Knowledge Identifier: $President



Category:Management occupationsadd

Category: Business (20)

Launched in 1409.

Countries: United States (40%), (9%), United Kingdom (5%)

Main connections: Chairman, Kenneth McClintock, Hussain Muhammad Ershad

Linked to: University of Cambridge, Harvard University, Magdalene College, Cambridge, U.S. Electoral College




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Early examples are from the universities of Oxford and Cambridge and the founding President of the Royal Society William Brouncker in 1660 add something


The presiding official of Yale College, originally a "Rector" , became "President" in 1745 add something


In Pierre Choderlos de Laclos's novel "Les Liaisons Dangereuses" of 1782, the character identified as "Madame la Présidente de Tourvel" is the wife of a magistrate in a "parlement" add something


The modern usage of the term 'president' to designate a single person who is the head of state of a republic can be traced directly to the United States Constitution of 1787, which created the office of President of the United States add something


The second well-known incident of a leader extending his term indefinitely was Roman dictator Julius Caesar, who made himself "Perpetual Dictator" in 45 BC. His actions would later be mimicked by the French leader Napoleon Bonaparte who was appointed "First Consul for life" in 1802 add something


Haiti became the first presidential republic in Latin America when Henri Christophe assumed the title in 1807 add something


Almost all of the American nations that became independent from Spain in the early 1810s and 1820s chose a US-style president as their chief executive add something


Bruno Carranza - "'José Bruno Carranza Ramírez"' was briefly President of Costa Rica in 1870


Edward St Maur, 11th Duke of Somerset - He was a gifted mathematician and served as President of the Linnean Society of London from 1834 to 1837 and as President of the Royal Institution from 1826 to 1842


Bruno Carranza - In 1847 he married Gerónima Montealegre, sister of President José María Montealegre Fernández


The first European president was the President of the French Second Republic of 1848 add something


Edward Raymond Ames - Ames was elected President of Indiana Asbury University in 1848, as well


Thomas Hawksley - Institution of Civil Engineers - He was the first president of the Institution of Gas Engineers and Managers , a Fellow of the Royal Society, and was elected President of the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1871


Henry Lawrence Burnett - After the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln in 1865, Burnett was called upon by Secretary of War Edwin Stanton to be an Assistant Judge Advocate General


George Atzerodt - According to the prosecution, Booth assigned Atzerodt to assassinate Vice President Andrew Johnson on April 14, 1865


George Atzerodt - Some years after opening his carriage repair business, Atzerodt met John Wilkes Booth in Washington, D.C. Atzerodt was willing to join in a conspiracy to kidnap President Abraham Lincoln, as he later admitted in his trial, which began May 1, 1865


Henry Lawrence Burnett - On June 29, 1865, the eight were found guilty for their involvement in the conspiracy to kill the President


Henry Lawrence Burnett - Arnold, Spangler and Mudd where pardoned by President Andrew Johnson in early 1869


Bruno Carranza - Bruno Carranza came to power in the coup d'état of 27 April 1870 that deposed President Jesús Jiménez


From the French "'Présidente du Conseil"', used 1871-1940 and 1944-1958, as the Third and Fourth French Republics add something


William Wirt Adams - He resigned in 1885 and took the position of postmaster in Jackson, Mississippi by appointment of President Grover Cleveland


Henry Lawrence Burnett - In 1898, President William McKinley appointed Burnett federal district attorney for the southern district of New York and upon completion of his four-year term, he was reappointed by McKinley's successor, Theodore Roosevelt


Aleksandras Stulginskis - Stulginskis was acting President of Lithuania for a few hours later in 1926, following a military coup that was led by his predecessor as President and which had brought down Stulginskis' successor, Kazys Grinius


William Tubman - However, Tubman was reelected to the national legislature in 1934, though he resigned in 1937 when President Edwin Barclay appointed him associate justice of the Supreme Court of Liberia, a post he held until 1943


Nicola Canali - He served as President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State from 1939 and as Major Penitentiary from 1941 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1935


Nicola Canali - Canali was one of the cardinal electors in the 1939 papal conclave that selected Pope Pius XII, who appointed him the first President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State on 20 March 1939


Nicola Canali - Canali was one of the cardinal electors in the 1939 papal conclave that selected Pope Pius XII, who appointed him the first President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State on 20 March 1939


Nicola Canali - Made Major Penitentiary on 15 October 1941, the Cardinal was appointed Pro-President of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See in 1951 , and participated in the 1958 papal conclave, which resulted in the election of Pope John XXIII


William Tubman - In December 1942, Liberia was faced with the question of the succession of President Edwin Barclay


Allan Rockwell McCann - He was commended by President Harry S. Truman on August 7, 1945 for completing this most important mission, and for this duty he was *awarded a Letter of Commendation with Ribbon by the Commander in Chief, Atlantic Fleet


Warren E. Burger - He supported Minnesota Governor Harold E. Stassen's unsuccessful pursuit of the Republican nomination for President in 1948


Allan Rockwell McCann - On September 3, 1948, he reported as a Member of the General Board of the Navy Department, and on June 14, 1949 he transferred to duty as Inspector General, Navy Department, where he was tasked by President Harry S. Truman to investigate the Revolt of the Admirals


Mary Peters (Secretary of Transportation) - "'Mary E. Peters"' served as the United States Secretary of Transportation under President George W. Bush from 2006 to 2009


Brian Burke (ice hockey) - "'Brian P. Burke"' is an American-Canadian hockey executive, who is currently the President and General Manager of the Toronto Maple Leafs, and was the General Manager for the United States national men's ice hockey team for the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver


Joan Evans (art historian) - A Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London, Evans served as the first woman President of that Society 1959-64


Vince Lombardi - After the 1962 championship win, President John F. Kennedy called Lombardi and asked him if he would, "come back to Army and coach again"; Kennedy received Lombardi's tacit denial of the request


Warren E. Burger - In 1969, President Richard M. Nixon nominated Burger to the Chief Justice position


David Packard - Upon entering office in 1969, President Richard M. Nixon appointed Packard U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense under Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird


Walter Adams (economist) - Adams accepted, and was sworn in as Michigan State's 13th President on April 1, 1969


Warren E. Burger - According to President Nixon's memoirs, he had asked Justice Burger in the spring of 1970 to be prepared to run for President in 1972 if the political repercussions of the Cambodia invasion were too negative for him to endure


Warren E. Burger - A few years later, in 1971 and 1973, Burger was on Nixon's short list of vice-presidential replacements for Vice President Spiro Agnew, along with John Connally, Ronald Reagan, and Nelson Rockefeller


Pedro Bordaberry - He is a son of Juan Maria Bordaberry, elected President of Uruguay in free elections in 1972 and former Dictator of Uruguay from 1973 to 1976, after closing Parliament


Leontyne Price - In January 1973, she sang "Precious Lord, Take My Hand" and "Onward, Christian Soldiers" at the state funeral of President Lyndon B. Johnson, at whose 1965 inauguration she had sung


Mushtaq Ahmad Yusufi - In 1974 he became President of United Bank Ltd. In 1977 became Chairman of the Pakistan Banking Council


Hussain Muhammad Ershad - Ershad remained loyal to Ziaur Rahman, Major General Zia had been appointed Army Chief by President of Bangladesh Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad after the Assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the country's founding leader, on 15 August 1975 as the country headed towards communism banning multiparty rule by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman


Leon Charney - Charney refers to his efforts as using "back door channels", and he advised President Carter from 1976-1980


David Packard - Packard served as President of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences from 1976 to 1981


Leontyne Price - President Jimmy Carter invited her to sing a nationally televised recital at the White House in 1978, and she returned to sing for a State Dinner after the signing of the Camp David Accords and on the visit of Pope John Paul II.


Ali Hassan al-Majid - In 1979 Saddam seized power, pushing aside President Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr


Leon Charney - In 1979, Charney played an important role as the unofficial adviser to former U.S. President Jimmy Carter, most well known for his behind-the-scenes role in the Camp David accord which created the first comprehensive peace between Israel and Egypt in 1978 and 1979


Fela Kuti - In 1979, he put himself forward for President in Nigeria's first elections for more than a decade, but his candidature was refused.


Ali Hassan al-Majid - A first cousin of former President of Iraq Saddam Hussein, he became notorious in the 1980s and 1990s for his role in the Iraqi government's campaigns against internal opposition forces, namely the ethnic Kurdish rebels of the north, and the Shia religious dissidents of the south


Hussain Muhammad Ershad - Ershad came to power in a bloodless coup on 24 March 1982 and proclaimed himself Chief Martial Law Administrator , President Justice Sattar was replaced


John Patrick Foley - On April 5, 1984, Foley was appointed President of the Pontifical Council for Social Communications and Titular Archbishop of "Neapolis in Proconsulari" by the late Pope John Paul II


John B. T. Campbell III - In 1985, Campbell became President and CEO of Campbell Automotive Group.


Hussain Muhammad Ershad - Although there were two general elections, they were widely criticized by the opposition parties - BNP boycotted the election in 1986 but that election gained legitimacy as the other major opposition party Awami League founded by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and Jamaat-e-Islami which was resurrected by President Ziaur Rahman participated the election


Leonard Blavatnik - In 1986 he founded Access Industries, an international industrial group, of which he is Chairman and President


Andrew Robinson (actor) - In 1986, he played President John F. Kennedy in an episode of the 1980s revival of "The Twilight Zone", "Profile in Silver


Siad Barre - In May 1986, President Barre suffered serious injuries in a life-threatening automobile collision near Mogadishu , when the car that was transporting him smashed into the back of a bus during a heavy rainstorm


Michael Mukasey - In 1987, Mukasey was nominated as a federal district judge for the Southern District of New York in Manhattan by President Ronald_Reagan; he took the bench in 1988


Walter Wallmann - As Minister-President he served as President of the Bundesrat in from May to October 1987


Fela Kuti - In 1989, Fela and Egypt '80 released the anti-apartheid Beasts of No Nation album that depicts on its cover U.S. President Ronald Reagan, UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and South African Prime Minister Pieter Willem Botha.


John B. T. Campbell III - In 1990, he became President and CEO of Saturn of Orange County.


Tomas Osmena - In 1990, he was elected as the National Executive Vice-President of the League of City Mayors of the Philippines


Hironobu Sakaguchi - In 1991, following the release of "Final Fantasy IV" for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, he was honoured with the position of Executive Vice President


Hussain Muhammad Ershad - It is widely speculated that Monjur was used as a scapegoat and Ershad himself was behind the liquidation of President Zia; although never proven in any court of law, even when Zia's widow was in power in 1991-1996 and again in 2001-2006


Dick Morris - He worked as a Republican strategist before joining the Clinton administration, where he helped Clinton recover from the 1994 midterm elections by advising the President to adopt more Republican policies


Sheldon Whitehouse - President Bill Clinton appointed Whitehouse to serve as United States attorney for Rhode Island in 1994


Hironobu Sakaguchi - In 1995, he became President at Square USA, Inc. His final role as game producer was for "Final Fantasy IX"


Frederick Lowy - Lowy served as President and Vice-Chancellor of Concordia University from 1995 to 2005


Hussain Muhammad Ershad - In 1996 the newly elected Government of Awami League selected Shahabuddin as the President and Lt General Nuruddin Khan became the Energy Minister, only to be dismissed for gross mismanagement


Dick Morris - Morris went on to become campaign manager of Bill Clinton's successful 1996 bid for re-election to the office of President


Hussain Muhammad Ershad - He was released from jail on 9 January 1997 by the government but only after unconditional support was provided to Awami League by the former President


Hussain Muhammad Ershad - On Sunday, 1 March 1998, the Supreme Court of Bangladesh ruled that President Hussain Muhammad Ershad's original arrest in 1990 by the Caretaker Government led by Justice Shahabuddin Ahmed was illegal


George Miller (California politician) - However, in 1999, during a flurry of pardons signed as he left office, President Bill Clinton pardoned Freddie Meeks, one of the 50 mutineers.


Christopher Gill - He served as Chairman of The Freedom Association from 2001, before becoming its President in 2007


Paul Otellini - In 2002, he was elected to the board of directors and became President and Chief Operating Officer at the company


Bill McCollum - In addition to his duties as the state's chief legal officer, he serves as President and Chairman of the Healthy Florida Foundation, chartered in 2002 to find consensus on long-term solutions to the nation's health care system


Martin Heinrich - Heinrich served on the Albuquerque, New Mexico City Council from 2003 to 2007, which included one term as City Council President in 2006.


Pedro Bordaberry - Guillermo Stirling, the former Colorado Party candidate for the Presidency in 2004, was in 2008 seen as close to Bordaberry, rather than to former Vice President of Uruguay Luis Antonio Hierro López, thought to be a likely candidate, but trailing considerably in polls thought to be broadly accurate


Poul Nyrup Rasmussen - In 2004 Rasmussen defeated Giuliano Amato to be elected President of the PES, succeeding Robin Cook in the post


Bernard Kerik - In December 2004, President George W. Bush nominated Kerik as United States Secretary of Homeland Security


Bernard Kerik - On December 3, 2004, Kerik was nominated by President Bush to succeed Tom Ridge as United States Secretary of Homeland Security


Pedro Bordaberry - Bordaberry served as the Tourism minister in the government of President Jorge Batlle until 2005


Nambaryn Enkhbayar - He became the President of Mongolia on June 24, 2005 after winning the May 2005 elections


Mary Peters (Secretary of Transportation) - In 2006, President Bush appointed Peters as the Co-Vice Chairwoman of the National Surface Transportation Policy and Revenue Study Commission


Rosa DeLauro - In May 2006, she was linked in press reports to U.S. Senator Christopher Dodd's potential bid for President in 2008.


John Patrick Foley - From 2007 until 2011, he was Grand Master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, an order of knighthood under papal protection, having previously served as President of the Pontifical Council for Social Communications from 1984 to 2007


Hussain Muhammad Ershad - Moeen committed to make him President before 11 January 2007


Hussain Muhammad Ershad - H M Ershad called President Iajuddin Ahmed three times along with Kazi Zafar Ahmed twice on 23 December not to extend two days time for filing nominations for scheduled 22 January 2007 elections when Awami League and its allies decided to join that elections after long parley of Mukhlesur Rahman Chowdhury with Sheikh Hasina


Michael Mukasey - He was nominated by the President on September 17, 2007


Ali Hassan al-Majid - He was supposed to be executed 16 October 2007, but the execution was delayed when Iraqi President Jalal Talabani expressed opposition to the sentences and refused to sign the execution orders


Dick Morris - In a November 13, 2007 press conference in Nairobi , Kenya, Morris announced that he would be offering his consultancy services pro bono for the campaign to elect Raila Odinga as President of Kenya in the 2007 Presidential election running on the Orange Democratic Movement ticket


Rosa DeLauro - Senator Christopher Dodd's potential bid for President in 2008.


Michael Mukasey - Speaking in San Francisco to the California Commonwealth Club on March 27, 2008, Mukasey defended President Bush's program of wiretapping calls between Americans and suspected foreign terrorists without court authorization, and implied that the government might have been able to prevent the attacks of September 11, 2001 if it had been able to wiretap a specific call to the U.S. from Afghanistan


Brian Burke (ice hockey) - On November 29, 2008, Burke was introduced as the President and General Manager of the Toronto Maple Leafs, replacing interim General Manager Cliff Fletcher


Brian Burke (ice hockey) - Soon thereafter, on December 4, 2008, Burke offered Dave Nonis the position of Senior Vice-President and Director of Hockey Operations for the Maple Leafs; Nonis accepted, marking the third time he has held this post under Burke; he had done so previously in Anaheim and Vancouver


John Dramani Mahama - He was the Vice President of Ghana from 2009 to 2012, and he took office as President on 24 July 2012 following the death of his predecessor, President John Atta Mills


Hussain Muhammad Ershad - The former Chief of Army Staff & President, Hussain Muhammad Ershad is currently a Member of Parliament & Chairman of Jatiya Party - the second largest party in Bangladesh's Coalition Government known as Grand Alliance as of January 2009


John Dramani Mahama - On 7 January 2009, Mahama became the Vice-President of Ghana


Pedro Bordaberry - As Bordaberry's campaign gathered pace, in June 2009 he was the subject of public criticism on the part of Colorado Party colleague Luis Antonio Hierro López, running for President, on account of his surname


Fela Kuti - In October 2009, Knitting Factory Records began the process of re-releasing the 45 titles that Universal Music controls, starting with yet another re-release of the compilation "The Best of the Black President" in the USA. The rest is expected to be released in 2010


Dick Morris - In a March 2011 column for "The Hill", Morris predicted that Obama would not win a second term as President


John Dramani Mahama - In line with Ghana's constitution, Mahama became President of Ghana on 24 July 2012 on the death of his predecessor, John Atta Mills


John Dramani Mahama - The National Democratic Congress held a Special National Delegates Congress, on 30 August 2012 and endorsed President John Dramani Mahama, as the 2012 Presidential Candidate


Brian Burke (ice hockey) - On January 9, 2013, Burke was fired by the Leafs as President and General Manager, and given a role as Senior Advisor to MLSE's President and C.O.O. Tom Anselmi, and the MLSE Board of Directors


Nambaryn Enkhbayar - On 1 August 2013, President of Mongolia Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj issued a decree to pardon Enkhbayar thus releasing him from the rest of his jail term effective on the decree date


Brian Burke (ice hockey) - On September 5, 2013, Burke was named President of Hockey Operators for the Calgary Flames


Pedro Bordaberry - Bordaberry plans to run for President in the 2014 elections


Despite this, however, Presidents of Tatarstan would reject this change and, as of 2017, retain their title in defiance of Russian law add something