Knowledge Identifier: &NATO



Intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949 add

Category: Military

Founded in 1949.

Countries: (13%), United States (13%), France (8%)

Main connections: Cold War, International Security Assistance Force, War in Afghanistan (2001-present)

Linked to: Chairman of the NATO Military Committee, Soviet Union, Atlantic Treaty Association, Bundestag




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NATO was born in 1949 add something


Cold War - Britain, France, the United States, Canada and eight other western European countries signed the North Atlantic Treaty of April 1949, establishing the &North_Atlantic_Treaty_Organization


An integrated military structure for NATO was first established in 1950 as it became add something


Hence, the 7,62×51 NATO rifle cartridge was introduced in the 1950s as a standard firearm cartridge among many NATO countries add something


This caused the United States to transfer two hundred military aircraft out of France and return control of the air force bases that had operated in France since 1950 to the French by 1967 add something


Cambrai-Niergnies Airport - In 1950 when as a result of the Cold War threat of the Soviet Union, the air base at Cambrai-Niergnies was offered to the United States Air Force by the French Air Ministry as part of their NATO commitment to establish a modern Air Force Base at the site


Peronne-St Quentin Airport - In 1950 when as a result of the Cold War threat of the Soviet Union, the air base at Peronne was offered to the United States Air Force by the French Air Ministry as part of their NATO commitment to establish a modern Air Force Base at the site


Metz-Frescaty Air Base - In 1950, when as a result of the Cold War threat of the Soviet Union, Metz-Frescaty was proposed by the United States Air Force to become an interim NATO fighter base, until other airfields could be constructed


Cold War - In the early 1950s, the US worked for the rearmament of West Germany and, in 1955, secured its full membership of NATO. In May 1953, Beria, by in a government post, had made an unsuccessful proposal to allow the reunification of a neutral Germany to prevent West Germany's incorporation into NATO.


Dassault Etendard IV - The Étendard's history begins with two different design requirements in the early 1950s for light fighters, one for the French Air Force and the other for NATO air forces


Korean War - The outbreak of the Korean War in June 1950 was crucial for NATO as it raised the apparent threat of all Communist countries working together, and forced the alliance to develop concrete military plans add something


In April 1951, Allied Command Europe and its headquarters were established; later, four subordinate headquarters were added in Northern and Central Europe, the Southern Region, and the Mediterranean add something


Greece and Turkey joined the alliance in 1952, forcing a series of controversial negotiations, in which the United States and Britain were the primary disputants, over how to bring the two countries into the military command structure add something


The 1952 Lisbon conference, seeking to provide the forces necessary for NATO's Long-Term Defence Plan, called for an expansion to ninety-six divisions add something


Panagiotis Pipinelis - In 1952 he was appointed permanent representative of Greece to NATO, and resigned from the diplomatic service the next year


Black Sea Fleet - In 1952, Turkey decided to join NATO, placing the Bosporus Strait in the Western sphere of influence


In September 1952, the first major NATO maritime exercises began; Exercise Mainbrace brought together 200 ships and over 50,000 personnel to practice the defence of Denmark and Norway add something


Doupov Mountains - It became the Army Training Area in 1953 and still serves this purpose for NATO forces


In 1954, the Soviet Union suggested that it should join NATO to preserve peace in Europe add something


The course of the Cold War led to a rivalry with nations of the Warsaw Pact, which formed in 1955 add something


The incorporation of West Germany into the organization on 9 May 1955 was described as "a decisive turning point in the history of our continent" by Halvard Lange, Foreign Affairs Minister of Norway at the time add something


Cold War - One of its immediate results was the creation of the Warsaw Pact, which was signed on 14 May 1955 by the Soviet Union, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, and East Germany, as a formal response to this event, thereby delineating the two opposing sides of the Cold War add something


Three major exercises were held concurrently in the northern autumn of 1957 add something


Cold War - The unity of NATO was breached early in its history, with a crisis occurring during Charles de Gaulle's presidency of France from 1958 onwards


Cold War - In a memorandum sent to President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Prime Minister Harold Macmillan on September 17, 1958, he argued for the creation of a tripartite directorate that would put France on an equal footing with the United States and the United Kingdom, and for the expansion of NATO's coverage to include geographical areas of interest to France, most notably French Algeria, where France was waging a counter-insurgency and sought NATO assistance


In February 1959, France withdrew its Mediterranean Fleet from NATO command add something


PGM-19 Jupiter - The missiles, armed with nuclear warheads, were deployed in Italy and Turkey in 1961 as part of NATO's Cold War deterrent against the Soviet Union


Though France showed solidarity with the rest of NATO during the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962, de Gaulle continued his pursuit of an independent defence by removing France's Atlantic and Channel fleets from NATO command add something


In 1966, all French armed forces were removed from NATO's integrated military command, and all non-French NATO troops were asked to leave France add something


Cold War - Considering the response given to be unsatisfactory, de Gaulle began the development of an independent French nuclear deterrent and in 1966 withdrew from NATO's military structures and expelled NATO troops from French soil


Belgian stay-behind network - These interlocking coordination organizations, like the C.P.C. and A.C.C, were initially headquartered in Paris, but moved along with SHAPE, & NATO's central headquarters, to Mons in Belgium after the French withdrawal from NATO's unified command structure in 1966


Cambrai-Niergnies Airport - With the French withdrawal from the integrated military component of NATO in 1967, the base was abandoned


Peronne-St Quentin Airport - With the French withdrawal from the integrated military component of NATO in 1967, the base was abandoned


This withdrawal forced the relocation of SHAPE from Rocquencourt, near Paris, to Casteau, north of Mons, Belgium, by 16 October 1967 add something


Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons - A counter-argument is that the U.S. controlled the weapons in storage within the NATO states, and that no transfer of the weapons or control over them was intended "unless and until a decision were made to go to war, at which the treaty would no longer be controlling", so there is no breach of the NPT. These agreements were disclosed to a few of the states, including the Soviet Union, negotiating the treaty, but most of the states that signed the NPT in 1968 would not have known about these agreements and interpretations at that time


Paris Dauphine University - Dauphine was founded as a faculty of economics and management in 1968 in the former NATO headquarters in Western Paris


Volkswagen 181 - From 1968 until 1979, over 50,000 Type 181s were delivered to the NATO forces


Libyan civil war - From 1969 until 1975 standards of living, life expectancy and literacy grew rapidly, and in fact continued up until the NATO intervention in March 2011


Michele Columbu - For decades, between World War II and the 1970s he was the leader of Partito Sardo d'Azione , Sardinian autonomist party claiming for detachment from Italy and fiercely contesting the presence of NATO military bases in Sardinia


Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty - Until the late 1970s NATO had clear superiority over U.S. in INF systems because Soviets possessed only liquid-fueled, single warhead, very inaccurate, and easy to destroy IRBMs and a few hundred, equally outdated subsonic heavy bombers of Tu-16 and Tu-22 types


British Armed Forces - While this focus on NATO obligations increased in prominence during the 1970s, low-intensity conflicts in Northern Ireland and Oman emerged as the primary operational concerns of the British Armed Forces


Operation Unified Protector - "'Operation Unified Protector"' was an NATO operation enforcing United Nations Security Council resolutions 1970 and 1973 concerning the Libyan civil war and adopted on 26 February and 17 March 2011, respectively


Turkish invasion of Cyprus - In 1974, as a consequence of the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, Greece withdrew its forces from NATO's military command structure but, with Turkish cooperation, were readmitted in 1980 add something


General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon - The U.S. Congress sought greater commonality in fighter procurements by the Air Force and Navy, and in August 1974 redirected Navy funds to a new Navy Air Combat Fighter program that would be a navalized fighter-bomber variant of the LWF. The four NATO allies had formed the "Multinational Fighter Program Group" and pressed for a U.S. decision by December 1974; thus the USAF accelerated testing


Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe - The CSCE resulted in 1975 in 35 nations signing the concluding document: the Helsinki Final Act. Negotiations for MBFR were stalled by the U.S. in 1979 because of NATO's decision to deploy new intermediate-range nuclear weapons in Europe


In May 1978, NATO countries officially defined two complementary aims of the Alliance, to maintain security and pursue détente add something


Mutual and Balanced Force Reductions - In December 1979 the Soviets held up the talks because of NATO's decision to site new intermediate-range nuclear missiles in Europe


On 12 December 1979, in light of a build-up of Warsaw Pact nuclear capabilities in Europe, ministers approved the deployment of US GLCM cruise missiles and Pershing II theatre nuclear weapons in Europe add something


Volkswagen 181 - Despite the German government's switch to the Type 183, European and Mexican sales of the civilian 181 continued through 1980, and several organizations, including NATO, continued to purchase military-spec Type 181 units through 1983, finding their reliability and low purchase and maintenance costs attractive


Lockheed CP-140 Aurora - The Aurora was acquired in the early 1980s to replace the CP-107 Argus and to further support Canada's anti-submarine warfare mission obligations under NATO for the northwest Atlantic sector


The Falklands War between the United Kingdom and Argentina did not result in NATO involvement because of the limited scope of NATO. On 30 May 1982, NATO gained a new member when, following a referendum, the newly democratic Spain joined the alliance add something


Cold War - The Able Archer 83 exercise in November 1983, a realistic simulation of a coordinated NATO nuclear release, has been called most dangerous moment since the Cuban Missile Crisis, as the Soviet leadership keeping a close watch on it considered a nuclear attack to be imminent


Lockheed U-2 - In 1984, during a major NATO exercise, Royal Air Force Flight Lieutenant Mike Hale intercepted a U-2 at a height of , where the aircraft had previously been considered safe from interception


NHIndustries NH90 - In 1985, France, West Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom teamed to develop a NATO battlefield transport and anti-ship/anti-submarine helicopter for the 1990s


Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe - Informal talks between the 16 NATO and the 7 Warsaw Treaty nations began in Vienna on February 17, 1987 on a mandate for conventional negotiations in Europe, which would set out treaty negotiating guidelines


Revolutions of 1989 - The Revolutions of 1989 and the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact in 1991 removed the "de facto" main adversary of NATO. This caused a strategic re-evaluation of NATO's purpose, nature, tasks, and even geographic focus add something


After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, the organization became drawn into the breakup of Yugoslavia, and conducted their first military interventions in Bosnia from 1992 to 1995 and later Yugoslavia in 1999 add something


Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe - Bush's proposal was formally adopted during the 1989 Brussels NATO summit and subsequently presented in Vienna


Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe - In January 1989, NATO and the Warsaw Treaty members produced the Mandate for the Negotiation on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe


Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe - The Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe agreed between NATO members and the Soviet Union and signed in Paris in 1990, mandated specific military reductions on the continent add something


Fabrique Nationale de Herstal's FAL became the most popular 7,62 NATO rifle in Europe and served into the early 1990s add something


Political dialogue with Japan began in 1990, and a range of non-NATO countries have contributed to peacekeeping operations in the former Yugoslavia add something


French Armed Forces - France became a nuclear power and since the 1990s its military action is most often seen in cooperation with NATO and its European partners


Serbian Radical Party - Serbia and Libya had maintained good relations since Gaddafi vocally opposed NATO intervention in Serbia in the 1990s, while he backed Serbia's opposition to Kosovo's independence


Center Civic Alliance - For the 1991 elections, the Center Civic Alliance supported a pro-Western foreign policy, advocating membership into NATO, faster privatization, decommunization, and greater economic reforms


Bosnian War - The Bosnian War began in 1992, as a result of the Breakup of Yugoslavia add something


Artur Kuko - Biography from the NATO website Kuko was Ambassador to Belgium and Luxembourg from 1992 to 1994 and again from 2002 to 2007


Willy Claes - Claes was foreign minister of Belgium from 1992 until 1994, and secretary general of NATO from 1994 until 1995, when he resigned after the discovery of a bribe of over 50 million Belgian francs that was accepted during contract negotiations with Agusta helicopters during the time he was minister of economic affairs


Brabant killers - The NATO 'Stay Behind' explanation for the Brabant massacres was explored in a 1992 BBC Timewatch series 'Operation Gladio' directed by Allan Frankovich


The deteriorating situation led to United Nations Security Council Resolution 816 on 9 October 1992, ordering a no-fly zone over central Bosnia and Herzegovina, which NATO began enforcing on 12 April 1993 with Operation Deny Flight add something


Christian Tybring-Gjedde - From 1993 to 2005 he was employed in the Norwegian Ministry of Defence which included three years with the Norwegian delegation to NATO in Brussels


Slovak Atlantic Commission - Slovak Atlantic Commission was founded in 1993 by Slovak diplomats to support accession of the Slovak Republic into NATO and EU


From June 1993 until October 1996, Operation Sharp Guard added maritime enforcement of the arms embargo and economic sanctions against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia add something


Partnership for Peace - Between 1994 and 1997, wider forums for regional cooperation between NATO and its neighbors were set up, like the Partnership for Peace, the Mediterranean Dialogue initiative and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council add something


On 28 February 1994, NATO took its first wartime action by shooting down four Bosnian Serb aircraft violating the no-fly zone add something


On 10 and 11 April 1994, during the Bosnian War, the United Nations Protection Force called in air strikes to protect the Gora?de safe area, resulting in the bombing of a Bosnian Serb military command outpost near Gora?de by two US F-16 jets acting under NATO direction add something


A two-week NATO bombing campaign, Operation Deliberate Force, began in August 1995 against the Army of the Republika Srpska, after the Srebrenica massacre add something


Jean-Charles Marchiani - Jean-Charles Marchiani was asked in September 1995 by French president Jacques Chirac to start unofficial negotiations with Bosnian nationalists for the liberation of two French Air Force pilots whose jet had been shut down during the Nato bombings in former Yugoslavia


Dayton Agreement - NATO air strikes that year helped bring the Yugoslav wars to an end, resulting in the Dayton Agreement in November 1995 add something


French Armed Forces - In December 1995, France announced that it would increase its participation in NATO's military wing, including the Military Committee


Christian Tybring-Gjedde - From 1996 to 1997 he attended the NATO Defense College in Rome


This transitioned into the smaller SFOR, which started with 32,000 troops initially and ran from December 1996 until December 2004, when operations where passed onto European Union Force Althea add something


In 1997 NATO reached agreement on a significant downsizing of its command structure from 65 headquarters to just 20 add something


Mohammad Shafiq Hamdam - Since 1997 He has worked in the private sector, free media, civil society institutions, the United Nations projects, United State Government and NATO in different fields and positions including good governance, security, social and economic, political and international relations, public diplomacy, promoting democracy and human rights


Armed Forces of Ukraine - Since 1997, Ukraine has been working closely with NATO and especially with Poland


On 8 July 1997, three former communist countries, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Poland, were invited to join NATO, which each did in 1999 add something


The Allies established a set of general guidelines on relations with other countries, beyond the above groupings in 1998 add something


Danas - "Danas" was one of the three newspapers to be banned by governmental decree on October 14, 1998 for "spreading fear and defeatism" at a time when NATO bombing of FR Yugoslavia seemed a distinct possibility


Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty - The changes brought about by the collapse of the Soviet Union on the military balance in Europe were recognized in the Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty, which was signed in 1999 add something


Politically, the organization sought better relations with former Cold War rivals, which culminated with several former Warsaw Pact states joining the alliance in 1999 and 2004 add something


The US, the UK, and most other NATO countries opposed efforts to require the U.N. Security Council to approve NATO military strikes, such as the action against Serbia in 1999, while France and some others claimed that the alliance needed UN approval add something


Fiat Automobili Srbija - Kosovo War - In 1999, during the Kosovo War, NATO bombed the Zastava Automobiles plant in Kragujevac, Serbia because it was considered a threat since Zastava Arms infrastructure was located on site


James Blunt - Blunt was an officer in the British Army Life Guards, a cavalry regiment of the British Army, and served under NATO in Kosovo during the conflict in 1999


Neobus (Serbia) - Business activity started to slow down until it finally collapsed, Neobus went into bankruptcy in 1999, the year of NATO action against Federal Republic of Yugoslavia


Mostogradnja - Company's recent projects have included the reconstruction of bridges destroyed by NATO during Kosovo war in 1999, as well as the repairs to numerous bridges across Serbia


Alliance for the Future of Kosovo - Finally, "alliance" was chosen because of its association with the NATO alliance which is much revered in Kosovo for its intervention in the Kosovo War of 1999, and because of it evokes the idea of working together to achieve one's aims


Ahmet Üzümcü - From 1999 to 2002 he served as the permanent representative of Turkey to the NATO


Zastava Arms - In 1999 the factory was damaged by NATO bombing


James Blunt - In 1999, he served as an armoured reconnaissance officer in the NATO deployment in Kosovo


Radio Television of Vojvodina - In 1999, the buildings of the RTNS in the Mi?eluk neighborhood of Novi Sad were bombed and destroyed by the NATO airforce


B92 - It was forced off the air for a time in 1999 when NATO bombed Serbia, and government agents cracked down on pro-Western reporting


Aid Convoy - The next convoy was one of the very first western charitable convoys to enter Kosovo itself after the NATO bombing campaign of spring 1999, and travelled with sponsorship from the University of Aberdeen Students' Representative Council , and in conjunction with Workers' Aid for Kosova


Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe - Thirdly, Russia emphasized that NATO's 1999 and 2004 enlargements increased the alliance's equipment above the treaty limits


Viktor Orban - In March 1999, after Russian objections were overruled, Hungary joined NATO along with Czech Republic and Poland


Negotiations under UN Special Envoy Richard Holbrooke broke down on 23 March 1999, and he handed the matter to NATO, which started an 78-day bombing campaign on 24 March 1999 add something


Radio Television of Serbia - On 23 April 1999, NATO bombed the RTS headquarters in downtown Belgrade, killing sixteen people, mostly technicians


Volodymyr Horbulin - Until November 1999, he headed the State Interagency Commission for Cooperation with NATO and co-headed the Consulting Committee under presidents of Ukraine and Poland, co-headed the Secretariat of Kuchma-Gore Commission


Following extensive debate, the term "Contact Countries" was agreed by the Allies in 2000 add something


Dassault Mirage 2000 - Four Qatari Mirage 2000 fighter jets joined NATO operation over the Libyan zone of operations in 2011


Dassault Mirage 2000 - French Mirage 2000s were used during the Gulf War as well as in UN and NATO air operations during the Bosnian War and the Kosovo War


Democratic Party (United States) - Democrats in the House of Representatives and in the Senate near-unanimously voted for the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists against "those responsible for the recent attacks launched against the United States" in Afghanistan in 2001, supporting the NATO coalition invasion of the nation


Atlantic Council of Serbia - Founded in 2001, the organization promotes Serbia's &Euro-Atlantic_integration


North Atlantic Treaty - The September 2001 attacks signalled the only occasion in NATO's history that Article 5 of the North Atlantic treaty has been invoked as an attack on all NATO members add something


The invocation was confirmed on 4 October 2001 when NATO determined that the attacks were indeed eligible under the terms of the North Atlantic Treaty add something


Paul Wolfowitz - On October 10, 2001, George Robertson, Secretary-General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, went to the Pentagon to offer NATO troops, planes and ships to assist


IPAPs began in 2002, and are open to countries that have the political will and ability to deepen their relationship with NATO. add something


Studies for this system began in 2002, with negotiations centered on anti-ballistic missiles being stationed in Poland and the Czech Republic add something


They were first invited to start talks of membership during the 2002 Prague summit, and joined NATO on 29 March 2004, shortly before the 2004 Istanbul summit add something


What Satellite and Digital TV - In April 2002, What Satellite and Digital TV was the first magazine to discover secret military broadcasts of NATO spy planes over Bosnia being broadcast and received using a one metre satellite dish The United States encrypted the transmissions after the security breach was discovered


NATO and the European Union signed a comprehensive package of arrangements under the Berlin Plus agreement on 16 December 2002 add something


Despite this early show of solidarity, NATO faced a crisis little more than a year later, when on 10 February 2003, France and Belgium vetoed the procedure of silent approval concerning the timing of protective measures for Turkey in case of a possible war with Iraq add something


On 19 June 2003, a major restructuring of the NATO military commands began as the Headquarters of the Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic were abolished and a new command, Allied Command Transformation , was established in Norfolk, Virginia, United States, and the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe became the Headquarters of Allied Command Operations add something


In October 2003, the UN Security Council authorized the expansion of the ISAF mission throughout Afghanistan, add something


British Armed Forces - Kennedy , "British Naval Strategy East of Suez, 1900-2000: Influence and Actions", p193 Substantial forces thus became committed to NATO in Europe and elsewhere; by 1985, 72,929 personnel were stationed in Continental Europe


In March 2004, NATO's Baltic Air Policing began, which supported the sovereignty of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia by providing fighters to react to any unwanted aerial intrusions add something


Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons - As of 2005, it is estimated that the United States still provides about 180 tactical B61 nuclear bombs for use by Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Turkey under these NATO agreements


Davor Bozinovic - From 2005 to 2008 he served as Head of Mission of the Republic of Croatia to NATO


Zoran Jolevski - Macedonian accession to NATO became a top issue of the Macedonian Government, that's why Jolevski was elected to be a member of the Presidency of Macedonian Euro-Atlantic Club from 2006 until present day


Dassault Mirage F1 - Spanish Mirage F1 were deployed to Lithuania, during NATO Baltic Air Policing from July 2006 to November 2006, and were scrambled twice to intercept undisclosed intruders


On 31 July 2006, the ISAF additionally took over military operations in the south of Afghanistan from a US-led anti-terrorism coalition add something


Dassault Mirage 2000 - In summer 2007, after the Rafale fighters had been removed from the theater of operations, 3 French Mirage 2000s were deployed to Afghanistan in support of NATO troops


Other candidate countries include Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, which joined the Adriatic Charter of potential members in 2008 add something


Until 2008 the Military Committee excluded France, due to that country's 1966 decision to remove itself from NATO's integrated military structure, which it rejoined in 1995 add something


Gianni Vernetti - In 2008 Vernetti was elected for a third term in the Chamber of Deputies and he is a member of the Foreign Affairs Committee and the Italian Delegation to the NATO Parliamentarian Assembly


At the April 2008 summit in Bucharest, NATO agreed to the accession of Croatia and Albania and both countries joined NATO in April 2009 add something


In 2009, US President Barack Obama proposed using the ship based Aegis Combat System, though this plan still includes stations being built in Turkey, Spain, Portugal, Romania, and Poland add something


Vladimir Zhirinovsky - In 2009, he called the decision to hold NATO military exercises in Georgia during Soviet Victory Day celebrations in Moscow a "total revision of the history of the Great Patriotic War" and suggested that Russia should respond by conducting large-scale joint military drills with Cuba and Venezuela in the Caribbean Sea


NATO's headquarters are in Brussels, Belgium, one of the 28 member states across North America and Europe, the newest of which, Albania and Croatia, joined in April 2009 add something


The policies of French President Nicolas Sarkozy have resulted in a major reform of France's military position, culminating with the return to full membership on 4 April 2009, which included France rejoining the integrated military command of NATO, while maintaining an independent nuclear deterrent add something


Beginning on 17 August 2009, NATO deployed warships in an operation to protect maritime traffic in the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean from Somali pirates, and help strengthen the navies and coast guards of regional states add something


In 2010 28 NATO members maintained strength of 3,793,778 active military, add something


Karl A. Lamers, German Deputy Chairman of the Defence Committee of the Bundestag and a member of the Christian Democratic Union, became president of the assembly in 2010 add something


Jozefina Topalli - For her successful career and political and parliamentary engagements, Jozefina Topalli was awarded in 2010 with the prize Mediterranean Award by the International Mediterranean Forum for Peace, consigned by Sergio De Gregorio, president of the Italian parliamentary delegation to the NATO Assembly


Conservative Party (UK) - They believe that & NATO, which has been the cornerstone of British security for the past 60 years, should continue to have primacy on all issues relating to Europe's defence, and pledged in 2010 to make NATO reform a key strategic priority


Volga-Dnepr Airlines - "Antonov An-124 NATO SALIS Program Extended Through End of 2010", ://www


Armed Forces of Ukraine - This materialized on June 3, 2010 when the Ukrainian parliament excluded, with 226 votes, the goal of "integration into Euro-Atlantic security and NATO membership" from the country's national security strategy


NATO Parliamentary Assembly, 16 November 2010 It is however officially a different structure from NATO, and has as aim to join together deputies of NATO countries in order to discuss security policies on the NATO Council add something


Institut francais des relations internationales - In 2011, some of the tackled issues were; European economic governance, the first steps of the European Service in External Action, NATO and Russia facing Afghanistan, illegal immigrants in Europe, European energy and environment policies, spatial security in Europe, Sahel security


Alliance for the Future of Austria - It advocated Austrian accession to & NATO in 2011 arguing that abandoning conscription required Austrias entering of the NATO.


During the Libyan civil war, violence between protestors and the Libyan government under Colonel Muammar Gaddafi escalated, and on 17 March 2011 led to the passage of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, which called for a ceasefire, and authorized military action to protect civilians add something


Buraq Air - As a consequence of the Libyan civil war and the resulting no-fly zone over the country enforced by NATO in accordance with the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, all flight operations with Buraq Air were terminated on 17 March 2011


Libyan Airlines - As a consequence of the Libyan civil war and the resulting no-fly zone over the country enforced by NATO in accordance with the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, all flight operations with Libyan Airlines were terminated on 17 March 2011


Afriqiyah Airways - As a consequence of the Libyan civil war and the resulting no-fly zone over the country enforced by NATO, in accordance with the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, all flight operations by Afriqiyah Airways were terminated on 17 March 2011


NATO began officially enforcing the UN resolution on 27 March 2011 with assistance from Qatar and the United Arab Emirates add something


Operation Unified Protector - A few days later, on 27 March NATO decided to implement all military aspects of the UN resolution and formal transfer of command occurred at 06:00 GMT on 31 March 2011, formally ending the national operations such as the U.S.-coordinated Operation Odyssey Dawn


Roland Dumas - On 29 May 2011, along with attorney Jacques Vergès, Dumas announced plans to sue French President Nicholas Sarkozy for crimes against humanity in relation to the NATO bombing campaign against the Gaddafi government as part of the 2011 Libyan civil war


Libyan civil war - In July 2011, Saif al-Islam condemned NATO for bombing Libyan civilians, including his family members and their children, under the false pretence that their homes were military bases


The activities of the mission were coordinated with Iraqi authorities and the US-led Deputy Commanding General Advising and Training, who is dual-hatted as the Commander of NTM-I. The mission officially concluded on 17 December 2011 add something


By 2012, the Alliance had broadened this group, which meets to discuss issues such as counter-piracy and technology exchange, under the names "partners across the globe" or "global partners add something


During its 2012 Chicago Summit, NATO endorsed a plan to end the Afghanistan war and to remove the NATO-led ISAF Forces by the end of December 2014 add something


The Chairman of the NATO Military Committee is Knud Bartels of Denmark, since 2012 add something


Eure-et-Loir - Already ranked second nationally in terms of power generation through its wind farms located in particular in the Beauce region of Eure-et-Loir in 2012 will be the largest producer of electricity with photovoltaic French original creation on the airbase NATO disused Crucey-Villages near Brezolles in the region's natural Thymerais, the largest photovoltaic park in France


Vangelis Vitalis - In late 2012, as a consequence of a restructuring in the New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade and the closure of the New Zealand Embassy in Stockholm, Vitalis was appointed New Zealand's Ambassador to Sweden , alongside his on-going responsibilities as New Zealand's Ambassador to the European Union and NATO. He presented his credentials in Stockholm in early 2013


Scottish National Party - It is committed to an independent Scotland being a full member state of the European Union, although retaining Sterling as a part of a currency union with the UK. The SNP has historically been opposed to membership of & Nato, as part and parcel of its opposition to nuclear weapons, however at its 2012 national conference a vote saw party policy change to support of Nato, on the precondition of the removal of all nuclear weapons from Scottish bases


MIM-104 Patriot - On 4 December 2012, NATO authorized the deployment of Patriot missile launchers in Turkey to protect the country from missiles fired in the civil war in neighboring Syria


French Armed Forces - On 11 January 2013 France begun Operation Serval to fight Islamists in Mali with African support but without NATO involvement


Anders Fogh Rasmussen - In February 2013 in the first visit of a & NATO secretary-general to Ireland for a meeting with EU defence ministers, he said NATO had an open-door policy towards membership of the organisation


Philip M. Breedlove - On 28 March 2013, he was nominated to become the commander of United States European Command as well as the 17th Supreme Allied Commander Europe of NATO, commands which he will take over from Navy Admiral James G. Stavridis


In June 2013, Colombia and NATO signed an Agreement on the Security of Information, an accord that will allow NATO and Colombia to explore future cooperation and consultation in areas of common interest; Colombia became the first and only Latin American country to cooperate with the NATO. add something


Following a coup d'état attempt in October 2013, Libyan Prime Minister Ali Zeidan requested technical advice and trainers from NATO to assist with ongoing security issues add something


Anders Fogh Rasmussen - However, on 11 December 2013 the North Atlantic Council extended his term until 30 September 2014, in order to ensure the organisation of the 2014 NATO summit in Wales


Anders Fogh Rasmussen - His term as Secretary General of NATO was to end in the summer of 2014


Gerhard Schroder - In March 2014, Schröder likened Russia's intervention in Crimea with NATO's intervention in Kosovo, citing both cases as violations of international law and the UN Charter


ISAF was disestablished in December 2014 and replaced by the follow-on training Resolute Support Mission add something


In early 2015, in the wake of the War in Donbass, meetings of NATO ministers decided that Multinational Corps Northeast would be augmented so as to develop greater capabilities, to, if thought necessary, prepare to defend the Baltic States, and that a new Multi-National Division Southeast would be established in Romania add something


On 2 December 2015, NATO Foreign Ministers decided to invite Montenegro to start accession talks to become the 29th member of the Alliance add something


On June 15, 2016, NATO officially recognized Cyberwarfare as an operational domain of war, just like land, sea and aerial warfare add something


During August 2016 it was announced that 650 soldiers of the British Army would be deployed on an enduring basis in Eastern Europe, mainly in Estonia with some being deployed to Poland add something


On 28 April 2017 the Montenegro's parliament ratified the accession treaty, and as of that date 27 of 28 NATO members had approved Montenegro's accession, with Spain's parliament expected to act in May 2017 add something


On 5 June 2017, Montenegro became the 29th and newest member of NATO, amid strong objections from Russia add something


The most recent member state to be added to NATO is Montenegro on 5 June 2017 add something


The Chairman of the NATO Military Committee is Air Chief Marshal Stuart Peach of the United States, since 2018, and the Deputy Chairman is Steven Shepro of the United States, since 2016 add something


North Macedonia signed an accession protocol to become a NATO member state in February 2019, which is undergoing ratification by the member states add something