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Anjou
(Animal)
Nostradamus
(Literature)
Napoleon
(Politics)
Peter Mayle
(Literature)
 

See also

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Provence

Knowledge Identifier: $Provence

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Provence

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Category: Environment (300)

Launched in -5000.

Countries: France (55%), United Kingdom (9%), (9%)

Main connections: Anjou, Hayreddin Barbarossa, Nostradamus

 

Timeline


 

This timeline needs to be reviewed and corrected, as it has been automatically generated from multiple web sources.
Please help improve it by adding dated informations, images and videos about Provence.


922

Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor - King Rudolf II of Burgundy had previously married Bertha of Swabia, the daughter of one of Henry's chief advisors, in 0922 Burgundy was originally a part of Middle Francia, the central portion of Charlemagne's empire prior to its division under the Treaty of Verdun in 0843 On July 11, 0937 Rudolf II died and Hugh of Provence, the King of Italy and Rudolf II's chief domestic opponent, claimed the Burgundian throne


926

Ratherius - When Abbot Hilduin of Lobbes went in 0926 to Italy, where his cousin, Hugo of Provence, was king, he took Ratherius with him as companion


939

Ratherius - In 0939 he escaped from Como into Provence, where he was tutor in a noble family until he returned to the Abbey of Lobbes in 0944


1000

The average summer temperature is 22 to 23 °C. at an altitude of 400 metres, and 18 to 19 °C. at the altitude of 1000 metres; and the winter average temperature is 4 to 5 °C. at 400 metres and 0 C. at 1000 metres add something


1032

A war between Rudolph III of Burgundy and his rival, the German Emperor Conrad the Salic in 1032 led to Provence becoming a fiefdom of the Holy Roman Empire, which it remained until 1246 add something


1112

He ruled Provence from 1112 until 1131, and his descendants, the "'Catalan Dynasty"' ruled Provence until 1246 add something

 

In 1112, the last descendant of Boson, Douce I, Countess of Provence, married the Catalan Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona, who as a result became Raymond Berenguer I, Count of Provence add something

 

Alfonso Jordan - In his tenth year, upon Bertrand's death , he succeeded to the county of Toulouse and marquisate of Provence, but Toulouse was taken from him by William IX, count of Poitiers, in 1114, who claimed it by right of his wife Philippa of Toulouse, daughter of William IV of Toulouse


1125

In 1125, Provence was divided; the part of Provence north and west of the Durance river went to the Count of Toulouse, while the lands between the Durance and the Mediterranean, and from the Rhône river to the Alps, belonged to the Counts of Provence add something

 

Alfonso Jordan - He next fought for the sovereignty of Provence against Raymond Berenger III, and not till September 1125 did the war end in an amicable agreement


1148

Sénanque Abbey was the first, established in the Luberon 1148 and 1178 add something


1160

Le Thoronet Abbey was founded in a remote valley near Draguignan in 1160 add something


1175

Silvacane Abbey, on the Durance river at La Roque-d'Anthéron, was founded in 1175 add something


1228

Sanchia of Provence - Sanchia of Provence was born in 1228


1246

Then, in 1246, Charles,_Count_of_Anjou (Charles_I_of_Naples), the youngest son of Louis VIII, married the heiress of Provence, Beatrice add something

 

Anjou - Shortly afterwards it was separated from it again, when in August 1246 King Louis IX gave it as an appanage to his brother Charles, Count of Provence, soon to become king of Naples and Sicily


1261

Sanchia of Provence - Sanchia of Provence died in 1261


1271

House of Grimaldi - The Guelfs however were banned from the City in 1271, and found refuge in their castles in Liguria and Provence


1309

From 1309 until 1377, seven Popes reigned in Avignon before the Schism between the Roman and Avignon churches, which led to the creation of rival popes in both places add something

 

In 1309, Pope Clement V, who was originally from Bordeaux, moved the Roman Catholic Papacy to Avignon add something


1334

Between 1334 and 1363 the old and new Papal Palaces of Avignon were built by Popes Benedict XII and Clement VI respectively; together the Palais des Papes was the largest gothic palace in Europe add something


1350

The 14th-century wooden ceiling of the cloister of Fréjus Cathedral has a remarkable series of paintings of biblical scenes, fantastic animals, and scenes from daily life, painted between 1350 and 1360 add something


1382

She was murdered in 1382 by her cousin and heir, Charles of Durazzo, who started a new war, leading to the separation of Nice, Puget-Théniers and Barcelonnette from Provence in 1388, and their attachment to the County of Savoy add something


1384

Anjou - Louis I, who became in time count of Provence and titular king of Naples, died in 1384, and was succeeded by his son Louis II, who devoted most of his energies to his Neapolitan ambitions, and left the administration of Anjou almost entirely in the hands of his wife, Yolande of Aragon


1388

From 1388 up to 1526, the area acquired by the Savoy was known as "Terres Neuves de Provence"; after 1526 it officially took on the name "County of Nice" add something


1423

After that three Antipopes reigned in Avignon until 1423, when the Papacy finally returned to Rome add something

 

In 1423 the army of Alphonse of Aragon captured Marseille, and in 1443 they captured Naples, and forced its ruler, King René I of Naples, to flee add something


1426

Antoine de la Sale - In 1426 La Sale probably returned with Louis III of Anjou, who was "comte de Provence", to Provence, where he was acting as "viguier" of Arles in 1429


1470

History and legend has given René the title "Good King René of Provence", though he only lived in Provence in the last ten years of his life, from 1470 to 1480, and his political policies of territorial expansion were costly and unsuccessful add something

 

Anjou - But after the sudden death of his son John in December 1470, René, for reasons which are not altogether clear, decided to move his residence to Provence and leave Anjou for good


1480

When René died in 1480, his title passed to his nephew Charles du Maine add something


1481

It was ruled by the Counts of Provence from their capital in Aix-en-Provence until 1481, when it became a province of the Kings of France add something

 

One year later, in 1481, when Charles died, the title passed to Louis XI of France add something


1485

Nicholas Vaux, 1st Baron Vaux of Harrowden - The son of Lancastrian loyalists, Sir William Vaux of Harrowden and Katherine Penison; daughter of Gregory Penison or Peniston of Coursello, Provence, France, who grew up during the years of Yorkist rule, Vaux served under Henry VII when he recovered the throne in 1485


1486

Provence was legally incorporated into the French royal domain in 1486 add something


1493

Between 1493 and 1501, many Jews were expelled from their homes and sought sanctuary in the region of Avignon, which was still under the direct rule of the Pope add something


1519

Hayreddin Barbarossa - Still in 1519, he raided Provence, Toulon and the Îles d'Hyères in southern France


1530

Hayreddin Barbarossa - In July 1530, he appeared along the coasts of the Provence and Liguria, capturing two Genoese ships


1544

Most of Provence remained strongly Catholic, with only one enclave of Protestants, the principality of Orange, Vaucluse, an enclave ruled by Prince William of the House of Orange-Nassau of the Netherlands, which was created in 1544 and was not incorporated into France until 1673 add something

 

Hayreddin Barbarossa - After leaving Provence from the port of Île Sainte-Marguerite in May 1544, Barbarossa assaulted San Remo for the third time, and when he appeared before Vado Ligure, the Republic of Genoa sent him a substantial sum to save other Genoese cities from further attacks


1545

In 1545, the Parliament of Aix ordered the destruction of the villages of Lourmarin, Mérindol, Cabriéres in the Luberon, because their inhabitants were Vaudois, of Italian Piedmontese origin, and were not considered sufficiently orthodox Catholics add something

 

Nostradamus - On his return in 1545, he assisted the prominent physician Louis Serre in his fight against a major plague outbreak in Marseille , and tackled further outbreaks of disease on his own in Salon-de-Provence and in the regional capital, Aix-en-Provence


1554

Nostradamus - ", Nuremberg, 1554; "Les Propheties", Lyon , 1555, 1557, 1568; "Traite des fardemens et des confitures", 1555, 1556, 1557; "Paraphrase de C. Galen sus l'exhortation de Menodote", 1557; "Lettre de Maistre Michel Nostradamus, de Salon de Craux en Provence, A la Royne mere du Roy", 1566


1556

Nostradamus - Between 1556 and 1567 he and his wife acquired a one-thirteenth share in a huge canal project organized by Adam de Craponne to irrigate largely waterless Salon-de-Provence and the nearby Désert de la Crau from the river Durance


1581

Francois de Malherbe - He served this prince as secretary in Provence, and married there in 1581


1630

Couscous - But it made an earlier appearance in Provence, where the traveler Jean-Jacques Bouchard wrote of eating it in Toulon in 1630


1669

Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de Sevigne - On 29 January 1669, her daughter Françoise married François Adhémar de Monteil, comte de Grignan, a nobleman from Provence, who had been married twice before


1678

Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de Sevigne - She returned to Provence in October 1678


1705

Julie d'Aubigny - After she retired from the opera in 1705, she entered a convent in Provence, where she died in 1707


1713

The lower Alps were re-attached to France after the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, but Nice did not return to France until 1860, during the reign of Napoleon III add something


1720

At the beginning of the 18th century Provence suffered from the economic malaise of the end of the reign of Louis XIV. The plague struck the region between 1720 and 1722, beginning in Marseille, killing some 40,000 people add something


1734

Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de Sevigne - Working with the editor Denis-Marius Perrin of Aix-en-Provence, she published 614 letters in 1734-1737, 772 letters in 1754


1753

It rises as the effluent of the Rhône Glacier in Valais, Switzerland, in the Saint-Gotthard massif, at an altitude of 1753 m add something


1755

Jean Baptiste Antoine Auget de Montyon - His father was a "maître des comptes"; he was educated in law, and became a lawyer at the Châtelet in 1755, "maître des requêtes" to the Conseil d'État in 1760, and intendant successively of Auvergne, Provence and La Rochelle


1790

On 30 April 1790, Fort Saint-Nicolas in Marseille was besieged, and many of the soldiers inside were massacred add something


1791

Pierre-Antoine Antonelle - Beginning in June 1791, Antonelle was forced to flee Arles for Aix-en-Provence, when public opinion turned against the revolution

 

On 17 October 1791 a massacre of royalists and religious figures took place in the ice storage rooms of the prison of the Palace of the Popes in Avignon add something


1792

Though the song was originally written by a citizen of Strasbourg, Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle in 1792, and it was originally a war song for the revolutionary Army of the Rhine, it became famous when it sung on the streets of Paris by the volunteers from Marseille, who had heard it when it was sung in Marseille by a young volunteer from Montpellier named François Mireur add something


1793

Antoine Christophe Saliceti - As deputy to the National Convention, Saliceti became a "Montagnard" and on 15 January 1793 voted for the death of King Louis XVI, and was sent to Corsica on mission to oversee Pasquale Paoli and enforce the !Reign_of_Terror; however, he was compelled to withdraw to Provence, where he took part in repressing the revolts at Marseille and Toulon

 

When the radical Montagnards seized power from the Girondins in May 1793, a real counter-revolution broke out in Avignon, Marseille and Toulon add something

 

A Revolutionary Army laid siege to the British positions for four months , and finally, thanks to the enterprise of the young commander of artillery, Napoleon Bonaparte, defeated the British and drove them out in December 1793 add something


1794

The fall of the Montagnards in July 1794 was followed by a new White Terror aimed at the revolutionaries add something


1795

Calm was only restored by the rise of Napoleon to power in 1795 add something


1815

When he escaped from Elba on 1 March 1815, and landed at Golfe-Juan, he detoured to avoid the cities of Provence, which were hostile to him, and therefore directed his small force directly to the northeast of it add something


1832

Emmanuel Louis Marie Guignard, vicomte de Saint-Priest - He joined the circle of former King Charles X's widowed daughter-in-law, Caroline Ferdinande Louise, duchesse de Berry, at Naples , and arranged her escapade in Provence in 1832


1848

The title Côtes de Provence was already in use in 1848, but production was nearly destroyed by phylloxera later in that century, and took decades to recover add something


1859

He went to war with Austria in 1859 and won a victory at Solferino, which resulted in Austria ceding Lombardy to France add something

 

Paul Cezanne - They differ sharply from his earlier watercolours and sketches at the École Speciale de dessin at Aix-en-Provence in 1859, and their violence of expression is in contrast to his subsequent works.


1860

Before Nice was returned to France in 1860, the Var marked the eastern border of France along the Mediterranean add something

 

France immediately ceded Lombardy to Piedmont, and, in return, Napoleon received Savoy and Nice in 1860, and Roquebrune-Cap-Martin and Menton in 1861 add something


1869

Provence enjoyed prosperity in the 19th century; the ports of Marseille and Toulon connected Provence with the expanding French Empire in North Africa and the Orient, especially after the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 add something


1871

The Commune was crushed by the army and Cremieux was executed on 30 November 1871 add something


1879

It became the most popular song of the Revolution, and in 1879 became the national anthem of France add something


1885

Though Provence was generally conservative, it often elected reformist leaders; Prime Minister Léon Gambetta was the son of a Marseille grocer, and future prime minister Georges Clemenceau was elected deputy from the Var in 1885 add something


1888

He lived in Arles from February 1888 to May 1889, and in Saint-Remy from May 1889 until May 1890 add something


1891

Aioli - Aïoli is so strongly associated with Provence that when the poet Frédéric Mistral started a regionalist, Provençal-language, newspaper in 1891, he called it "L'Aiòli"


1895

Onze autres projections en France et en Belgique auront lieu avec un programme de films plus étoffé durant l'année 1895, avant la première commerciale du 28 décembre, remportant à chaque fois le même succès add something

 

Three other of the earliest Lumiere films, "Partie de cartes", "l'Arroseur arrosé" , and "Repas de bébé", were filmed in La Ciotat in 1895, at the Villa du Clos des Plages, the summer residence of the Lumière Brothers add something

 

It was shown at the Eden Theater in September 1895, making that theatre one of the first motion picture theatres, and the only of the first theatres still showing movies in 2009 add something

 

It was shown to an audience in Paris on 28 December 1895, causing a sensation add something


1904

It was at his villa that his friend, Henri Matisse, painted his famous "Luxe, Calme et Volupté" in 1904 add something

 

Mistral achieved literary success with his novel "Miréio" ; he was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1904 add something


1907

The modern version of the game was created in 1907 at the town of La Ciotat by a former champion of "jeu provençal " named Jules Hugues, who was unable to play because of his rheumatism add something


1910

' The first tournament was played in La Ciotat in 1910 add something


1915

When absinthe was banned in France in 1915, the major absinthe producers reformulated their drink without the banned wormwood and with more aniseed flavour, coming from star anise, sugar and a lower alcohol content, creating pastis add something


1917

In 1917 he settled in Nice, first at the Hotel Beau Rivage, the Hotel de la Mediterranée, la Villa des Allies in Cimiez add something


1919

He continued to paint there until his death in 1919 add something

 

There were widespread strikes in Marseille in 1919, and riots in Toulon in 1935 add something


1920

It was particularly popular among British, American and Russian writers in the 1920s and 1930s add something

 

Edith Wharton - After the war she divided her time between Paris and Hyères, Provence, where she finished "The Age of Innocence" in 1920


1921

In 1921 he lived in an apartment at 1 place Felix Faure in Nice, next to the flower market and overlooking the sea, where he lived until 1938 add something


1927

The first steel boules were introduced in 1927 add something

 

Edith Wharton - In 1927 she purchased a villa, Castel Sainte-Claire, on the site of a 17th-century convent, in the hills above Hyères in Provence, where she lived during the winters and springs


1931

Cyril Connolly - Some time in 1931 they left Sanary and toured Provence, $Normandy, Brittany, Spain, Morocco and Majorca, before returning to Chagford in Dorset


1937

Henri Mulet - In 1937 Mulet burnt his manuscripts and left Paris for Draguignan in Provence


1940

Avignon Festival - In the 1940s, Provence underwent a cultural renewal, with the founding of the Avignon Festival of theatre , the reopening of the Cannes Film Festival , and many other major events add something

 

After the defeat of France by Germany in June 1940, France was divided into an occupied zone and unoccupied zone, with Provence in the unoccupied zone add something


1941

Collaboration and passive resistance gradually gave way to more active resistance, particularly after Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941 and the Communist Party became active in the resistance add something


1942

Jean Moulin, the deputy of Charles de Gaulle, the leader of the Free France resistance movement, was parachuted into Eygalières, in the Bouches-du-Rhône on 2 January 1942 to unite the diverse resistance movements in all of France against the Germans add something

 

In November 1942, following Allied landings in North Africa , the Germans occupied all of Provence and headed for Toulon add something


1943

Nonetheless, the resistance grew stronger; the leader of the pro-German militia, the Milice, in Marseille was assassinated in April 1943 add something


1944

Free France - Combined with the landings in Provence of operation "Dragoon" on 14 August 1944, the threat of being caught in a pincer movement lead to a very rapid German retreat, and by September 1944 most of France had been liberated


1945

The name Coteaux Varois was first used in 1945, and became an AOC in 1993. the name was changed to Couteaux Varois en Provence in 2005 add something


1946

He was the first filmmaker to become a member of the Académie française in 1946 add something

 

Production was nearly destroyed by the phylloxera and by the two wars, and only in 1946 was the region again producing fully add something


1949

Dorothea Tanning - In 1949, Tanning and Ernst moved to France, where they divided their time between Paris , Touraine and later Provence


1950

Dora Maar - Although she had other male friends in her life, such as the gay writer James Lord, a close friend who lived with her in the house in Provence in the 1950s, no one replaced Picasso for her

 

Willy Ronis - Ronis began teaching in the 1950s, and taught at the School of Fine Arts in Avignon , Aix-en-Provence and Saint Charles, Marseilles


1953

Philippe Jaccottet - In 1953, moved to the town of Grignan in Provence

 

Patrick Heron - Then up to 1953 he spent time in Europe visiting Paris , Provence and Italy


1954

Blaise Diagne - His grandson and like-named, born in Paris in 1954 by his son Adolphe , became mayor of the French Lourmarin village in the Provence's Lubéron moutains in 2001 and was reelected in 2008


1955

In 1955, he was chef on the set of the film "And God Created Woman" when actress Brigitte Bardot suggested he name the cake La Tropézienne add something


1956

In 1956 a mistral wind from the northwest reached the speed of 180 kilometres an hour at Nice airport add something


1960

Rene Char - In the 1960s, he joined the battle against the stationing of atomic weapons in Provence

 

Willy Ronis - Ronis lived in Provence from the 1960s to the 1980s


1962

In 1962, Provence absorbed a large number of French citizens who left Algeria after its independence add something


1963

Julia Child - In 1963, the Childs built a home near the Provence town of Plascassier in the hills above Cannes on property belonging to co-author Simone Beck and her husband, Jean Fischbacher


1965

Ingeborg de Beausacq - In 1965, she bought and renovated an old farmhouse in Provence, France, "la Gaille"


1967

Pierre Villette - His bad health forced him to move from mountainous Besançon to a warmer climate, and he became director of the Academy at Aix en Provence in 1967


1970

As recently as the 1970s the wines of Provence had the reputation of being rather ordinary: In 1971 wine critic Hugh Johnson wrote: "The whites are dry and can lack the acidity to be refreshing; the reds are straightforward, strong and a trifle dull; it is usually the rosés, often orange-tinted, which have most appeal add something

 

With the building of new highways, particularly the Paris Marseille autoroute which opened in 1970, Provence became destination for mass tourism from all over Europe add something

 

Herbes de Provence - Formerly simply a descriptive term referring to herbs typical of Provence, in the 1970s, commercial blends started to be sold under this name


1976

L'Occitane en Provence - The company was founded in 1976 by Olivier Baussan with the purpose to create a company that celebrates and preserves the traditions of his native Provence


1978

Jacques Loussier - In 1978, the trio broke up, and Loussier set up his own recording studio in Provence, where he worked on compositions for acoustic and electric instruments


1980

Jean Paul Brusset - Brusset's last special exhibition was "La Provence du Brusset", organized by the mayor of Baux-de-Provence on the occasion of the 150th anniversary of the birth of Frédéric Mistral in 1980


1982

The administrative region of Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur was created in 1982 add something


1985

In 1985, a diver named Henri Cosquer discovered the mouth of a submarine cave 37 metres below the surface of the Calanque de Morgiou near Marseille add something

 

In January 1985 the coast between Cannes and Menton received 30 to 40 centimetres of snow add something


1987

Pierre Villette - He held this position until he retired in 1987, and he continued to live in Provence until his death in 1998

 

Nicolas Tikhomiroff - He retired in 1987 and lives in Provence, France


1988

Alain Ducasse - In 1988, Ducasse expanded beyond the restaurant industry and opened La Bastide de Moustiers, a twelve-bedroom country inn in Provence ://www


1989

Peter Mayle - This resulted in his 1989 book "A Year in Provence" which became an international bestseller, chronicling his first year as a British expatriate in Ménerbes, a village in the southern "département" Vaucluse


1990

Hugh Faulkner - In 1990 he bought the vineyard Domaine de Grand Cros, Provence, France which he and his family operate

 

Jon Anderson - In 1990 he returned in France to record demos between "Le Domaine de Miraval" still in Provence at Le Val and Paris, this time with ABWH for the perspective of an hypothetical second album

 

L'Occitane en Provence - In the late 1990s the company changed its name to 'L'Occitane en Provence', to strengthen the connection with the company's roots and because the term 'Provence' had more meaning to an international audience


1993

Peter Mayle - "A Year in Provence" was subsequently produced as a TV series starring John Thaw and screened in 1993


1995

Pierre Schaeffer - He suffered from Alzheimer's disease later in his life, and died from the condition in Aix-en-Provence in 1995


1997

This AOC classification dates to 1997, though these wines were recognised in the 17th and 18th century, notably by Madame de Sévigné, who reported the habits and preferred wines of the Court of Louis XIV add something

 

Renault Ventoux engine - The "'Ventoux engine"', known as the "'Billancourt engine"', was an automotive engine designed by Renault for the Renault 4CV, used subsequently until 1997, and named after Mont Ventoux in Provence


2000

Published by the Réunion des musées nationaux, 2000 add something

 

Raymond Normand - Raymond Normand died on March 12, 2000, in Aix-en-Provence


2001

Jaz Coleman - Royal Opera House - In 2001 Coleman was commissioned by the Royal Opera House in Covent Garden London for his first large scale opera entitled "The Marriage at Cana", which in essence is the Gnostic theme of Jesus Christ and Mary Magdalene and her subsequent exile to Provence


2003

Ingeborg de Beausacq - Ingeborg de Beausacq died on July 12, 2003 in St-Didier, near Pernes-les-Fontaines in Provence, France


2006

A Good Year - "'A Good Year"' is a 2006 British romantic comedy-drama film, set in London and Provence


2009

Maxime de la Falaise - Maxime de la Falaise died of natural causes, aged 86, at her home in Provence, on 30 April 2009


2010

Blaise Diagne - The younger Blaise became mayor of the French village of Lourmarin in the Lubéron mountains of Provence in 2001 and was reelected in 2008


2011

A recent genetic study in 2011 analysed 51 southern French individuals from Provence and 89 Anatolian Greek subjects whose paternal ancestry derives from Smyrna and Asia Minor Phokaia , the ancestral embarkation port to the 6th century BCE ancient Greek colonies of Massalia and Alalie add something

 

Hortense Diedhiou - Following that recommendation Diédhiou moved to Provence and in 2011 to Paris


2013

Arles - Arles played a major role in Marseille-Provence 2013, the year-long series of cultural events held in the region after it was designated the European Capital of Culture for 2013

 

L'Occitane en Provence - In 2013, the United Nations Development Programme has decided to recognise L'Occitane en Provence as an exemplary company, within the framework of its 2013 "Growing Inclusive Markets" initiative

 

Arles - It unveiled the new wing of the Musée Départemental Arles Antique as part of Marseille-Provence 2013


2018

Peter Mayle - He subsequently returned to France and at the time of his death in 2018 resided in Vaugines, situated in the Luberon, in Provence