Knowledge Identifier: $President
Category: Business (20)
Launched in 1409.
Countries: United States (40%), (9%), United Kingdom (5%)
Linked to: University of Cambridge, Harvard University, Magdalene College, Cambridge, U.S. Electoral College
In Pierre Choderlos de Laclos's novel "Les Liaisons Dangereuses" of 1782, the character identified as "Madame la Présidente de Tourvel" is the wife of a magistrate in a "parlement"
The modern usage of the term 'president' to designate a single person who is the head of state of a republic can be traced directly to the United States Constitution of 1787, which created the office of President of the United States
The second well-known incident of a leader extending his term indefinitely was Roman dictator Julius Caesar, who made himself "Perpetual Dictator" in 45 BC. His actions would later be mimicked by the French leader Napoleon Bonaparte who was appointed "First Consul for life" in 1802
Haiti became the first presidential republic in Latin America when Henri Christophe assumed the title in 1807
Almost all of the American nations that became independent from Spain in the early 1810s and 1820s chose a US-style president as their chief executive
Bruno Carranza - In 1847 he married Gerónima Montealegre, sister of President José María Montealegre Fernández
The first European president was the President of the French Second Republic of 1848
Henry Lawrence Burnett - On June 29, 1865, the eight were found guilty for their involvement in the conspiracy to kill the President
Bruno Carranza - Bruno Carranza came to power in the coup d'état of 27 April 1870 that deposed President Jesús Jiménez
Nicola Canali - He served as President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State from 1939 and as Major Penitentiary from 1941 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1935
David Packard - Upon entering office in 1969, President Richard M. Nixon appointed Packard U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense under Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird
Walter Adams (economist) - Adams accepted, and was sworn in as Michigan State's 13th President on April 1, 1969
Mushtaq Ahmad Yusufi - In 1974 he became President of United Bank Ltd. In 1977 became Chairman of the Pakistan Banking Council
Hussain Muhammad Ershad - Ershad remained loyal to Ziaur Rahman, Major General Zia had been appointed Army Chief by President of Bangladesh Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad after the Assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the country's founding leader, on 15 August 1975 as the country headed towards communism banning multiparty rule by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
Leon Charney - Charney refers to his efforts as using "back door channels", and he advised President Carter from 1976-1980
David Packard - Packard served as President of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences from 1976 to 1981
Ali Hassan al-Majid - A first cousin of former President of Iraq Saddam Hussein, he became notorious in the 1980s and 1990s for his role in the Iraqi government's campaigns against internal opposition forces, namely the ethnic Kurdish rebels of the north, and the Shia religious dissidents of the south
John B. T. Campbell III - In 1985, Campbell became President and CEO of Campbell Automotive Group.
Hussain Muhammad Ershad - Although there were two general elections, they were widely criticized by the opposition parties - BNP boycotted the election in 1986 but that election gained legitimacy as the other major opposition party Awami League founded by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and Jamaat-e-Islami which was resurrected by President Ziaur Rahman participated the election
Walter Wallmann - As Minister-President he served as President of the Bundesrat in from May to October 1987
John B. T. Campbell III - In 1990, he became President and CEO of Saturn of Orange County.
Hussain Muhammad Ershad - It is widely speculated that Monjur was used as a scapegoat and Ershad himself was behind the liquidation of President Zia; although never proven in any court of law, even when Zia's widow was in power in 1991-1996 and again in 2001-2006
Dick Morris - He worked as a Republican strategist before joining the Clinton administration, where he helped Clinton recover from the 1994 midterm elections by advising the President to adopt more Republican policies
Hironobu Sakaguchi - In 1995, he became President at Square USA, Inc. His final role as game producer was for "Final Fantasy IX"
Hussain Muhammad Ershad - In 1996 the newly elected Government of Awami League selected Shahabuddin as the President and Lt General Nuruddin Khan became the Energy Minister, only to be dismissed for gross mismanagement
Hussain Muhammad Ershad - He was released from jail on 9 January 1997 by the government but only after unconditional support was provided to Awami League by the former President
Pedro Bordaberry - Guillermo Stirling, the former Colorado Party candidate for the Presidency in 2004, was in 2008 seen as close to Bordaberry, rather than to former Vice President of Uruguay Luis Antonio Hierro López, thought to be a likely candidate, but trailing considerably in polls thought to be broadly accurate
Mary Peters (Secretary of Transportation) - In 2006, President Bush appointed Peters as the Co-Vice Chairwoman of the National Surface Transportation Policy and Revenue Study Commission
Rosa DeLauro - In May 2006, she was linked in press reports to U.S. Senator Christopher Dodd's potential bid for President in 2008.
Hussain Muhammad Ershad - H M Ershad called President Iajuddin Ahmed three times along with Kazi Zafar Ahmed twice on 23 December not to extend two days time for filing nominations for scheduled 22 January 2007 elections when Awami League and its allies decided to join that elections after long parley of Mukhlesur Rahman Chowdhury with Sheikh Hasina
Rosa DeLauro - Senator Christopher Dodd's potential bid for President in 2008.
Michael Mukasey - Speaking in San Francisco to the California Commonwealth Club on March 27, 2008, Mukasey defended President Bush's program of wiretapping calls between Americans and suspected foreign terrorists without court authorization, and implied that the government might have been able to prevent the attacks of September 11, 2001 if it had been able to wiretap a specific call to the U.S. from Afghanistan
Brian Burke (ice hockey) - Soon thereafter, on December 4, 2008, Burke offered Dave Nonis the position of Senior Vice-President and Director of Hockey Operations for the Maple Leafs; Nonis accepted, marking the third time he has held this post under Burke; he had done so previously in Anaheim and Vancouver
Dick Morris - In a March 2011 column for "The Hill", Morris predicted that Obama would not win a second term as President
Pedro Bordaberry - Bordaberry plans to run for President in the 2014 elections