Niels Bohr

Knowledge Identifier: +Niels_Bohr

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Niels Bohr

Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structureadd

Category: Sciences

Born in 1885.

Countries: Denmark (30%), United States (16%), (11%)

Main connections: Werner Heisenberg, Arnold Sommerfeld, Physics

Linked to: Institute of Theoretical Physics, Trinity College, Cambridge, Victoria University of Manchester, Denmark national football team

 

Timeline


 

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Bohr was born in Copenhagen , Denmark, in 1885. add something


1903

In 1903 Bohr enrolled as an undergraduate at Copenhagen University, initially studying philosophy and mathematics. add something


1905

In 1905, prompted by a gold medal competition sponsored by the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, he conducted a series of experiments to examine the properties of surface tension, using his father's laboratory in the university, familiar to him from assisting there since childhood. add something


1909

In 1909, Bohr sent his brother Kierkegaard's Stages on Life's Way as a birthday gift. add something


1910

Earlier in 1910 Bohr had met Margrethe Nørlund, sister of the mathematician Niels Erik Nørlund. add something


1911

He continued as a graduate student at the University of Copenhagen , under the physicist Christian Christiansen, receiving his doctorate in 1911. add something


1912

In 1912 he met and later joined Ernest Rutherford at Manchester University, where on and off he spent four fruitful years in association with the older physics professor. add something

 

They were married in Copenhagen in 1912. add something

 

Albert Beaumont Wood - He graduated from Manchester University with First Class Honours in 1912, where he joined a team of notable scientists led by Sir Ernest Rutherford , including Henry Moseley, Hans Geiger, Niels Bohr, Ernest Marsden, James Chadwick, George de Hevesy and Charles Galton Darwin

 

Karl Herzfeld - This paper was published in 1912, shortly before Niels Bohr submitted his first paper on the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom


1913

Bohr published his model of atomic structure in 1913. add something

 

Optics - In 1913 Niels Bohr showed that atoms could only emit discrete amounts of energy, thus explaining the discrete lines seen in emission and absorption spectra

 

Quantum mechanics - In 1913, Peter Debye extended Niels Bohr's theory of atomic structure, introducing elliptical orbits, a concept introduced by Arnold Sommerfeld

 

Atom - Meanwhile, in 1913, physicist Niels Bohr suggested that the electrons were confined into clearly defined, quantized orbits, and could jump between these, but could not freely spiral inward or outward in intermediate states


1916

In 1916, Bohr returned permanently to the University of Copenhagen , where he was appointed to the Chair of Theoretical Physics, a position created especially for him. add something

 

Paul Sophus Epstein - In 1916, he published a seminal paper explaining the Stark effect using the Bohr Sommerfeld quantum theory


1918

In 1918 he began efforts to establish the University Institute of Theoretical Physics, which he later directed. add something


1919

Paul Ehrenfest - After Niels Bohr's first visit to Leiden in 1919, for Kramers' thesis defense, he wrote to Ehrenfest:


1921

With the assistance of the Danish government and the Carlsberg Foundation, he succeeded in founding the Institute of Theoretical Physics in 1921, of which he became director. add something

 

Ernest Rutherford - In 1921, while working with Niels_Bohr, Rutherford theorised about the existence of neutrons, which could somehow compensate for the repelling effect of the positive charges of protons by causing an attractive nuclear force and thus keeping the nuclei from breaking apart.


1922

Bohr had become aware of Heisenberg's talent during a lecture Heisenberg gave in Göttingen in 1922. add something

 

In 1922, Bohr was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics "for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them. add something

 

Paul Sophus Epstein - In 1922 he published 3 papers on Bohr's quantum mechanics in the "Zeitschrift fur Physik" and one in the "Physical Review"

 

Werner Heisenberg - Because Sommerfeld had a sincere interest in his students and knew of Heisenberg's interest in Niels Bohr's theories on atomic physics, Sommerfeld took Heisenberg to Göttingen to the Bohr-Festspiele in June 1922.

 

Dirk Coster - From August 1922 until the summer of 1923, Coster worked in Niels Bohr's Institute in Copenhagen


1924

Robert Bruce Lindsay - Before receiving his Ph.D. for atomic models of alkali metals from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1924, he spent the 1922-23 academic year as a Fellow of The American-Scandinavian Foundation at the University of Copenhagen under Niels Bohr and Hans Kramers

 

Werner Heisenberg - From 17 September 1924 to 1 May 1925, under an International Education Board Rockefeller Foundation fellowship, Heisenberg went to do research with Niels Bohr, director of the Institute of Theoretical Physics at the University of Copenhagen .


1926

Werner Heisenberg worked as an assistant to Bohr and university lecturer in Copenhagen from 1926 to 1927. add something

 

Linus Pauling - He later traveled to Europe on a Guggenheim Fellowship, which was awarded to him in 1926, to study under German physicist Arnold Sommerfeld in Munich, Danish physicist Niels Bohr in Copenhagen and Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger in Zürich.

 

Leon Rosenfeld - He obtained a PhD at the University of Liège in 1926, and he was a collaborator of the physicist Niels Bohr

 

Werner Heisenberg - On 1 May 1926, Heisenberg began his appointment as a university lecturer and assistant to Bohr in Copenhagen .


1927

It was in Copenhagen , in 1927, that Heisenberg developed his uncertainty principle, while working on the mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics. add something

 

Richard C. Tolman - In 1927, Tolman published a text on statistical mechanics whose background was the old quantum theory of Max Planck, Niels Bohr, and Arnold Sommerfeld

 

Paul Ehrenfest - These discussions were continued at the 1927 Solvay Conference, where Ehrenfest much to his dismay had to side with Bohr's position in this great debate


1928

Erich Huckel - After spending 1928 and 1929 in England and Denmark, working briefly with Niels Bohr, Hückel joined the faculty of the Technische Hochschule in Stuttgart


1932

Bohr became widely appreciated as their congenial host and eminent colleague, both at the Institute and at the Foundation's mansion in Carlsberg, where he and his family resided after 1932. add something


1934

Alexandru Proca - Then, in 1934, he spent an entire year with Erwin Schrödinger in Berlin, but visited only for a few months with Nobel laureate Niels Bohr in Copenhagen where he met Werner Heisenberg and George Gamow


1938

Lise Meitner - A letter from Bohr, commenting on the fact that the amount of energy released when he bombarded uranium atoms was far larger than had been predicted by calculations based on a non-fissile core, had sparked the above inspiration in December 1938


1939

Bohr had described the possibility of an atomic weapon in a lecture in England 1939. add something

 

This does not exclude the possibility that Bohr privately made calculations going further than his work in 1939 with Wheeler. add something

 

George Washington University - In one of the most important moments in the 20th century, Niels Bohr announced that Otto Hahn had successfully split the atom on January 26, 1939 at the Fifth Washington Conference on theoretical physics in the Hall of Government


1940

In April 1940, early in World War II, Germany invaded and occupied Denmark. add something


1941

Historical Essays and Documents on the 1941 Meeting between Niels Bohr and Werner_Heisenberg. add something

 

This reply, like his reaction to Heisenberg, made sure that if Gestapo intercepted anything attributed to Bohr it would point to no knowledge regarding nuclear energy as it stood in 1941. add something

 

Heisenberg made a famous visit to Bohr in September 1941. add something

 

In September 1941, Bohr was visited by Heisenberg in Copenhagen . add something

 

Werner Heisenberg - His site contains historical background and facsimiles of documents relating to the 1941 Bohr-Heisenberg meeting.

 

Werner Heisenberg - From 15 to 22 September 1941, Heisenberg traveled to German-occupied Copenhagen to lecture and discuss nuclear research and theoretical physics with Niels Bohr.


1943

As for Sweden during World War II and especially in the autumn of 1943, it was far from certain that they would accept Danish Jews attempting to escape Hitler's deportation order. add something

 

But rather than proceeding promptly to the United States, as had been planned for him, on 30 September 1943 Bohr persuaded King Gustav of Sweden to make public Sweden's willingness to provide asylum, on 2 October 1943 Swedish radio broadcast that Sweden was ready to offer asylum, and there followed quickly thereafter the mass rescue of the Danish Jews by their countrymen. add something

 

In September 1943, reliable word reached Bohr about his imminent arrest by the German police; the Danish resistance quickly managed to help Bohr and his wife escape by sea to Sweden. add something

 

Aage Bohr - In October 1943, shortly before he was to be arrested by the German police, Niels Bohr escaped to Sweden with his family, later travelling to London and on to work on the Manhattan Project


1944

In 1944 he obtained an audience with Winston Churchill, who became worried about whether Bohr was a security risk. add something

 

The British Prime Minister Winston Churchill refused, after a meeting with Bohr 16 May 1944. add something

 

Bohr's friend Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter informed President Roosevelt about Bohr's opinions, and a meeting between them was organised 26 August 1944. add something

 

Werner Heisenberg - From 24 January to 4 February 1944, Heisenberg traveled to occupied Copenhagen , after the German Army confiscated Bohr's Institute of Theoretical Physics.


1950

In 1950 he addressed an 'Open Letter' to the United Nations. add something

 

Tetra Pak - Upon visiting the Tetra Pak factory in Lund in the 1950s, Danish physics professor and Nobel Prize laureate Niels Bohr allegedly claimed to "never have seen such an adequate practical application of a mathematical problem" as the tetrahedron package and the innovation of the milk tetrahedron, the basis for Tetra Pak, has indeed given rise to differences in view as to who is to be credited for the invention


1954

He was one of the founding fathers of CERN in 1954. add something

 

Curtis J. Humphreys - Humphreys attended the Rydberg Centennial Conference on Atomic Spectroscopy in 1954, which at the time was the most distinguished group of spectroscopic and atomic physicists ever assembled, and included the eminent Niels Bohr


1957

In 1957, while the author Robert Jungk was working on the book Brighter Than a Thousand Suns, Heisenberg wrote to Jungk explaining that he had visited Copenhagen to communicate to Bohr the views of the German scientists, that production of an atomic weapon was possible with great efforts and this raised enormous responsibilities on the worlds scientists on either side. add something

 

Received the first ever Atoms for Peace Award in 1957. add something


1962

Niels Bohr died in 1962 add something

 

The gunfighter's dilemma BBC News story about Bohr's researches on reaction times. add something


1965

Wolfgang Pauli - Pauli spent a year at the University of Göttingen as the assistant to Max Born, and the following year at the Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen , which later became the Niels Bohr Institute in 1965


1998

Michael Frayn's play Copenhagen , which was performed in London , Copenhagen , Gothenburg, Rome , Athens , and Geneva and on Broadway in New York, explores what might have happened at the 1941 meeting between Heisenberg and Bohr. add something


2002

A BBC television film version of the play was first screened on 26 September 2002, with Stephen Rea as Bohr, and Daniel Craig as Heisenberg add something

 

Werner Heisenberg - Documents relating to the Bohr-Heisenberg meeting were released in 2002 by the Niels Bohr Archive and by the Heisenberg family


2006

Ivan Supek - In one of his last interviews in March 2006 Supek spoke about the famous and controversial meeting between Werner Heisenberg and Niels Bohr in Copenhagen in September 1941