Paul I of Russia

Knowledge Identifier: +Paul_I_of_Russia


Paul I of Russia

Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801 add

Category: Politics

Born in 1754.

Countries: Russia (44%), Poland (19%), Lithuania (7%)

Education: undef.

Main connections: Vasili Bazhenov, Nikolay Novikov, Semyon Vorontsov

Linked to: Hermitage Museum




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Paul I of Russia was born in 1754 add something


When Paul turned eighteen, he was appointed Fleet Admiral of the Russian navy and colonel of the Cuirassier regiment, the latter of which was already granted him in 1762 add something


His pug-nosed facial features in later life are attributed to an attack of typhus, from which he suffered in 1771 add something


However, Catherine took great trouble to arrange his first marriage with Wilhelmina Louise , one of the daughters of Ludwig IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, in 1773, and allowed him to attend the Council in order that he might be trained for his work as Emperor add something


Maria Feodorovna (Sophie Dorothea of Wurttemberg) - In 1773, Sophie Dorothea was among the group of German Princesses considered as possible wives of the heir to the Russian throne, the future Tsar Paul I


After his first wife died in childbirth, his mother arranged another marriage on 7 October 1776, with the beautiful Sophia Dorothea of W├╝rttemberg, given the new name "'Maria Feodorovna"' add something


On the birth of his first child in 1777 the Empress gave him an estate, Pavlovsk add something


Iphigenie en Tauride - In 1781 Gluck produced a German version of the opera, "Iphigenia in Tauris," for the visit of the Russian Grand Duke Paul to Vienna, with the libretto translated and adapted by Johann Baptist von Alxinger in collaboration with the composer


In 1783 the Empress granted him another estate at Gatchina, where he was allowed to maintain a brigade of soldiers whom he drilled on the Prussian model, still an unpopular stance at the time add something


Vasili Bazhenov - Catherine suddenly visited Tsaritsyno in June 1785, and left displeased by slow pace of the work; she scorned the palace in letters to Paul and Melchior Grimm as a "dark place with low vaults and narrow stairs, unfit for living


It was not until 1787 that Catherine II may have in fact decided to exclude her son from succession add something


Vasili Bazhenov - In April 1792 Bazhenov was impicated in the Nikolay Novikov affair; police found Bazhenov's letter to Novikov about supplying masonic books to Paul


Franciszek Kareu - Through the establishment of the Jesuits in the Duchy of Parma in 1793, and the letter of endorsement from Emperor Paul I of Russia, the Pope, Pius VII began mechanisms that eventuated in the universal approval of the existence of the Society in 1814


Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz - In 1795 they were released by Tsar Paul I of Russia and made their way together to the United States, where in 1800 Niemcewicz married Mrs. Livingston Kean, widow of John Kean, a delegate from South Carolina to the Continental Congress


He attempted to reform the organization of the army in 1796 by introducing "The Infantry Codes"; a series of guidelines that based the organization of the army largely upon show and glamour, but his greatest commander, Suvorov completely ignored them, believing them to be worthless add something


In 1796, the Order approached Paul about the Priory of Poland, which had been in a state of neglect and paid no revenue for 100 years, and was now on Russian land add something


Paul came to power following the death of his mother, Catherine the Great, in late 1796, and his early policies can largely be seen as reactions against hers add something


Catherine suffered a stroke on 5 November 1796, and died without regaining consciousness add something


Grigory Potemkin - Catherine's son Paul, who succeeded to the throne in 1796, attempted to undo as many of Potemkin's reforms as possible


Tomasz Wawrzecki - Kept prisoner until 1796, he was set free by Paul I of Russia and returned to Lithuania


Semyon Vorontsov - On the accession of Paul I in 1796, Vorontsov was raised to the rank of ambassador extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary and was awarded immense estates in Finland


Aleksey Arakcheyev - After Paul I's coronation, on November 7, 1796, Arakcheyev was appointed as the commandant of Saint-Petersburg's garrison and received other army functions during the months of November and December


He relocated the Priories of Poland to St. Petersburg in January 1797 add something


Treaty of Campoformio - Paul offered to mediate between Austria and France through Prussia and pushed Austria to make peace, but the two countries made peace without his assistance, signing the Treaty of Campoformio in October 1797 add something


Gabriel Lenkiewicz - He was heartened however, when her successor Emperor Paul I of Russia expressed support for the Jesuits, a few months after her death, in 1797


Viktor Kochubey - In 1798 he was appointed to the board of College of Foreign Affairs and was created Count next year, but Paul I of Russia exiled him


Louis XVIII of France - In 1798, Emperor Paul I of Russia offered Louis the use of Jelgava Palace in Courland.


Yefim Chaplits - Upon his accession to the throne, Emperor Paul I recalled the army back to Russia and had Chaplits dismissed from the military on February 27, 1798


Adam Jerzy Czartoryski - Throughout the reign of Paul I, Czartoryski was in high favor and on terms of the closest intimacy with the Tsar, who in December 1798 appointed him ambassador to the court of Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia


Although by the fall of 1799 the Russo-Austrian alliance had more or less fallen apart, Paul still cooperated willingly with the British add something


The Austrians, therefore, happily saw Suvorov and his army out of Italy in 1799 to go meet up with the army of Alexander Korsakov, at the time assisting the Austrian Archduke Charles expel the French armies currently occupying Switzerland add something


As the month wore on, the weather worsened and the allies suffered more and more losses, eventually signing an armistice in October 1799 add something


This defeat, combined with refusal to reinstate the old monarchies in Italy and their disrespect of the Russian flag during the taking of Ancona, led to the formal cessation of the alliance in October 1799 add something


The British themselves considered this enough of a problem that they signed three treaties with Persia, in 1801, 1809 and 1812, to guard against an army attacking India through Central Asia add something

Paul I of Russia died in 1801 add something


In March 1801, Britain sent a fleet to Denmark, bombarding Copenhagen and forcing them to surrender in the beginning of April add something


Erekle II - He was succeeded by his weak and sickly son, George XII, after whose death Tsar Paul I annexed, in 1801, Kartli-Kakheti to Russia, terminating both Georgia's independence and a millennium-long rule of the Bagrationi Dynasty


In 1906 Dmitry Merezhkovsky published his tragedy "Paul I" add something


The 1987 Soviet experimental film "Assa" has a subplot revolving around Paul's murder; Paul is portrayed by Dmitry Dolinin add something


A film on the rule of Paul I was produced by Lenfilm in 2003 add something


The movie won the Michael Tariverdiev Prize for best music to a film at the Open Russian Film Festival "Kinotavr" in 2003 add something


Massie is more compassionate towards Catherine; in his 2011 biography of her he claims that Paul was taken from his mother at birth and withheld from her presence except during very limited moments, that having done her duty in providing an heir to the throne, Elizabeth had no more use for Catherine, who was forbidden from seeing the child add something


The young Paul appears in the 2014 Catherine produced by Russia-1 add something