Knowledge Identifier: $Scotland



Category:Island countriesadd

Category: Environment (330)

Launched in -5000.

Countries: United Kingdom (62%), United States (8%), (8%)

Main connections: England, Scottish independence referendum, 2014, Scotland national football team

Linked to: Royal Bank of Scotland, University of Glasgow, Scottish National Party, University of Edinburgh




This timeline needs to be reviewed and corrected, as it has been automatically generated from multiple web sources.
Please help improve it by adding dated informations, images and videos about Scotland.


Columba - In 0563 he travelled to Scotland with twelve companions, where according to legend he first landed on the Kintyre Peninsula, near Southend


Columba - In 0563 he was granted land on the island of Iona, off the west coast of Scotland, which became the centre of his evangelising mission to the Picts


Constantine II of Scotland - Later national myth made Kenneth MacAlpin the creator of the kingdom of Scotland, the founding of which was dated from 0843 the year in which he was said to have destroyed the Picts and inaugurated a new era


Columba - Columba's relics were finally removed in AD 0849 and divided between Scotland and Ireland


Constantine II of Scotland - Constantine II of Scotland died in 0952


Edward the Confessor - In the 1050s, Edward pursued an aggressive, and generally successful, policy in dealing with Scotland and Wales


Edward the Confessor - In 1054 Edward sent Siward to invade Scotland


David I of Scotland - David I of Scotland was born in 1080


David I of Scotland - David was born on a date unknown in 1084 in Scotland


David I of Scotland - From 1093 until 1103 David's presence cannot be accounted for in detail, but he appears to have been in Scotland for the remainder of the 1090s


David I of Scotland - The youngest son of Máel Coluim III and Margaret of Wessex, David spent his early years in Scotland, but was forced on the death of his parents, in 1093, into exile by his uncle and new King, Donald III of Scotland


David I of Scotland - According to Richard Oram, it was only in 1113, when Henry returned to England from Normandy, that David was at last in a position to claim his inheritance in southern "Scotland"


David I of Scotland - Despite the death of his sister on 1 May 1118, David still possessed the favour of King Henry when his brother Alexander died in 1124, leaving Scotland without a king


David I of Scotland - When David's brother Alexander I of Scotland died in 1124, David chose, with the backing of Henry I, to take the Kingdom of Scotland for himself


David I of Scotland - Thus, by the time Henry I died on 1 December 1135, David had more of Scotland under his control than ever before


David I of Scotland - While fighting King Stephen and attempting to dominate northern England in the years following 1136, David was continuing his drive for control of the far north of Scotland


David I of Scotland - David I of Scotland died in 1153


The territorial extent of Scotland is generally that established by the 1237 Treaty of York between Scotland and the Kingdom of England and the 1266 Treaty of Perth between Scotland and Norway add something


Following the death of King Alexander III in 1286 an image of Andrew was used on the seal of the Guardians of Scotland who assumed control of the kingdom during the subsequent interregnum add something


The death of Alexander III in March 1286, followed by that of his granddaughter Margaret, Maid of Norway, broke the centuries-old succession line of Scotland's kings and shattered the 200-year golden age that began with David I. Edward I of England was asked to arbitrate between claimants for the Scottish crown, and he organised a process known as the Great Cause to identify the most legitimate claimant add something


In 1294, Balliol and other Scottish lords refused Edward's demands to serve in his army against the French add something


The nature of the struggle changed significantly when Robert the Bruce, Earl of Carrick, killed his rival John Comyn on 10 February 1306 at Greyfriars Kirk in Dumfries add something


Andrew Harclay, 1st Earl of Carlisle - In 1309, he received a royal order to assist Robert de Clifford in the defence of the Marches against Scotland


Victory at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 proved the Scots had regained control of their kingdom add something


In 1315, Edward Bruce, brother of the King, was briefly appointed High King of Ireland during an ultimately unsuccessful Scottish invasion of Ireland aimed at strengthening Scotland's position in its wars against England add something


In 1320 the world's first documented declaration of independence, the Declaration of Arbroath, won the support of Pope John XXII, leading to the legal recognition of Scottish sovereignty by the English Crown add something


There are numerous other symbols and symbolic artefacts, both official and unofficial, including the thistle, the nation's floral emblem , the Declaration of Arbroath, incorporating a statement of political independence made on 6 April 1320, the textile pattern tartan that often signifies a particular Scottish clan and the royal Lion Rampant flag add something


Andrew Harclay, 1st Earl of Carlisle - Battle of Old Byland - As one of the main military leaders on the border to Scotland, Harclay became frustrated with Edward II's inactivity, particularly the humiliating English defeat at the Battle of Old Byland on 14 October 1322, which made it clear that the war could not be won


Use of a simplified symbol associated with Saint Andrew, the saltire, has its origins in the late 14th century; the Parliament of Scotland decreeing in 1385 that Scottish soldiers should wear a white Saint Andrew's Cross on the front and back of their tunics add something


In March 1421, a Franco-Scots force under John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Buchan, and Gilbert de Lafayette, defeated a larger English army at the Battle of Baugé add something


Variations of football have been played in Scotland for centuries, with the earliest reference dating back to 1424 add something


Henry VI of England - Henry, who had been safely hidden by Lancastrian allies in Scotland, Northumberland and Yorkshire was captured by King Edward in 1465 and subsequently held captive in the Tower of London


These institutions and the immigration of French and Anglo-French knights and churchmen facilitated cultural osmosis, whereby the culture and language of the low-lying and coastal parts of the kingdom's original territory in the east became, like the newly acquired south-east, English-speaking, while the rest of the country retained the Gaelic language, apart from the Northern Isles of Orkney and Shetland, which remained under Norse rule until 1468 add something


Important exceptions include the Isle of Man, which having been lost to $ England in the 14th century is now a crown dependency outside of the $United_Kingdom; the island groups Orkney and Shetland, which were acquired from Norway in 1472; and Berwick-upon-Tweed, lost to England in 1482 add something


In the 15th century, the Humanist emphasis on education cumulated with the passing of the Education Act 1496, which decreed that all sons of barons and freeholders of substance should attend grammar schools to learn "perfyct Latyne", resulting in an increase in literacy among a male and wealthy elite add something


In 1502, James IV of Scotland signed the Treaty of Perpetual Peace with Henry VII of England add something


To many golfers the Old Course in the Fife town of St Andrews, an ancient links course dating to before 1552, is considered a site of pilgrimage add something


Mary, Queen of Scots - Mary spent most of her childhood in France whilst Scotland was ruled by regents, and in 1558, she married Francis, Dauphin of France


Mary, Queen of Scots - On 4 April 1558, Mary signed a secret agreement bequeathing Scotland and her claim to England to the French crown if she died without issue


In the Reformation, the 1560 "First Book of Discipline" set out a plan for a school in every parish, but this proved financially impossible add something


In the same year, 1560, John Knox realised his goal of seeing Scotland become a Protestant nation and the Scottish parliament revoke papal authority in Scotland add something


Since the Scottish Reformation of 1560, the national church has been Protestant in classification and Reformed in theology add something


Mary, Queen of Scots - The Protestant Lords invited English troops into Scotland in an attempt to secure Protestantism, and a Huguenot rising in France, called the Tumult of Amboise, in March 1560 made it impossible for the French to send further support


Mary, Queen of Scots - $Treaty_of_Edinburgh - Under the terms of the Treaty of Edinburgh, signed by Mary's representatives on 6 July 1560, France and England undertook to withdraw troops from Scotland and France recognised Elizabeth's right to rule England


Mary, Queen of Scots - Mary returned to Scotland nine months after her husband's death, arriving in Leith on 19 August 1561


Mary, Queen of Scots - Mary returned to Scotland, arriving in Leith on 19 August 1561, and began her personal reign as queen regnant


Mary, Queen of Scots - She joined with Lord Moray in the destruction of Scotland's leading Catholic magnate, Lord Huntly, in 1562 after he led a rebellion in the Highlands against her


Mary, Queen of Scots, a Catholic and former queen of France, was forced to abdicate in 1567 add something


Anne of Denmark - Anne was crowned on 17 May 1590 in the Abbey Church at Holyrood, the first Protestant coronation in Scotland


In 1603, James VI, King of Scots inherited the thrones of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Ireland, and became King James I of England and Ireland, and left Edinburgh for London add something


Constantine II of Scotland - Constantine's reign of 43 years, exceeded in Scotland only by that of King William the Lion before the Union of the Crowns in 1603, is believed to have played a defining part in the gaelicisation of Pictland, in which his patronage of the Irish Céli Dé monastic reformers was a significant factor


Since 1606 the saltire has formed part of the design of the Union Flag add something


Prior to 1611, there were several regional law systems in Scotland, most notably Udal law in Orkney and Shetland, based on old Norse law add something


In 1616 an act in Privy council commanded every parish to establish a school add something


Lancelot Andrewes - In 1617 he accompanied James I to Scotland with a view to persuading the Scots that Episcopacy was preferable to Presbyterianism


George Gordon, 1st Earl of Aberdeen - He represented Aberdeenshire in the Parliament of Scotland of 1669 and in the following assemblies, during his first session strongly opposing the projected union of the two legislatures


George Gordon, 1st Earl of Aberdeen - In November 1678 he was made a Privy Counsellor for Scotland, and in 1680 was raised to the bench as Lord Haddo


The Battle of Altimarlach in 1680 was the last significant clan battle fought between highland clans add something


George Gordon, 1st Earl of Aberdeen - In 1682 he was made Lord Chancellor of Scotland, and was created, on 13 November, "'Earl of Aberdeen"', "'Viscount Formartine"', and "'Lord Haddo, Methlick, Tarves and Kellie"', in the Scottish peerage, being appointed Sheriff Principal of Aberdeenshire and Midlothian


Mary II of England - Upon the death of Charles II without legitimate issue in February 1685, the Duke of York became King as James II in England and Ireland and James VII in Scotland


Since 1689 it has had a Presbyterian system of church government and enjoys independence from the state add something


In common with countries such as France, Norway, Sweden and Finland, Scotland experienced famines during the 1690s add something


In 1698, the Company of Scotland attempted a project to secure a trading colony on the Isthmus of Panama add something


On 22 July 1706, the Treaty of Union was agreed between representatives of the Scots Parliament and the Parliament of England add something


The Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707 add something


The terms of the Treaty of Union with $ England in 1707 guaranteed the continued existence of a separate legal system in Scotland from that of England and Wales add something


" The continued existence of legal, educational, religious and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England add something


William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield - The 1707 Acts of Union had merged the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland into one national entity, but they retained separate legal systems


Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain add something


The following year twin Acts of Union were passed by both parliaments to create the united Kingdom of Great Britain with effect from 1 May 1707 with popular opposition and anti-union riots in Edinburgh, Glasgow, and elsewhere add something


John Barrington, 1st Viscount Barrington - On the recommendation of Lord Somers he was employed to induce the Presbyterians in Scotland to favour the union of the two kingdoms, and in 1708 he was rewarded for this service by being appointed to the office of commissioner of the customs


However, two major Jacobite risings launched in 1715 and 1745 failed to remove the House of Hanover from the British throne add something


Historian Neil Davidson notes "after 1746 there was an entirely new level of participation by Scots in political life, particularly outside Scotland add something


William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield - In 1747, he helped Lord Hardwicke write and pass an act to abolish the old hereditary positions in Scotland


Robert Adam - Robert Adam was leader of the first phase of the classical revival in England and Scotland from around 1760 until his death


In 1764, the standard 18-hole golf course was created at St Andrews when members modified the course from 22 to 18 holes add something


American War of Independence - Until the American War of Independence in 1776, Glasgow was the world's premier tobacco port, dominating world trade add something


Highlanders can thank James Graham, 3rd Duke of Montrose, for the repeal in 1782 of the Act of 1747 prohibiting the wearing of tartans add something


James Boswell - After Johnson's death in 1784, Boswell moved to London to try his luck at the English Bar, which proved even less successful than his career in Scotland


James Smithson - As a student, in 1784, he participated in a geological expedition with Barthélemy Faujas de Saint-Fond, William Thornton and Paolo Andreani of Scotland and the Hebrides


Various other systems derived from common Celtic or Brehon laws survived in the Highlands until the 1800s add something


In 1801, Great Britain itself entered into a political union with the Kingdom of Ireland to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland add something


The population of Scotland grew steadily in the 19th century, from 1,608,000 in the census of 1801 to 2,889,000 in 1851 and 4,472,000 in 1901 add something


His first prose work, "Waverley" in 1814, is often called the first historical novel add something


Catholic emancipation in 1829 and the influx of large numbers of Irish immigrants, particularly after the famine years of the late 1840s, mainly to the growing lowland centres like Glasgow, led to a transformation in the fortunes of Catholicism add something


From 1830 the state began to fund buildings with grants; from 1846 it was funding schools by direct sponsorship; and in 1872 Scotland moved to a system like that in England of state-sponsored largely free schools, run by local school boards add something


The Scottish Reform Act 1832 increased the number of Scottish MPs and widened the franchise to include more of the middle classes add something


After prolonged years of struggle in the Kirk, in 1834 the Evangelicals gained control of the General Assembly and passed the Veto Act, which allowed congregations to reject unwanted "intrusive" presentations to livings by patrons add something


"In 1834 the Royal and Ancient Golf Club declared St. Andrews 'the Alma Mater of golf'" add something


Industrialisation, urbanisation and the Disruption of 1843 all undermined the tradition of parish schools add something


The result was a schism from the church by some of the non-intrusionists led by Dr Thomas Chalmers, known as the Great Disruption of 1843 add something


Thomas Cook - In 1846, he took 350 people from Leicester on a tour of Scotland, however his lack of commercial ability led him to bankruptcy


In the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths add something


George Reid (Australian politician) - Reid was born in Johnstone, Renfrewshire, Scotland, son of a Church of Scotland minister, migrated to Victoria with his family in 1852


John Ruskin - Providing Millais with artistic patronage and encouragement, in the summer of 1853 the artist travelled to Scotland with Ruskin and Effie where, at Glenfinlas, he painted the closely observed landscape background of gneiss rock to which, as had always been intended, he later added Ruskin's portrait


Dorothea Dix - Stung by the defeat of her land bill, in 1854 and 1855 Dix traveled to England and Europe, where she reconnected with the Rathbones and conducted investigations of Scotland's madhouses that precipitated the Scottish Lunacy Commission


John Ross (Arctic explorer) - Upon returning, he settled in Scotland, and died in London in 1856


After 1860 the Clydeside shipyards specialised in steamships made of iron , which rapidly replaced the wooden sailing vessels of both the merchant fleets and the battle fleets of the world add something


Bonar Law - A few years after his mother's death in 1861, his father remarried, and in 1870 Law moved to Helensburgh, Scotland, to live with his mother's sister Janet and her family, who ran a successful merchant bank


Bjornstjerne Bjornson - Early in 1865 he undertook the management of the Christiania theatre, and brought out his popular comedy of "De Nygifte" and his romantic tragedy of Mary Stuart in Scotland


Murdo MacKenzie - Born in Scotland, where he attended parish school and graduated from the Tain Royal Academy in 1869


The UK's tallest tree is a grand fir planted beside Loch Fyne, Argyll in the 1870s, and the Fortingall Yew may be 5,000 years old and is probably the oldest living thing in Europe add something


Education remained a matter for the church rather than the state until the Education Act 1872 add something


In 1878, despite opposition, a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical hierarchy was restored to the country, and Catholicism became a significant denomination within Scotland add something


The number of Gaelic speakers in Scotland dropped from 250,000 in 1881 to 60,000 in 2008 add something


Eric Temple Bell - He was born in Peterhead, Scotland, but his father, a fish-factor, moved to San Jose, California in 1884, when he was fifteen months old


James G. Blaine - Blaine and his wife and daughters sailed for Europe in June 1887, visiting England, Ireland, Germany, France, Austria-Hungary, and finally Scotland, where they stayed at the summer home of Andrew Carnegie


In the later 19th century the growing importance of the working classes was marked by Keir Hardie's success in the Mid Lanarkshire by-election, 1888, leading to the foundation of the Scottish Labour Party, which was absorbed into the Independent Labour Party in 1895, with Hardie as its first leader add something


Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale - For example, on 30 September 1888, when Elizabeth Stride and Catherine Eddowes were murdered, Albert Victor was at Balmoral, the royal retreat in Scotland, in the presence of Queen Victoria, other family members, visiting German royalty and a large number of staff


Completed in 1890, this cantilever bridge has been described as "the one internationally recognised Scottish landmark" add something


From 1892 Scottish universities could admit and graduate women and the numbers of women at Scottish universities steadily increased until the early 20th century add something


In the late 19th century growing divisions between fundamentalist Calvinists and theological liberals resulted in a further split in the Free Church as the rigid Calvinists broke away to form the Free Presbyterian Church in 1893 add something


However, temperatures are generally lower than in the rest of the UK, with the coldest ever UK temperature of recorded at Braemar in the Grampian Mountains, on 11 February 1895 add something


William Halcrow - He joined the London-based firm of PW and CS Meik as a pupil in the early 1900s and one of his earliest projects was the Kinlochleven hydroelectric scheme in the Western Highlands of Scotland, where he worked as assistant resident engineer


Georg Cantor - In 1911, Cantor was one of the distinguished foreign scholars invited to attend the 500th anniversary of the founding of the University of St. Andrews in Scotland


The site remained undisturbed until 1913, when during a single weekend the site was plundered by a party with shovels who took away an unknown quantity of artefacts add something


Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener - He claims to have posed as the Russian Duke Boris Zakrevsky in 1916 and joined Kitchener in Scotland


William Wedgwood Benn, 1st Viscount Stansgate - In 1918 he was elected for Leith in Scotland, a seat he held until March 1927, when he resigned from the Liberal Party and from Parliament


However, the "Reds" operated within the Labour Party and had little influence in Parliament and the mood changed to passive despair by the late 1920s add something


Formerly a Liberal stronghold, the industrial districts switched to Labour by 1922, with a base among the Irish Catholic working-class districts add something


The shipbuilding industry expanded by a third and expected renewed prosperity, but instead, a serious depression hit the economy by 1922 and it did not fully recover until 1939 add something


Ronald Munro Ferguson, 1st Viscount Novar - In 1922, he was appointed Secretary for Scotland in Andrew Bonar Law's Conservative government, holding the post until 1924, the last year under the premiership of Stanley Baldwin


In 1924, another storm swept away part of one of the houses and it was determined the site should be made secure and more seriously investigated add something


John James Rickard Macleod - Macleod returned to Scotland in 1928 to become a physiology professor and later dean of the University of Aberdeen Medical Faculty


Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr. - After Prohibition ended in 1933, Kennedy consolidated an even larger fortune when he traveled to Scotland with FDR's son, James Roosevelt, to buy distribution rights for Scotch whisky


Lonnie Donegan - Born as "'Anthony James Donegan"' in Bridgeton, Glasgow, Scotland, the son of a professional violinist who had played with the Scottish National Orchestra, he moved with his family in 1933 to East Ham, Essex


Celia Johnson - Johnson was married to Peter Fleming from 1936 until Fleming's death in 1971, while on a shooting expedition near Glencoe in Argyll, Scotland


Perhaps Scotland's most unusual wartime episode occurred in 1941 when Rudolf Hess flew to Renfrewshire, possibly intending to broker a peace deal through the Duke of Hamilton add something


Perhaps the most significant air-raid in Scotland was the Clydebank Blitz of March 1941, which intended to destroy naval shipbuilding in the area add something


After 1945, Scotland's economic situation worsened due to overseas competition, inefficient industry, and industrial disputes add something


Unity Mitford - He was re-posted to the far north of Scotland where he died in a Spitfire crash in 1945


However, even prior to 1948, half of Scotland's landmass was already covered by state-funded health care, provided by the Highlands and Islands Medical Service add something


Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester - In May 1949, the Duke temporarily served in the office of Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland


Ben Hogan - In Scotland, Hogan was known as "The Wee Ice Man", or, in some versions, "Wee Ice Mon," a moniker earned during his famous British Open victory at Carnoustie in 1953


The British government stated in April 1953 that future British monarchs would be numbered according to either their English or their Scottish predecessors, whichever number would be higher add something


Carol Shields - In 1955, while on British Council sponsored study week in Scotland, she met a Canadian engineering student, Donald Hugh Shields


Scapa Flow was the major Fleet base for the Royal Navy until 1956 add something


Between 1960 and 1991, the Holy Loch was a base for the US fleet of Polaris ballistic missile submarines add something


Johnny Haynes - He became captain of the side in 1960, and a year later led his team to a famous 9-3 victory over Scotland at Wembley,


Arnold Palmer - In particular, Palmer travelled to Scotland in 1960, having already won both the Masters and U.S._Open (U.S._Open_(golf)), to try to emulate Hogan's feat of 1953, of winning all three in a single year


James Boswell - The comedy "Young Auchinleck" by Scottish playwright Robert McLellan depicts Boswell's various courtships and troubled relations with his father in the period after his return to Scotland in 1766, culminating in his eventual marriage to his cousin Margaret Montgomery in 1769 on the same day as his father's second marriage in a different part of the country


Chogyam Trungpa - In 1967 he and Akong Rinpoche were invited by the Johnstone House Trust in Scotland to take over a meditation center on the departure of the western Theravadan monk named Anandabodhi, which became Samye Ling, the first Tibetan Buddhist monastery in the West


De-industrialisation during the 1970s and 1980s saw a shift from a manufacturing focus towards a more service-oriented economy add something


During the time of British Rail, the West Coast Main Line from London Euston to Glasgow Central was electrified in the early 1970s, followed by the East Coast Main Line in the late 1980s add something


Edinburgh played host to the Commonwealth Games in 1970 and 1986, and most recently Glasgow in 2014 add something


Petroleum related industries associated with the extraction of North Sea oil have been important employers from the 1970s, especially in the north-east of Scotland add something


Neil Armstrong - In 1972, Armstrong was welcomed into the town of Langholm, Scotland, the traditional seat of Clan Armstrong; he was made the first freeman of the burgh, and happily declared the town his home


Prince Andrew, Duke of York - Prince Andrew was sent to Heatherdown Preparatory School before attending, in September 1973, Gordonstoun, in northern Scotland, as his father and elder brother had done before him


District courts were introduced in 1975 for minor offences and small claims add something


Various animals have been re-introduced, including the white-tailed sea eagle in 1975, the red kite in the 1980s, and there have been experimental projects involving the beaver and wild boar add something


Tiree, in the Inner Hebrides, is one of the sunniest places in the country: it had more than 300 hours of sunshine in May 1975 add something


Greg Norman - He joined the European Tour in 1977, and had his first victory in a European event that same season, the Martini International, at the Blairgowrie Club in Scotland


From the 1980s Scottish literature enjoyed another major revival, particularly associated with a group of writers including Irvine Welsh add something


Scottish entrants have won many awards since the festival began in 1980 add something


The introduction in 1989 by Margaret Thatcher's government of the Community Charge one year before the rest of Great Britain, contributed to a growing movement for Scottish control over domestic affairs add something


David Cairns (politician) - From 1991 he served as a priest in Scotland and in London before politics drew him to leave the priesthood in 1994 to become a director of the Christian Socialist Movement


In local government, there have been 32 single-tier council areas since 1996, whose councils are responsible for the provision of all local government services add something


Anne, Princess Royal - In 1996, Anne was entitled to be called Her Grace The Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland


Anne, Princess Royal - Throughout May 1996, the Princess served as Her Majesty's High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, which granted her, for the duration of the appointment, a higher precedence in Scotland, and the alternative style of "Her Grace"


Following a referendum on devolution proposals in 1997, the Scotland Act 1998 was passed by the UK Parliament, which established a devolved Scottish Parliament and Scottish Government with responsibility for most laws specific to Scotland add something


In 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy add something


The devolved Scottish Parliament was created after a referendum in 1997 found majority support for both creating the Parliament and granting it limited powers to vary income tax add something


The UK Parliament retains control over reserved matters specified in the Scotland Act 1998, including UK taxes, social security, defence, international relations and broadcasting add something


The national team last qualified for the !World_Cup (FIFA_World_Cup) finals in 1998, but finished last in their group stage add something


Geoff Hoon - He attended the Bilderberg Conference in Scotland in 1998


Executive and legislative powers respectively have been devolved to the Scottish Government and the Scottish Parliament at Holyrood in Edinburgh since 1999 add something


Since devolution in 1999, Scotland has devolved stronger working relations across the two other devolved governments, the Welsh Government and Northern Ireland Executive add something


The monarchy of the United Kingdom continues to use a variety of styles, titles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to pre-union Scotland, including: the Royal Standard of Scotland, the Royal coat of arms used in Scotland together with its associated Royal Standard, royal titles including that of Duke of Rothesay, certain Great Officers of State, the chivalric Order of the Thistle and, since 1999, reinstating a ceremonial role for the Crown of Scotland after a 292-year hiatus add something


This ended with the advent of the Scottish Parliament in 1999, which legislates for Scotland add something


In the 2000 Census, 9,2 million Americans self-reported some degree of Scottish descent add something


The first First Minister of Scotland was Donald Dewar, who served until his sudden death in 2000 add something


Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall - In 2000, her status was strengthened when she accompanied the Prince of Wales to Scotland for a series of official engagements


The population of Scotland at the 2001 Census was 5,062,011 add something


Robbie Fowler - Fowler married wife Kerrie on 9 June 2001 in the town of Duns in Scotland


Jacqui Lait - In September 2001, Lait was appointed shadow Secretary of State for Scotland, a position she held until 2003 when she became shadow Home Affairs Minister


A passenger service was operated between 2002-2010 add something


Ian Hamilton Finlay - He received the Scottish Horticultural Medal from the Royal Caledonian Horticultural Society in 2002, and the Scottish Arts Council Creative Scotland Award in 2003


Edwin Morgan (poet) - In 2002, he became the patron of Our Story Scotland


David Cairns (politician) - Cairns was appointed the Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Minister of State at the Department for Work and Pensions Malcolm Wicks in 2003, and following the 2005 General Election, at which, due to the redrawing of boundaries his constituency was abolished and replaced with a larger Inverclyde constituency, he became a member of the Labour government as the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Scotland


The highest temperature recorded was at Greycrook, Scottish Borders on 9 August 2003 add something


David I of Scotland - Despite its subtitle, in 2004 in the only full volume study of David I's reign yet produced, "David I: The King Who Made Scotland", its author Richard Oram further builds upon Lynch's picture, stressing continuity while placing the changes of David's reign in their context


The Scottish Parliament Building at Holyrood itself did not open until October 2004, after lengthy construction delays and running over budget add something


Geoff Hoon - On October 5, 2004 HMCS Chicoutimi , sailing from Faslane Naval Base, Scotland to Nova Scotia declared an emergency north-west of Ireland following a fire on board


Ian Hamilton Finlay - In December 2004, in a poll conducted by "Scotland on Sunday", a panel of fifty artists, gallery directors and arts professionals voted Little Sparta to be the most important work of Scottish art


G8 Summit - During the G8 Summit in 2005, First Minister Jack McConnell welcomed each head of government of the G8 nations to the countries Glasgow Prestwick Airport on behalf of UK Prime Minister Tony Blair add something


Under the Gaelic Language Act 2005, Bòrd na Gàidhlig is tasked with securing Gaelic as an official language of Scotland add something


Peter Phillips - He left WilliamsF1 in September 2005 and since has worked for the Royal Bank of Scotland in Edinburgh


In 2006, the Scottish Parliament passed the St Andrew's Day Bank Holiday Act 2007, designating the day an official bank holiday add something


In 2006, the infantry regiments of the Scottish Division were amalgamated to form the Royal Regiment of Scotland add something


Edinburgh was ranked 15th in the list of world financial centres in 2007, but fell to 37th in 2012, following damage to its reputation, and in 2016 was ranked 56th out of 86 add something


The Scottish National Party , which supports Scottish independence, was first elected to form the Scottish Government in 2007 add something


The Samyé Ling monastery near Eskdalemuir, which celebrated its 40th anniversary in 2007, is the first Buddhist monastery in western Europe add something


The system has been in place since 2007 when graduate endowments were abolished add something


David Cairns (politician) - He had the Northern Ireland Office added to his responsibilities and in 2007 he became the Minister of State at the Scotland Office


Kim Cattrall - In 2007, Cattrall revealed that, in December 1988, she had been booked on Pan Am Flight 103, the plane which crashed in Lockerbie, Scotland, after a terrorist bomb was detonated during the flight


Prince Andrew, Duke of York - For May 2007 only, Andrew became entitled to be called "His Grace" The Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland


Celtic, Rangers and Dundee United have reached and lost European finals, the most recent of these being in 2008 add something


In 2008, the NHS in Scotland had around 158,000 staff including more than 47,500 nurses, midwives and health visitors and over 3,800 consultants add something


These were gradually replaced by Justice of the Peace Courts from 2008 to 2010 add something


Graham Norton - Norton and Winkleman hosted the 2008 Contest in Glasgow, Scotland


Chris Tarrant - In June 2008 it was announced he would return to radio, hosting a weekly Saturday morning show for the GMG Radio network of stations including London's 102,2 Smooth Radio, Real Radio in Scotland and the North West's Century Radio


Jeremy Paxman - In an introduction to a new edition of Chambers Dictionary in August 2008 Paxman labelled the work of Scotland's national poet Robert Burns as "sentimental doggerel


David Cairns (politician) - He was the Minister of State at the Scotland Office until he resigned on 16 September 2008


Ann McKechin - She replaced David Cairns as Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State at the Scotland Office on 16 September 2008


Chuck Schumer - In 2009, Schumer criticized Scotland's release of convicted Lockerbie bomber Abdelbaset al-Megrahi, and called for the United States to impose economic sanctions on the United Kingdom if Megrahi's release was tied to a massive oil deal between the United Kingdom and Libya


Uri Geller - On 11 February 2009, Geller purchased the uninhabited 100 yard-by-50 yard Lamb Island off the eastern coast of Scotland, previously known for its witch trials, and beaches that Robert Louis Stevenson is said to have described in his novel "Treasure Island"


Scottish poets who emerged in the same period included Carol Ann Duffy, who, in May 2009, was the first Scot named UK Poet Laureate add something


In August 2009 the SNP proposed a bill to hold a referendum on independence in November 2010 add something


Although there is no official national anthem of Scotland, "Flower of Scotland" is played on special occasions and sporting events such as football and rugby matches involving the Scotland national teams and since 2010 is played at the Commonwealth Games after it was voted the overwhelming favourite by participating Scottish athletes add something


Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall - On 8 April 2010, the Duchess broke her left leg while hill walking in Scotland


These fees and allowances were removed in May 2010, and prescriptions are entirely free, although dentists and opticians may charge if the patient's household earns over a certain amount, about £30,000 per annum add something


Edwin Morgan (poet) - On 17 August 2010, Edwin Morgan died of pneumonia in Glasgow, Scotland, at the age of 90 years


Ann McKechin - In October 2010, McKechin was elected to the Shadow Cabinet and appointed as Shadow Secretary of State for Scotland, but was replaced by Margaret Curran in shadow cabinet reshuffle on 7 October 2011


After the 2011 elections gave the SNP an overall majority in the Scottish Parliament, a referendum on independence for Scotland was held on 18 September 2014 add something


In 2011, 43,700 people moved from Wales, Northern Ireland or England to live in Scotland add something


Since the Enlargement of the European Union more people from Central and Eastern Europe have moved to Scotland, and the 2011 census indicated that 61,000 Poles live there add something


The pro-independence Scottish National Party led by Alex Salmond achieved this in the 2011 election, winning 69 of the 129 seats available add something


This rose to 5,295,400, the highest ever, at the 2011 Census add something


Edwin Morgan (poet) - First Minister of Scotland Alex Salmond's leader's speech to the Scottish National Party Conference at Inverness on 22 October 2011 referred to Morgan's bequest of £918,000 to the Party in his Will as "transformational"


It initially had only a limited power to vary income tax, but powers over taxation and social security were significantly expanded by the Scotland Acts of 2012 and 2016 add something


Life expectancy for those born in Scotland between 2012 and 2014 is 77,1 years for males and 81,1 years for females add something


Proportionally, Scotland had more universities in QS' World University Rankings' top 100 in 2012 than any other nation add something


Scotland's Gross Domestic Product , including oil and gas produced in Scottish waters, was estimated at £150 billion for the calendar year 2012 add something


The Scotland Act 2012, based on proposals by the commission, was subsequently enacted devolving additional powers to the Scottish Parliament add something


Chogyam Trungpa - In 2012, five survivors of the escape in Nepal, Scotland and the U.S. confirmed details of the journey and supplied their personal accounts


In February 2012, the Centre for Economics and Business Research concluded that "Scotland receives no net subsidy" from the UK, as greater per capita tax generation in Scotland balanced out greater per capita public spending add something


In August 2012, the Scottish population reached an all-time high of 5,25 million people add something


Of the money spent on UK defence, about £3,3 billion can be attributed to Scotland as of 2013 add something


The value of the Scottish banknotes in circulation in 2013 was £3,8 billion, underwritten by the Bank of England using funds deposited by each clearing bank, under the Banking Act 2009, in order to cover the total value of such notes in circulation add something


Until 2013, the Scottish fire brigades and police forces were based on a system of regions introduced in 1975 add something


In 2014, Scotland's per capita GDP was one of the highest in the EU. Scotland has a Western-style open mixed economy closely linked with the rest of the UK and the wider world add something


In 2014, total Scottish exports were estimated to be £27,5 billion add something


The success of the SNP in achieving a majority in the Scottish Parliament paved the way for the September 2014 referendum on Scottish independence add something


British Sign Language is officially recognised under the British Sign Language Act 2015 add something


The Economy of Scotland had an estimated nominal gross domestic product of up to £152 billion in 2015 add something


This represented a significant decline from the 2015 general election, when the SNP won 56 seats add something


Conservative MP David Mundell has held the position since May 2015 add something


During an official visit to the Republic of Ireland in 2016, Sturgeon claimed that is it "important for Ireland and Scotland and the whole of the British Isles that Ireland has a strong ally in Scotland" add something


In the 2016 election, the Scottish National Party won 63 of the 129 seats available add something


In the aftermath of the United Kingdom's decision to withdraw from the European Union in 2016, the Scottish Government has called for there to be a joint approach from each of the devolved governments add something


The Conservative Party became the largest opposition party in the 2016 elections, with the Labour Party, Liberal Democrats and the Green Party represented in the Parliament add something


Following a referendum on the UK's membership of the European Union on 23 June 2016, where a UK-wide majority voted to withdraw from the EU whilst a majority within Scotland voted to remain, Scotland's First Minister, Nicola Sturgeon, announced that as a result a new independence referendum was "highly likely" add something


During a 2017 visit to the United States, First Minister Nicola Sturgeon met with Jerry Brown, Governor of California, where both signed an agreement committing both the Government of California and the Scottish Government to work together to tackle climate change, as well as Sturgeon signing a £6,3 million deal for Scottish investment from American businesses and firms promoting trade, tourism and innovation add something


Edinburgh Airport is currently Scotland's busiest airport handling over 13 million passengers in 2017 add something


In early 2017, the devolved governments met to discuss Brexit and agree on Brexit strategies from each devolved government which lead for Theresa May to issue a statement that claims that the devolved governments will not have a central role or decision making process in the Brexit process, but that the UK Government plans to "fully engage" Scotland in talks alongside the governments of Wales and Northern Ireland add something


In the 2017 general election, the SNP won 35 of the 59 seats add something


The Scotland women's team have achieved more recent success, qualifying for both Euro 2017 and the 2019 !World_Cup (FIFA_World_Cup) add something


Edinburgh Airport is currently Scotland's busiest airport handling over 14 million passengers in 2018 add something