Palestine Liberation Organization

Knowledge Identifier: &Palestine_Liberation_Organization

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Palestine Liberation Organization

organization created in 1964 with the purpose of creating an independent State of Palestineadd

Category: Politics

Founded in 1964.

Countries: Israel (27%), Palestine (27%), United States (16%)

Main connections: Yasser Arafat, Oslo Accords, Hamas

Linked to: PLO Executive Committee, United Nations Regional Groups, Abu Nidal, European Economic Community

 

Timeline


 

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1964

The Arab League in Cairo Summit 1964 initiated the creation of an organization representing the Palestinian people add something

 

Therefore, the Palestinian National Charter of 1964 stated: "The claims of historic and spiritual ties between Jews and Palestine are not in agreement with the facts of history or with the true basis of sound statehood add something

 

The Palestinian National Council convened in Jerusalem on 28 May 1964 add something

 

Concluding this meeting the PLO was founded on 2 June 1964 add something


1965

The PLO began their militancy campaign from its inception with an attack on Israel's National Water Carrier in January 1965 add something


1967

Six Day War - The resounding defeat of Syria, Jordan and Egypt in the Six Day War of 1967 destroyed the credibility of Arab states that had fought to be patrons for the Palestinian people and their nationalist cause add something

 

Israel Defense Forces - Six-Day War - In the 1967 Six-Day War, Israel conquered the Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strip, West Bank and Golan Heights from the surrounding Arab states, changing the balance of power in the region as well as the role of the IDF. In the following years leading up to the Yom Kippur War, the IDF fought a war of attrition against Egypt in the Sinai and a border war against the PLO in Jordan, culminating in the Battle of Karameh

 

Fatah - Fatah joined the Palestine Liberation Organization in 1967


1968

The Palestinian National Charter as amended in 1968, endorsed the use of armed struggle against the internationally recognized state of Israel add something

 

The "Palestine Information Office" was registered with the Justice Department of the United States as a foreign agent until 1968, when it was closed add something

 

Battle of Karameh - The way was opened, particularly after the Battle of Karameh in March 1968, for Yasser Arafat to rise to power add something


1969

From 1969 to September 1970 the PLO, with passive support from Jordan, fought a war of attrition with Israel add something

 

Yasser Arafat was the Chairman of the PLO Executive Committee from 1969 until his death in 2004 add something

 

Joschka Fischer - Fischer has been criticised for attending a 1969 conference of the Palestine Liberation Organization, where Yasser Arafat called for an all-out war on Israel "until the end"

 

At the Palestinian National Congress meeting of 1969, Fatah gained control of the executive bodies of the PLO. Arafat was appointed PLO chairman at the Palestinian National Congress in Cairo on 4 February 1969 add something

 

Arab Liberation Front - In June 1969 it became a member of the Palestine Liberation Organization


1970

The PLO suffered a major reversal with the Jordanian assault on its armed groups in the events known as Black September in 1970 add something

 

The Palestinian groups were expelled from Jordan, and during the 1970s, the PLO was effectively an umbrella group of eight organizations headquartered in Damascus and Beirut, all devoted to armed resistance to either Zionism or Israeli occupation, using methods which included direct clashing and guerrilla warfare against Israel add something

 

Guardians of the Cedars - The refugee population included a substantial element of Palestine Liberation Organization fighters, especially after the 1970 Black September events in Jordan


1971

This conflict culminated in Jordan's expulsion of the PLO to Lebanon in July 1971 add something


1974

Venice Declaration - Abu Nidal, a sworn enemy of the PLO since 1974, assassinated the PLO's diplomatic envoy to the European Economic Community, which in the Venice Declaration of 1980 had called for the Palestinian right of self-determination to be recognized by Israel add something

 

Palestinian statehood was not mentioned, although in 1974 the PLO called for an independent state in the territory of Mandate Palestine add something

 

Abu Nidal - Part of the socialist Palestinian rejectionist front, so called because they reject proposals for a peaceful settlement with Israel, the ANO was formed after a split in 1974 between Abu Nidal and Yasser Arafat's Fatah faction within the Palestine Liberation Organization


1975

Lebanese Civil War - In 1975, the increasing tensions between Palestinian militants and Christian militias exploded into the Lebanese Civil War, involving all factions add something


1976

Arafat increasingly called for diplomacy, perhaps best symbolized by his Ten Points Program and his support for a UN Security Council resolution proposed in 1976 calling for a two-state settlement on the pre-1967 borders add something

 

Afif Safieh - From 1976 to 1978 he served as deputy director of the Palestine Liberation Organization Observer Mission to the United Nations Office at Geneva

 

On 20 January 1976, the PLO took part in the Damour massacre in retaliation to the Karantina massacre add something


1977

A temporary closing of ranks came in 1977, as Palestinian factions joined with hard-line Arab governments in the Steadfastness and Confrontation Front to condemn Egyptian attempts to reach a separate peace with Israel add something


1978

This was especially so in the aftermath of the Camp David Accords of 1978 between Israel and Egypt, which the Palestinians saw as a blow to their aspirations to self-determination add something

 

Douglas Devananda - In 1978, the EROS dispatched Devananda to Lebanon for military training with Al Fatah, an organization within the Palestine Liberation Organization


1979

Donald McHenry - Earlier that year, Andrew Young had been made to resign his post as U.S. Ambassador to the U.N. after meeting with a representative of the Palestine Liberation Organization, against U.S. policy, and making controversial remarks on political prisoners in the U.S. In September 1979, McHenry was appointed Ambassador and U.S. Permanent Representative to the U.N. by President Jimmy Carter


1980

Air Bissau - By the mid 1980s the airline would be owned by the PLO, which at the time owned Maldives Airways as well

 

Yasser Abed Rabbo - During the 1980s, Abd Rabbu moved closer to the position of Yassir Arafat, leader of the Palestine Liberation Organization , and supported his attempts to negotiate a two-state solution

 

Bruno Kreisky - He cultivated friendly relations with Arab leaders such as Anwar Sadat and Muammar Gaddafi, and in 1980 Austria established relations with the Palestine Liberation Organisation

 

Abie Nathan - In the early 1980s, he began meeting officials from the Palestine Liberation Organization

 

Hanna Kvanmo - When she was leader of the Socialist Left Party it was the only party in the Norwegian Parliament that already by 1980 advocated recognising the Palestine Liberation Organization

 

Robert McTaggart - He was a guest of the North Korean government in visiting the country in September 1980, and of the Palestine Liberation Organization in visiting Jordan, the West Bank and Lebanon in January and February 1981


1981

After the appointment of Ariel Sharon to the post of Minister of defence in 1981, the Israeli government policy of allowing political growth to occur in the occupied West Bank and Gaza strip changed add something

 

Other Arab voices had recently called for a diplomatic resolution to the hostilities in accord with the international consensus, including Egyptian leader Anwar Sadat on his visit to Washington, DC in August 1981, and Crown Prince Fahd of Saudi Arabia in his 7 August peace proposal; together with Arafat's diplomatic maneuver, these developments made Israel's argument that it had "no partner for peace" seem increasingly problematic add something


1982

In 1982, after an attack on a senior Israeli diplomat by Lebanese based Palestinian militants in Lebanon, Israel invaded Lebanon in a much larger scale in coordination with the Lebanese Christian militias, reaching Beirut and eventually resulting in ousting of the PLO headquarters in June that year add something

 

In 1982, the PLO relocated to Tunis, Tunisia after it was driven out of Lebanon by Israel during Israel's six-month invasion of Lebanon add something


1983

PIDE - However, following a terrorist attack on the Embassy of Turkey, the assassination of a Palestine Liberation Organization representative at a Socialist International conference in 1983, and a number of domestic terrorist attacks by isolated far-left and far-right groups, the Portuguese government became convinced of the need for a new intelligence agency

 

Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia - Sympathetic Palestinian organizations including the Palestine Liberation Organization withdrew their support and passed materials to the French intelligence services in 1983, detailing ASALA operatives


1985

On 1 October 1985, in Operation Wooden Leg, Israeli Air Force F-15s bombed the PLO's Tunis headquarters, killing more than 60 people add something


1986

It was admitted as a full member of the Asia group on 2 April 1986 add something


1987

Bashir Barghouti - In 1987, after PCP having joined the Palestine Liberation Organization, Barghouti was inducted into the PLO Executive Committee


1988

Palestinian Declaration of Independence - After King Hussein of Jordan proclaimed the administrative and legal separation of the West Bank from Jordan in 1988, the Palestine National Council adopted the Palestinian Declaration of Independence in Algiers, proclaiming an independent State of Palestine add something

 

Air Bissau - According to Flight International this role had been codified by an agreement between the PLO and Guinea-Bissau in 1988, which according to Daniel Pipes saw George Khallaq buying part equity in the airline from the government of Guinea-Bissau

 

James Baker - As far back as 1988, the Palestine Liberation Organization issued a "declaration of statehood and changed the name of its observer delegation to the United Nations from the PLO to Palestine

 

Palestinian territories - In 1988, with the Palestine Liberation Organization intention to declare a Palestinian State, Jordan renounced all territorial claims to the West Bank, including East Jerusalem

 

George P. Shultz - By December 1988, following six months of shuttle diplomacy, Shultz had established a diplomatic dialogue with the Palestine Liberation Organization, which was picked up by the next Administration


1989

It was reopened in 1989 as the "Palestine Affairs Center add something


1990

During the negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians in the 1990s, some Israelis repeated this suspicion, claiming that the Palestinians' willingness to compromise was just a smoke-screen to implement the Ten Point Program add something

 

In 1990, the PLO under Yasser Arafat openly supported Saddam Hussein in the Iraqi regime's invasion of Kuwait, leading to a later rupture in Palestinian-Kuwaiti ties and the expulsion of many Palestinians from Kuwait add something

 

Palestinian territories - The Oslo Accords of the early 1990s between the Palestine Liberation Organization and Israel led to the creation of the Palestinian Authority


1991

Madrid Conference - Israel considered the PLO to be a terrorist organization until the Madrid Conference in 1991 add something


1993

In 1993, PLO chairman Yasser Arafat recognized the State of Israel in an official letter to its prime minister, Yitzhak Rabin add something

 

In 1993, PLO recognized Israel's right to exist in peace, accepted UN Security Council resolutions 242 and 338, and rejected "violence and terrorism"; in response, Israel officially recognized the PLO as the representative of the Palestinian people add something

 

In 1993, the PLO secretly negotiated the Oslo Accords with Israel add something

 

In letters exchanged between Arafat and Rabin in conjunction with the 1993 Oslo Accords, Arafat agreed that those clauses would be removed add something

 

Oslo Accords - The "' Oslo Accords"' are a set of agreements between the government of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization : the Oslo I Accord, signed in Oslo in 1993 and the Oslo II Accord, signed in Taba in 1995

 

On 9 September 1993, Arafat issued a press release stating that "the PLO recognizes the right of the State of Israel to exist in peace and security" add something

 

There was a subsequent public ceremony in Washington D.C. on 13 September 1993 with Yasser Arafat and Yitzhak Rabin add something

 

Palestinian National Authority - The Oslo Accords were signed on 13 September 1993 between the Palestine Liberation Organization and Israel

 

Warren Christopher - The ceremony took place in Washington D.C. on 13 September 1993, with Yasser Arafat signing for the Palestine Liberation Organization and Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin signing for the State of Israel


1994

" The PLO Mission office, in Washington D.C was opened in 1994, and represented the PLO in the United States add something

 

Palestinian National Authority - The Palestinian Authority was formed in 1994, pursuant to the Oslo Accords between the Palestine Liberation Organization and the government of Israel, as a five-year interim body

 

Palestinian territories - Under the terms of the Oslo Accords signed between Israel and the PLO, the latter assumed control over the Jericho area of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip on 17 May 1994


1995

Gaza Strip - In September 1995, Israel and the PLO signed a second peace agreement, extending the Palestinian Authority to most West Bank towns

 

Palestinian territories - In December 1995, the PLO assumed responsibility for civil administration in 17 areas in Hebron


1996

In 1996, the PLO nullified the articles of the PLO's Charter, or parts of it, which called for the destruction of Israel and for armed resistance add something

 

Yasser Arafat was appointed head of the Palestinian Authority and a timetable for elections was laid out which saw Arafat elected president in January 1996, 18 months behind schedule add something

 

On 24 April 1996, the Palestine National Council held a meeting in camera, after which it was announced that the Council had voted to nullify or amend all such clauses, and called for a new text to be produced add something


1998

A letter from Arafat to US President Bill Clinton in 1998 listed the clauses concerned, and a meeting of the Palestine Central Committee approved that list add something

 

On 7 July 1998, this status was extended to allow participation in General Assembly debates, though not in voting add something


2000

Mustafa Tlass - The long-standing conflict between the Assad regime and the Palestine Liberation Organization would not end until after Hafez al-Assad's death in 2000


2002

Mustafa Barghouti - In June 2002, Barghouti, Haidar Abdel-Shafi, Ibrahim Dakkak and Edward Said established the Palestinian National Initiative , an attempt to build a reformist, inclusive alternative to both the established Palestine Liberation Organization and to Islamic militant groups such as Hamas


2004

Hamas - On July 5, 2004, the court issued a default judgment against the PNA and the PLO regarding the Ungars' said that the Palestinian Authority and the PLO provide safe haven to Hamas


2005

The Intifada never ended officially, but violence hit relatively low levels during 2005 add something


2006

It has been widely criticized, however, over the lack of Hamas presence in the Organization, even after Hamas won almost two-thirds of the seats in the 2006 legislative council elections add something

 

Mustafa Barghouti - He has been a member of the Palestinian Legislative Council since 2006 and is a member of the Palestine Liberation Organization Central Council

 

Hind Khoury - She was the delegate general of the Palestine Liberation Organization in France from March 2006 until June 2010

 

Fatah al-Islam - On December 7, 2006 "Le Monde" reported that a top UN official had been informed by the Palestine Liberation Organization representative in Lebanon, Abbas Zaki, of a plot by Fatah al-Islam to assassinate 36 anti-Syrian figures in Lebanon


2010

On 20 July 2010, the United States Department of State agreed to upgrade the status of the PLO Mission in the United States to "General Delegation of the PLO" add something


2011

Allen West (politician) - In January 2011, West joined House Foreign Affairs Committee Chairwoman Ileana Ros-Lehtinen in condemning the official flying of a Palestine Liberation Organization flag in Washington D.C..

 

In addition to granting Palestine "non-member observer state status", the draft resolution "expresses the hope that the Security Council will consider favourably the application submitted on 23 September 2011 by the State of Palestine for admission to full membership in the United Nations, endorses the two state solution based on the pre-1967 borders, and stresses the need for an immediate resumption of negotiations between the two parties add something


2012

Helen Thomas - In April 2012, Thomas received an award from the Palestine Liberation Organization's General Mission to the United States

 

On Thursday, 29 November 2012, In a 138-9 vote General Assembly resolution 67/19 passed, upgrading Palestine to "non-member observer state" status in the United Nations add something

 

Additionally, on 17 December 2012, UN Chief of Protocol Yeocheol Yoon decided that "the designation of 'State of Palestine' shall be used by the Secretariat in all official United Nations documents" add something


2014

Passia, September 2014 Individual elected members of the PLC representing Hamas, however, are automatically members of the PNC. add something


2015

As of 2015, however, there have not been elections for many years, neither for the PNC, nor for the EC, the PCC and the President of the State of Palestine add something

 

After Abbas had announced his resignation as head of the Executive Committee in August 2015, Deputy Chief of the Hamas Political Bureau Mousa Abu-Marzouk regarded this step as an attempt to get rid of his rivals add something

 

Mahmoud Abbas - He announced his resignation as leader of the PLO on 22 August 2015

 

Mahmoud Abbas - Initiall He resigned as leader of the PLO on 22 August 2015

 

Mel Frykberg, Al Jazeera, 28 August 2015 In absence of a functioning parliament and Executive, he even got lesliglative power add something

 

Ma'an News Agency, 9 September 2015 add something


2016

However, in August 2016, the verdict was reversed by an appeals court in New York, which found that the "Federal District Court in Manhattan had lacked the jurisdiction to hear the case" add something


2017

Hamas - Other contentious issues such as national elections, reform of the Palestine Liberation Organization and possible demilitarization of Hamas will be discussed in the next meeting in November 2017, due to a new step-by-step approach


2018

On 10 September 2018, National security advisor John Bolton announced the closure of the PLO Mission; Nauert, a U.S. Department of State spokeswoman, cited as a reason Palestine's "push to have the International Criminal Court investigate Israel for possible war crimes add something

 

On 29 October 2018, the Palestinian Central Council suspended the recognition of Israel and halted security and economic coordination in all its forms with it add something