Knowledge Identifier: $police



Constituted body of persons empowered by the state to enforce the law, protect property, and limit civil disorder add

Category: Justice-Crime

Launched in 1862.

Countries: United Kingdom (34%), (18%), United States (11%)

Main connections: Wiltshire Police, Wiltshire, Police community support officer

Linked to: SWAT, Penn State University Press, Amtrak, Carabinieri




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However, whilst the New South Wales Police Force was established in 1862, it was made up from a large number of policing and military units operating within the Colony of New South Wales and traces its links back to the Royal Marines add something


The passing of the Police Regulation Act of 1862 essentially tightly regulated and centralised all of the police forces operating throughout the Colony of New South Wales add something


In 1863, the Metropolitan Police were issued with the distinctive Custodian helmet, and in 1884 they switched to the use of whistles that could be heard from much further away add something


The U.S. Secret Service was founded in 1865 and was for some time the main investigative body for the federal government add something


A national force, the Dominion Police, was founded in 1868 add something


The famous Royal Northwest Mounted Police was founded in 1873 add something


Wiltshire Police - Wiltshire &Police's headquarters used to be on Bath Road in Devizes, formerly the Wiltshire Militia Stores it was acquired in 1879 by Wiltshire &Police as their headquarters


Law enforcement in Bolivia - The &Police Law of 1886 formalized the system that remained in effect throughout the first half of the twentieth century


The merger of these two police forces in 1920 formed the world-famous Royal Canadian Mounted Police add something


Law enforcement in Bolivia - The Bolivian police became institutionalized on the national level in 1937 with the creation of the National Corps of Carabineers and its professional training school, the Police School , later renamed the National Police Academy


John Howard (British Army officer) - Howard initially joined the British Army before the war, serving as a private and a non-commissioned officer for six years before discharging in 1938 and joining the Oxford City Police


John Howard (British Army officer) - In June 1938, he was discharged from the army, having served his six year enlistment period, and joined the Oxford City Police


Haji Amir Bux Junejo - He recruited to &Police in 1941 as Sobedar


Charlie Wilson (footballer born 1905) - After playing for the Kidderminster Police team in 1946, he finally retired from football in 1947


Hamad bin Jassim bin Hamad Al Thani - Shaikh "'Hamad bin Jassim bin Hamad bin Abdullah bin Jassim bin Muhammed Al Thani"' was the commander in chief of the Qatar Police from 1972 to 1977 and Minister for Economy and Trade from 1977 to 1986


Law enforcement in Bolivia - In 1950 the Organic Law of Police and Carabineers of Bolivia revised the police system substantially


Law enforcement in Bolivia - The 1950 Organic Law of Police and Carabiniers officially separated the police from the military


In the United States since the 1960s, concern over such issues has increasingly weighed upon law enforcement agencies, courts and legislatures at every level of government add something


The fact that this trend has occurred contemporaneously with the rise of the US civil rights movement, the "War on Drugs", and a precipitous rise in violent crime from the 1960s to the 1990s has made questions surrounding the role, administration and scope of police authority increasingly complicated add something


Wiltshire Police - Wiltshire &Police remained at this site for 85 years until the early 1960s when the organization required a larger headquarters and the new building was commissioned on the London Road site, which was officially opened in 1964


Incidents such as the 1965 Watts Riots, the videotaped 1991 beating by Los Angeles Police officers of Rodney King, and the riot following their acquittal have been suggested by some people to be evidence that U.S. police are dangerously lacking in appropriate controls add something


The study showed that transnational police information sharing was routinized in the cross-Channel region from 1968 on the basis of agreements directly between the police agencies and without any formal agreement between the countries concerned add something


The Kansas City Preventive Patrol study in the 1970s found this approach to policing to be ineffective add something


Paul Ackford - Educated at Plymouth College and Cambridge University, he played lock for England B aged 21 and represented Cambridge in the 1979 Varsity Match, but did not make an impact until joining Harlequins and the Police in 1988


Broken windows policing was another, related approach introduced in the 1980s by James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling, who suggested that police should pay greater attention to minor "quality of life" offenses and disorderly conduct add something


In the 1980s and 1990s, many law enforcement agencies began to adopt community policing strategies, and others adopted problem-oriented policing add something


Perhaps the most high-profile example of this was, in 1980 the Metropolitan Police handing control of the Iranian Embassy Siege to the Special Air Service add something


Wiltshire Police - Most significantly the 1980s saw the introduction of the &Police National Computer, Command and Control systems and HOLMES investigation system


Wiltshire Police - Twice in the 1980s Wiltshire &Police officers had to cover for the prison officers of Erlestoke Prison when they went on strike


Wiltshire Police - Wiltshire &Police had a &Police Cadet scheme until August 1980 when it was closed, along with many other similar schemes in the UK. The cadets wore uniforms the same as constables, except with a blue-banded peaked cap and 'Cadet' on their epaulettes


Robert Barbers - He was promoted to the rank of Police Officer II in 1981 and to Police officer I in 1983


British police officers are governed by similar rules, such as those introduced to England and Wales under the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 , but generally have greater powers add something


Wiltshire Police - The Police Memorial Trust lists and commemorates all British police officers killed in the line of duty, and since its establishment in 1984 has erected over 38 memorials to some of those officers


Wiltshire Police - Stonehenge free festival - In 1985 Wiltshire &Police prevented a vehicle convoy of several hundred new age travellers from setting up at the 11th Stonehenge Free Festival at Stonehenge in Wiltshire, England, after English Heritage who were the custodians of the site were granted an exclusion zone of some four miles around the Stones


Law enforcement in Bolivia - The narcotics police, with about 6,000 members, included the Special Antinarcotics Force created in 1987, and a subordinate force, the Rural Area Police Patrol Unit


Wiltshire Police - Over 60 years passed until mounted police were used again, in 1988 Wiltshire Police borrowed the Mounted Division of the City of London Police for a Swindon Town football match


This method was first introduced and made popular by New York City Mayor, Rudy Giuliani, in the early 1990s add something


Gendarmerie (Austria) - Numbering 11,600 in 1990, the Gendarmerie has responsibilities similar to the Federal Police but operates in rural areas and in towns without a contingent of Federal Police or local police


Wiltshire Police - The Air Support Unit was officially created in the spring of 1990 but Wiltshire &Police have been renting helicopters since the late 1980s, they experimented with a fixed-wing plane, a Robinson Beta 22 and an Aérospatiale Gazelle, but later chose a $Bolkow_105 (MBB_Bo_105) in 1990, which was used for 7 years


By 1992, with the signing of the Schengen Treaty, which formalized aspects of police information exchange across the territory of the European Union, there were worries that much, if not all, of this intelligence sharing was opaque, raising questions about the efficacy of the accountability mechanisms governing police information sharing in Europe add something


Wiltshire Police - Whilst it is an independent charity that was set up in 1992, it is considered a branch of Wiltshire &Police, it is based at Chippenham &Police Station and is a sub-department of Diversity and Community Affairs, headed by Inspector Bonner-Smith


Wiltshire Police - Wiltshire Police headquarters was used as a police building for an opening shot in the 1992 version of Agatha Christies The ABC Murders


In cases in which such measures have been lacking or absent, civil lawsuits have been brought by the United States Department of Justice against local law enforcement agencies, authorized under the 1994 Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act add something


This practice is controversial, with for example, New York State banning this practice in 1996 on the grounds that it endangered motorists who might be pulled over by people impersonating police officers add something


Panfilo Lacson - Dacer's family discovered the publicist's letter to Joseph Estrada on Panfilo Lacson's 1999 actuation to secure the Philippine National Police chief post


Panfilo Lacson - He was Director-General of the Philippine National Police from 1999 to 2001 and has been a member of the Philippine Senate since 2001


Surrey Police - Part of the present force area was originally part of the Metropolitan &Police District, and was only transferred to the control of Surrey &Police from the Metropolitan &Police in 2000


Law enforcement in Bolivia - The police corps, with at least 31,000 personnel in the 2000s, consists of the General Administration section; the 5,000-member paramilitary National Guard , still referred to as the carabiniers , which were reorganized in 1976; the Directorate of National Investigations , which cooperated with the International Police ; the Customs Police ; the Traffic Police ; the National Highway Service , which operated under the authority of the Ministry of Transport and Communications; the Fire Corps , which was manned by police personnel; and the National Police Academy


Wiltshire Police - Wiltshire Police stopped using the 'jam sandwich' police car markings between 2000 and 2005 when battenburg markings were invented


Wiltshire Police - The Wiltshire &Police Ports Unit was established in April 2000, it is responsible for policing all non-designated airfields in Wiltshire, making sure that legislation is followed, particularly the Terrorism Act 2000


Police community support officer - Despite this, section 38 of the &Police Reform Act 2002 requires that chief constables or commissioners to ensure a recruit "Has received adequate training in the carrying out of those functions and in the exercise and performance of the powers and duties to be conferred on him by virtue of their designation"


Police community support officer - Despite this, section 38 of the Police Reform Act 2002 requires that chief constables or Commissioners in charge of police forces have a duty to ensure a recruit "is a suitable person to carry out the functions for the purposes of which they are designated" and is "capable of effectively carrying out those functions"


Police community support officer - In some cases, this use of force is provided by the &Police Reform Act 2002


Police corruption - In the UK, an internal investigation in 2002 into the largest police force, the Metropolitan Police, Operation Tiberius found that the force was so corrupt that "organized criminals were able to infiltrate Scotland Yard at will by bribing corrupt officers


Police community support officer - PCSOs are trained in a variety of tasks, including: radio procedure; report writing; dealing with evidence; going to court; gathering intelligence; managing a crime scene; usage of PCSO powers under the &Police Reform Act 2002 and any person powers; use of force; human rights; race and diversity; traffic direction and cordon manning; general health and safety; self-defence ; and first aid


Police community support officer - The original PCSOs recruited in 2002 by the Metropolitan Police received only 3 weeks' training, which was criticised as too little


Police community support officer - The powers of PCSOs stem from the &Police Reform Act 2002, and every PCSO since 2007 has a number standard powers that were introduced for all PCSOs regardless of which force they belong to


Police community support officer - This list comes from definitions provided under paragraph 2 of Schedule 5 of the &Police Reform Act 2002


Police community support officer - " The following are criminal offences in relation to PCSOs under the Police Reform Act 2002 for which a PCSO can detain, or a police constable can arrest for:"


Police community support officer - PCSOs were introduced in September 2002 and first recruited by the Metropolitan Police under the &Police Reform Act 2002 that was given Royal Assent by Queen Elizabeth II on 24 July 2002


Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 2004, 6 add something


Gendarmerie (Austria) - On December 9, 2004, the National council with the voices of ÖVP and FPÖ decided this should take place on July 1, 2005 takes place and that the new name should be the "Federal &Police"


In 2005, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that police do not have a constitutional duty to protect a person from harm add something


Gendarmerie (Austria) - All Austrian law enforcement agencies were merged into the Federal &Police agency, with effect from 1 July 2005


Surrey Police - Proposals put forward on 20 March 2006 would have seen the Surrey force merged with Sussex Police to form a single strategic police force for the area


Surrey Police - Police authorities had until 7 April 2006 to respond to the plans; the Home Secretary announced on 11 April 2006 that Surrey &Police and Sussex Police would merge by 2008


Police community support officer - In 2007, Segways were reported to be used by Metropolitan Police Safer Neighbourhood Teams in Sutton


Wiltshire Police - In the same 2007/8 period Wiltshire &Police received 234 complaints and 460 allegations


In the Republic of Ireland the Garda Síochána is investigated by the Garda Síochána Ombudsman Commission, an independent commission that replaced the Garda Complaints Board in May 2007 add something


Wiltshire Police - He took over following the departure of Martin Richards, who transferred to become Chief Constable of Sussex Police on 1 October 2007


Wiltshire Police - In January 2008, Brian Moore was appointed as Chief Constable of Wiltshire &Police


Police community support officer - Avon and Somerset &Police currently utilise a PCSO Support role, which is an administration position allowing PCSOs to continue to meet the criteria; primarily subsection three of The Policing Pledge of 2009; to conduct high visibility patrols and spend at least eighty percent of their tour of duty on patrol within the community


Surrey Police - There were 710 complaint cases for Surrey &Police in 2009/10


Surrey Police - Surrey Police was divided into three divisions but since 2010 has become a single division, and as of the end of 2009 is policed by 1,840 regular police officers, in addition to 278 Special Constables and 211 Police Community Support Officers


Wiltshire Police - A report from March 2010 by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary marked Wiltshire &Police as 1 out of 10 forces that were graded as being 'excellent' and improving on reducing crime, and 'fair' at protecting citizens from serious harm and 'fair' for confidence and satisfaction


Surrey Police - See "Crime statistics: &Police force area data tables 2011-12 - Crime in England and Wales, Quarterly First Release to March 2012"


Law enforcement in Bolivia - The National &Police are led by a Commandant General, currently Colonel Ciro Oscar Farfán Medina, who was named in the wake of the René Sanabria affair and took office on 11 March 2011


Wiltshire Police - The Deputy Chief Constable David Ainsworth and formerly ACC of Kent &Police, was found dead at his home on 22 March 2011


Police community support officer - Staffordshire Police was the last police force to issue Stab vests to PCSOs; they were only issued to officers of this force in April 2011


Surrey Police - In a report published by HM Inspectorate of Constabulary in July 2011, the impact on the number of police officers and staff partly due to the reduction to Surrey Police's budget following the comprehensive spending review is as follows:


Police community support officer - Such forces include Durham Constabulary in December 2011 and British Transport &Police in June 2011


Police community support officer - During the England and Wales &Police and Crime Commissioner elections, 2012 the UK Independence Party Candidate for the post of &Police and Crime Commissioner for Norfolk Constabulary Matthew Smith stated he was doubtful of the effectiveness of PCSOs and wanted to reduce their numbers claiming during a debate on BBC Radio Norfolk in the run up to the election that the public in his opinion were not happy with PCSOs seeing them as "Plastic &Policemen" During his campaign to be the PCC he stated he would prioritise recruitment to have more &Police (poli


Police community support officer - Gwent Police have issued a silver coloured "Gwent Police Staff Diamond Jubilee Badge 2012", a small lapel badge *awarded to all police constables and PCSOs who received the Jubilee Medal


Federal Investigation Agency - The current FIA Director General is Muhammad Anwar Virk of the &Police Service of Pakistan who was appointed in July, 2012, succeeding the former DG Fayyaz Ahmed Leghari


Police community support officer - The election for PCCsMatthew Smith is the only known candidate during the England and Wales &Police and Crime Commissioner elections, 2012 who planned to reduce PCSO numbers


Wiltshire Police - The force was under the local oversight of the Wiltshire &Police Authority until 2012


Wiltshire Police - On 20 February 2012, Home Secretary Theresa May announced that the UK Border Agency would be split in half and the responsibilities of patrolling and enforcing the UK's border would be the job of the new UK Border Force, and that Chief Constable of Wiltshire &Police Brian Moore, would be moving to be the new head of the UK Border Force starting March 2012


Wiltshire Police - On 15 November 2012, the &Police and Crime Commissioner elections took place in England and Wales


Surrey Police - For 2013/14 Surrey &Police has total expenditure of £221,9m, of which £181,7m goes on employee costs, £27,2m on supplies and services, £8m on premises, and £5m on transport


Wiltshire Police - In the 2013 Crime Plan written by PCC Angus Macpherson, initial plans to restart the Wiltshire &Police Cadets were announced


Police community support officer - The Transit Officer role was dissolved in late 2013 with the New South Wales Police Force now taking over the responsibilities of public transport safety


Police corruption - Lobinkar, B. & Mesko, G. 2015, "perception of & Police Corruption and the Level of Integrity among Slovenian Police Officers", "Police Practice and Research: An International Journal", 16, 341-353, doi:10,1080/15614263,2015,1038031


Surrey Police - For 2016/17, Surrey Police has total expenditure of £212,6m, of which £182,2m goes on employee costs, £27,8m on supplies and services, £7,9m on premises, and £5,7m on transport


Federal Investigation Agency - The FIA Director General is Muhammad Amlish of the Police Service of Pakistan who was appointed in March, 2016, succeeding the former DG Akbar Khan Hoti


Surrey Police - The Chief Constable of Surrey Police is Nick Ephgrave, who was appointed in July 2016


Surrey Police - For 2017/18, Surrey Police has total expenditure of £224,1m, of which £183,2m goes on employee costs, £27,3m on supplies and services, £8,8m on premises, and £4,8m on transport


Federal Investigation Agency - The FIA Director General is Bashir Ahmed of the Police Service of Pakistan who was appointed in August, 2017, succeeding the former DG Muhammad Amlish


Federal Investigation Agency - The FIA Director General is Bashir Ahmed, a BPS-22 grade officer of the Police Service of Pakistan who was appointed in August 2017


Delhi Police - As of January 2019, Delhi Police has 15 Police Districts with 178 'territorial' Police Stations and 5 specialised crime units declared as Police Stations namely, Economic Offenses Wing, Crime Branch, Special Cell, Special Police Unit for Women and Children and Vigilance