved by the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court that required Verizon to provide the National Security Agency with telephone metadata for all calls between the US and abroad, and all domestic calls

 

Dropbox (service) - On June 6, 2013, "The Guardian" and "The Washington Post" publicized confidential documents suggesting Dropbox was being considered for inclusion in the National Security Agency's classified $PRISM (PRISM_(surveillance_program)) program of internet surveillance

 

The Daily Telegraph, June 30, 2013 and allegedly engaging in sabotage through subversive software add something

 

The Observer - On June 30, 2013, "The Observer", published a major front page story sourced from Wayne Madsen, alleging connections between the National Security Agency and several European governments known as ECHELON

 

Walter Pincus - In July 2013 Pincus wrote a highly speculative article about National Security Agency whistleblower Edward Snowden prompting "Guardian" journalist Glenn Greenwald to write an open letter to Pincus regarding what he described as "blatant, easily demonstrated falsehoods" including:

 

On July 18, 2013, Greenwald alleged that Snowden held the blueprints of the National Computer Security Center, thereby sparking fresh controversy add something

 

In August 2013 it was revealed that NSA intelligence intercepts and wiretaps, both foreign and domestic, were being supplied to the Drug Enforcement Administration and Internal Revenue Service and illegally used to launch criminal investigations of US citizens add something

 

Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication - Der Spiegel reported in September 2013 that the NSA widely monitors banking transactions via SWIFT, as well as credit card transactions

 

Felipe Calderon - The scandal remained largely ignored by the Peña Administration even though several newspapers and news websites revealed in September 2013, that the president itself, Enrique Peña Nieto, was spied by the National Security Agency while he was presidential candidate

 

Linux - Linus Torvalds, the founder of Linux kernel joked during a LinuxCon keynote 18 September 2013, that the NSA, who is the founder of SELinux, wanted a backdoor in the original kernel

 

Yahoo! - In October 2013, "The Washington Post" reported that the U.S. National Security Agency intercepted communications between Yahoo's data centers, as part of a program named MUSCULAR

 

Jim Sensenbrenner - In October 2013, he introduced the USA Freedom Act in the House, a bill designed to curtail the powers of the NSA and end the NSA's dragnet phone data collection program

 

PRISM (surveillance program) - On October 21, 2013 the French Foreign Minister, Laurent Fabius, summoned the U.S. Ambassador, Charles Rivkin, to the Quai d'Orsay in Paris to protest large-scale spying on French citizens by the U.S. National Security Agency

 

United Nations Development Programme - Documents of Edward Snowden showed in December 2013 that British and American intelligence agencies surveillance targets with America's National Security Agency included organisations such as the United Nations Development Programme, the UN's children's charity Unicef and Médecins Sans Frontières and the Economic Community of West African States

 

Economic Community of West African States - Documents of Edward Snowden showed in December 2013 that British and American intelligence agencies surveillance targets with America's National Security Agency included organisations such as the Economic Community of West African States , the United Nations Development Programme, the UN's children's charity UNICEF and Médecins Sans Frontières

 

UNICEF - Documents of Edward Snowden showed in December 2013 that British and American intelligence agencies surveillance targets with America's National Security Agency included organisations such as the UN's children's charity UNICEF, the United Nations Development Programme, Médecins Sans Frontières and the Economic Community of West African States

 

Medecins du Monde - In December 2013, documents released by National Security Agency whistle blower Edward Snowden revealed that British and American intelligence agencies have been carrying on secret surveillance of several organizations that provide humanitarian aid, including Médecins du Monde

 

Barton Gellman and Ashton Solanti, December 5, 2013, ://www add something

 

Richard Leon, December 16, 2013, "://www add something

 

Edward Snowden - On December 28, 2013, Judge William Pauley dismissed a lawsuit filed by the American Civil Liberties Union alleging that the NSA's phone records program was unconstitutional


2014

Gerda Hasselfeldt - In 2014, Hasselfeldt blocked an opposition bid to bring Edward Snowden to Germany to testify, saying that inviting Snowden to Germany would harm relations with the U.S. and probably force the German government to extradite him to face U.S. espionage charges for unveiling National Security Agency data on surveillance

 

The Guardian - The Guardian and "The Washington Post" shared the 2014 Pulitzer Prize for public service reporting for their coverage of the National Security Agency worldwide electronic surveillance program and the documents leaks by whistleblower Edward Snowden

 

Edward Snowden - On January 1, 2014, the Editorial Board of "The New York Times" praised Snowden as a whistleblower and wrote in favor of granting him clemency or "at least a substantially reduced punishment," arguing that while Snowden may have broken the law, he had "done his country a great service" by bringing the abuses of the NSA to light

 

Aaron Swartz - On January 11, 2014, marking the first anniversary of his death, a sneak preview was released from "The Internet's Own Boy: The Story of Aaron Swartz", a documentary about Swartz, the NSA and SOPA

 

Edward Snowden - Also in April 2014, former NSA deputy director Col. Cedric Leighton told the Bloomberg Enterprise Technology Summit in New York City that Snowden's leaks had performed a "significant disservice" to the worldwide health of the Internet by leading Brazil and other countries to reconsider the Internet's decentralized nature

 

Edward Snowden - The NSA reporting was honored with a Pulitzer Prize for Public Service in April 2014

 

Glenn Greenwald - "No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the U.S. Surveillance State" will be released on April 29, 2014

 

Glenn Greenwald - "No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the U.S. Surveillance State" will be released on May 13, 2014

 

Edward Snowden - In late June 2014, the NSA's recently installed director, U.S. Navy Admiral Michael S. Rogers, said that while some terrorist groups had altered their communications to avoid surveillance techniques revealed by Snowden, the damage done overall did not lead him to conclude that "the sky is falling

 

Edward Snowden - In July 2014, "The Washington Post" reported on a cache previously provided by Snowden from domestic NSA operations consisting of "roughly 160,000 intercepted e-mail and instant-message conversations, some of them hundreds of pages long, and 7,900 documents taken from more than 11,000 online accounts

 

Edward Snowden - In July 2014, "The Washington Post" reported that, according to a large cache of NSA-intercepted conversations provided by Edward Snowden, months of tracking by the NSA of communications across more than 50 alias Internet accounts "led directly to the 2011 capture in Abbottabad of Muhammad Tahir Shahzad, a Pakistan-based bomb builder, and Umar Patek, a suspect in a 2002 terrorist bombing on the Indonesian island of Bali

 

PRISM (surveillance program) - The most detailed description of the PRISM program can be found in a report about NSA's collection efforts under Section 702 FAA, that was released by the Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board on July 2, 2014

 

Syrian civil war - Syrian government sources denied responsibility and blamed the blackout on fiber optic lines near Damascus becoming exposed and damaged; Edward Snowden in August 2014 claimed that this Internet breakdown had been caused, though unintendedly, by hackers of the NSA during an operation to intercept Internet communication in Syria

 

Tor (anonymity network) - Tor's executive director, Andrew Lewman, said in August 2014 that agents of the NSA and the GCHQ have anonymously provided Tor with bug reports

 

An October 2014 United Nations report condemned mass surveillance by the United States and other countries as violating multiple international treaties and conventions that guarantee core privacy rights add something

 

Joseph Gordon-Levitt - In November 2014, it was confirmed that Gordon-Levitt would play National Security Agency surveillance leaker Edward Snowden in a movie directed by Oliver Stone

 

CryptoParty - Der Spiegel in December 2014 mentioned "crypto parties" in the wake of the Edward Snowden leaks in an article about the NSA


2015

Alexander Litvinenko - In January 2015, it was reported in the UK media that the National Security Agency had intercepted communications between Russian government agents in Moscow and those who carried out what was called a "state execution" in London: the recorded conversations allegedly proved that the Russian government was involved in Litvinenko's murder, and suggested that the motive was Litvinenko's revelations about Vladimir Putin's links with the criminal underworld

 

Government Communications Security Bureau - On 15 March 2015, the journalists Nicky Hager and Ryan Gallagher reported in the "New Zealand Herald" that the GCSB was using the NSA's internet mass surveillance system XKeyscore to intercept email communications from several leading Solomon Islands government ministers, the Solomons Islands Truth and Reconciliation Commission, and the Solomons anti-corruption campaigner Benjamin Afuga

 

Centre for Critical Infrastructure Protection - On 16 March 2015, the former National Security Agency contractor and whistleblower Edward Snowden dislosed that New Zealand's GCSB agency had a secret listening post, codenamed "Caprica", at the New Zealand High Commission in Honiara, the capital of the Solomon Islands

 

Government Communications Security Bureau - On 16 March 2015, the former National Security Agency contractor and whistleblower Edward Snowden dislosed that New Zealand's GCSB agency had a secret listening post, codenamed "Caprica", at the New Zealand High Commission in Honiara, the capital of the Solomon Islands

 

On March 30, 2015 a vehicle containing two individuals attempted an unauthorized entry at a NSA gate add something

 

On March 30, 2015, shortly before 9 am, a stolen sports utility vehicle approached an NSA police vehicle blocking the road near the gate of Fort Meade, after it was told to leave the area add something

 

Centre for Critical Infrastructure Protection - On 16 April 2015, The Intercept and "New Zealand Herald" disclosed that the GCSB had been both spying on and sharing intelligence with the Bangladesh government, using a leaked National Security Agency document entitled "NSA Intelligence Relationship with New Zealand

 

Government Communications Security Bureau - On 16 April 2015, The Intercept and "New Zealand Herald" disclosed that the GCSB had been both spying on and sharing intelligence with the Bangladesh government, using a leaked National Security Agency document entitled "NSA Intelligence Relationship with New Zealand

 

Centre for Critical Infrastructure Protection - On 19 April 2015, The Intercept and the "New Zealand Herald" revealed that the GCSB and the National Security Agency had worked together to tap into a data link between the Chinese Consulate-General and the Chinese Visa Office in Auckland, New Zealand's largest city

 

Government Communications Security Bureau - On 19 April 2015, The Intercept and the "New Zealand Herald" revealed that the GCSB and the National Security Agency had worked together to tap into a data link between the Chinese Consulate-General and the Chinese Visa Office in Auckland, New Zealand's largest city

 

Government Communications Security Bureau - On 5 May 2015, the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet acknowledged that Snowden's leaked documents on the GCSB and NSA were authentic but accused Snowden's associates, particularly the journalist Glenn Greenwald, of "misrepresenting, misinterpreting, and misunderstanding" the leaked information

 

Industrial espionage - In June 2015 Wikileaks published documents over National Security Agency spied French companies

 

Liberation - In June 2015, "Libération", working with WikiLeaks, reported that the United States National Security Agency had been secretly spying on the telephone conversations of Presidents Jacques Chirac, Nicolas Sarkozy and François Hollande from at least 2006 through 2012

 

Edward Snowden - In June 2015, "Vice News" reported that, according to a declassified U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency report obtained in response to a Freedom of Information Act lawsuit, Snowden took 900,000 Department of Defense files, more than he downloaded from the NSA.

 

It stated that Section 215 cannot be clearly interpreted to allow government to collect national phone data and, as a result, is expiring on June 1, 2015 add something

 

In July 2015, WikiLeaks published documents, which showed that NSA spied federal German ministries since 1990s add something


2016

A 2016 proposal would combine the Signals Intelligence Directorate with the Information Assurance Directorate into a Directorate of Operations add something


2017

John McCain - McCain chaired the January 5, 2017 hearing of the Senate Armed Service Committee where Republican and Democrat senators and intelligence officers, including James R. Clapper Jr., the Director of National Intelligence, Michael S. Rogers, the head of the National Security Agency and United States Cyber Command presented a "united front" that "forcefully reaffirmed the conclusion that the Russian government used hacking and leaks to try to influence the presidential election

 

After being leaked by The Shadow Brokers, the EternalBlue exploit authored by this group was used in May 2017 to conduct the damaging worldwide WannaCry ransomware attack add something


2019

The government was not analyzing the phone records as of early 2019 add something