Soviet Union

Knowledge Identifier: &Soviet_Union

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Soviet Union

socialist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991, governed as a single-party state by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital add

Category: Politics

Founded in 1922.

Countries: Russia (18%), United States (15%), (14%)

Main connections: World War II, Mikhail Gorbachev, Joseph Stalin

Linked to: General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Yale University, Baltic states

 

Timeline


 

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1922

In 1922, the Bolsheviks were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian, Ukrainian, and Byelorussian republics add something

 

On 3 April 1922, Stalin was named the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union add something

 

Treaty on the Creation of the USSR - The Treaty on the Creation of the U.S. was signed in December 1922 by four founding republics, the RSFSR, Transcaucasian SFSR, Ukrainian SSR and Belorussian SSR add something

 

The Soviet Union was officially established in December 1922 with the union of the Russian, Ukrainian, Byelorussian, and Transcaucasian Soviet republics, each ruled by local Bolshevik parties add something


1923

Sun Yat-sen - Sun and the Soviet Union's Adolph Joffe signed the Sun-Joffe Manifesto in January 1923


1924

Debate over the future of the economy provided the background for a power struggle in the years after Lenin's death in 1924 add something

 

Following Lenin's death in 1924, a troika collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s add something

 

In 1924, during the national delimitation in Central Asia, the Uzbek and Turkmen SSRs were formed from parts of the RSFSR's Turkestan ASSR and two Soviet dependencies, the Khorezm and Bukharan SSR add something

 

The same year, a Soviet Constitution was approved, legitimizing the December 1922 union add something

 

On 1 February 1924, the U.S. was recognized by the British Empire add something


1926

The crude birth rate of the U.S. decreased from 44,0 per thousand in 1926 to 18,0 in 1974, largely due to increasing urbanization and the rising average age of marriages add something

 

Deng Xiaoping - In 1926 Deng traveled to the Soviet Union and studied at Moscow Sun Yat-sen University, where one of his classmates was Chiang Ching-kuo


1927

Deng Xiaoping - In late 1927, Deng left Moscow to return to China, where he joined the army of Feng Yuxiang, a military leader in northwest China, which had requested assistance from the Soviet Union in its struggle with other local leaders in northern China

 

In October 1927, Grigory Zinoviev and Leon Trotsky were expelled from the Central Committee and forced into exile add something


1928

In 1928, Stalin introduced the First Five-Year Plan for building a socialist economy add something


1929

Among further restrictions, those adopted in 1929, a half-decade into Stalin's rule, included express prohibitions on a range of church activities, including meetings for organized Bible study add something

 

In 1929, the Tajik SSR was split off from the Uzbek SSR. With the constitution of 1936, the constituents of the Transcaucasian SFSR, namely the Georgian, Armenian and Azerbaijan SSRs, were elevated to union republics, while the Kazakh and Kirghiz SSRs were split off from the RSFSR. In August 1940, the Soviet Union formed the Moldavian SSR from parts of the Ukrainian SSR and Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina add something

 

Claus von Stauffenberg - The Soviet Union had not signed the 1929 Geneva Convention


1930

World Disarmament Conference - The early 1930s saw closer cooperation between the West and the U.S.. From 1932 to 1934, the Soviet Union participated in the World Disarmament Conference add something

 

Convinced that religious anti-Sovietism had become a thing of the past, the Stalin regime began shifting to a more moderate religion policy in the late 1930s add something

 

From the 1930s until its collapse in the late 1980s, the way the Soviet economy operated remained essentially unchanged add something

 

Resources were mobilized for rapid industrialization, which greatly expanded Soviet capacity in heavy industry and capital goods during the 1930s add something

 

The late 1930s saw a shift towards the Axis powers add something

 

The standard of living declined during the 1930s in response to Stalin's despotism, and after a brief improvement following his death, lapsed into stagnation add something

 

Yet despite the turmoil of the mid-to-late 1930s, the Soviet Union developed a powerful industrial economy in the years before World War II add something

 

Zora Neale Hurston - She disagreed with the philosophies supported by many of her colleagues in the Harlem Renaissance, such as Langston Hughes, who was in the 1930s a supporter of the Soviet Union and praised it in several of his poems


1931

The plan became the prototype for subsequent Five-Year Plans and was fulfilled by 1931 add something

 

E. E. Cummings - In 1931 Cummings traveled to the Soviet Union, recounting his experiences in "Eimi", published two years later

 

Yevgeny Zamyatin - In 1931, Zamyatin appealed directly to Joseph Stalin, requesting permission to leave the Soviet Union

 

Carl von Ossietzky - Pg. 153 He was convicted of high treason and espionage in 1931 after publishing details of Germany's alleged violation of the Treaty of Versailles by rebuilding an air force, the predecessor of the Luftwaffe, and training pilots in the Soviet Union


1932

Carl von Ossietzky - In 1932, he supported Ernst Thälmann's candidacy for the German presidency, though still a critic of the actual policy of the German Communist Party and the Soviet Union


1933

In 1933, diplomatic relations between the United States and the U.S. were established when in November, the newly elected President of the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt chose to formally recognize Stalin's Communist government and negotiated a new trade agreement between the two nations add something

 

Harpo Marx - In 1933, following U.S. diplomatic recognition of the Soviet Union, he spent six weeks in Moscow as a performer and goodwill ambassador


1934

In September 1934, the Soviet Union joined the League of Nations add something


1936

In December 1936, Stalin unveiled a new Soviet Constitution add something


1937

Erich Raeder - Because of the long period in which it took to build a battle fleet, Raeder was, despite his Anglophobia, hostile towards an anti-British foreign policy and until 1937, Raeder saw his principal enemies as France, Poland and the Soviet Union


1938

Charles Lindbergh - Lindbergh undertook a survey of aviation in the Soviet Union in 1938


1939

Dalton Trumbo - After the outbreak of World War II in 1939, American communists argued that the United States should not get involved in the war on the side of the United Kingdom, since the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact of nonaggression meant that the Soviet Union was at peace with Germany

 

Erich Raeder - Furthermore, Halder argued that Raeder had exaggerated the threat by posed by the Allies mining the Norwegian Leads, arguing that the ice on the Baltic would melt at the end of April, and that because of the Non-Aggression Pact of 1939 that Germany could always import iron from the Soviet Union to make up for any shortfall in Swedish iron imports

 

Erich Raeder - To get around the problem of the lack of bases outside of Germany and the shortage of "Dithmarschen" ships, Raeder had the Foreign Office in late 1939 negotiate secret agreements with Japan, Spain and the Soviet Union allowing German ships and submarines to use the ports of those nations to resupply, refuel and rearm

 

Woody Guthrie - With the outbreak of World War II and the nonaggression pact the Soviet Union had signed with Germany in 1939, the owners of KFVD radio did not want its staff "spinning apologia" for the Soviet Union

 

Menachem Begin - The town was soon occupied by the Soviet Union, but from 28 October 1939, it was the capital of the Republic of Lithuania


1940

By 1940, Joseph Stalin could announce that illiteracy had been eliminated add something

 

By 1940, as many as 90 percent of the churches, synagogues, and mosques that had been operating in 1917 were closed add something

 

By the early 1940s, the Soviet economy had become relatively self-sufficient; for most of the period until the creation of Comecon, only a very small share of domestic products was traded internationally add something

 

Once denied diplomatic recognition by the Western world, the Soviet Union had official relations with practically every nation by the late 1940s add something

 

Mikhail Gorbachev - Calls for greater independence from Moscow's rule grew louder, especially in the Baltic republics of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia which had been annexed into the Soviet Union by Joseph Stalin in 1940

 

Nikita Khrushchev - Since the 1940s, Khrushchev had advocated the cultivation of corn in the Soviet Union

 

World War II - The Soviet Union and Germany entered a trade pact in February 1940, pursuant to which the Soviets received German military and industrial equipment in exchange for supplying raw materials to Germany to help circumvent the Allied blockade

 

The Karelo-Finnish SSR was split off from the RSFSR in March 1940 and merged back in 1956 add something

 

Erich Raeder - Globalist historians such as Andreas Hillgruber, Klaus Hildebrand and Gerhard Weinberg have argued that Hitler was never seriously interested in the "Mediterranean plan", that his main priority was always the invasion of the Soviet Union, for which he ordered planning to start in July 1940, and that Hitler's interest in the "Mediterranean strategy" in late 1940 was only half-hearted at best

 

Erich Raeder - On 21 July 1940, Raeder first learned that Hitler was contemplating invading the Soviet Union

 

Erich Raeder - When Raeder first raised the "Mediterranean plan" on 6 September 1940, Hitler mentioned that he was considering an attack on the Soviet Union, to which Raeder did not object to, and it only at the second meeting of 26 September 1940 did Raeder first argued for giving primacy to the "Mediterranean plan" over an invasion of Soviet Russia

 

Erich Raeder - Other historians, such as the German historian Wolfgang Michalka, the Anglo-German historian H.W Koch and the Israeli historian Martin van Creveld, have contended that Hitler's efforts to form an anti-British Eurasian "continental bloc" that was to include the Soviet Union in late 1940 as a diplomatic prelude to the "Mediterranean plan" were sincere, that until December 1940 Hitler's first priority was in defeating Britain, and that it was only when Hitler gave his approval to Operation Barbarossa that he finally lost interest in the "Mediterranean strategy"

 

Erich Raeder - After it became clear that Spain would not enter the war, on 18 December 1940 Hitler approved Operation Barbarossa, declaring that henceforth the Wehrmacht's number one priority would be the defeat of the Soviet Union "even before the conclusion of the war against England"


1941

In the beginning of World War II, the Soviet Union signed a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany, initially avoiding confrontation, but the treaty was disregarded in 1941 when the Nazis invaded, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of combat in history add something

 

Erich Raeder - Moreover, Hitler told Raeder that he believed that once the Soviet Union was defeated later in the summer of 1941, that it was quite possible that Britain would simply "collapse" as a result of that German triumph, and he wanted the German fleet to be ready to take advantage of the expected "collapse", not at the bottom of the Atlantic

 

Dalton Trumbo - Shortly after the 1941 German invasion of the Soviet Union, Trumbo and his publisher decided to suspend reprinting of "Johnny Got His Gun" until the end of the war

 

Menachem Begin - Sikorski-Mayski Agreement - In June 1941, just after Germany attacked the Soviet Union, and following his release under the Sikorski-Mayski Agreement, Begin joined the Polish Anders' Army as a corporal officer cadet

 

World War II - In June 1941, the European Axis launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, giving a start to the largest land theatre of war in history, which tied down the major part of the Axis' military forces for the rest of the war

 

Woody Guthrie - Initially Guthrie helped write and sing what the Almanac Singers termed "peace" songs; while the Nazi-Soviet Pact was in effect, until Hitler invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, the Communist line was that World War II was a capitalist fraud

 

Germany itself broke the treaty and invaded the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941, starting what was known in the U.S. as the "Great Patriotic War" add something

 

World War II - On 22 June 1941, Germany, along with other European Axis members and Finland, invaded the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa

 

Claus von Stauffenberg - Operation "Barbarossa", the German invasion of the Soviet Union, was launched on June 22, 1941


1942

Battle of Stalingrad - The Battle of Stalingrad, which lasted from late 1942 to early 1943, dealt a severe blow to the Germans from which they never fully recovered and became a turning point in the war add something

 

World War II - Though the Allies' economic and population advantages were largely mitigated during the initial rapid blitzkrieg attacks of Germany and Japan, they became the decisive factor by 1942, after the United States and Soviet Union joined the Allies, as the war largely settled into one of attrition


1943

Amid other accommodations to religious faith, churches were reopened, Radio Moscow began broadcasting a religious hour, and a historic meeting between Stalin and Orthodox Church leader Patriarch Sergius I of Moscow was held in 1943 add something

 

World War II - In the Soviet Union, both the Germans and the Soviets spent the spring and early summer of 1943 making preparations for large offensives in Central Russia


1944

World War II - In 1944, the Western Allies invaded France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies

 

World War II - The former conference determined the post-war return of Japanese territory, while the latter included agreement that the Western Allies would invade Europe in 1944 and that the Soviet Union would declare war on Japan within three months of Germany's defeat


1945

A member of the United Nations at its foundation in 1945, the Soviet Union became one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council, which gave it the right to veto any of its resolutions add something

 

After Stalingrad, Soviet forces drove through Eastern Europe to Berlin before Germany surrendered in 1945 add something

 

Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict, in the cost to acquire the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad, eventually driving through Eastern Europe and capturing Berlin in 1945, inflicting the vast majority of German losses add something

 

The Soviet Union bordered Afghanistan, China, Czechoslovakia, Finland, Hungary, Iran, Mongolia, North Korea, Norway, Poland, Romania, and Turkey from 1945 to 1991 add something

 

"The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Economy: An Economic History of the U.S. from 1945" add something

 

William Lyon Mackenzie King - He dealt with the espionage revelations of Soviet cipher clerk Igor Gouzenko, who defected in Ottawa in September, 1945, by quickly appointing a Royal Commission to investigate Gouzenko's allegations of a Canadian Communist spy-ring transmitting top-secret documents to the Soviet Union

 

World War II - Korea, formerly under Japanese rule, was divided and occupied by the US in the South and the Soviet Union in the North between 1945 and 1948

 

Heinrich Boll - Conscripted into the Wehrmacht, he served in France, Romania, Hungary and the Soviet Union, and was wounded four times before being captured by Americans in April 1945 and sent to a prisoner-of-war camp

 

George S. Patton - After the surrender of May 8, 1945, eliminated the threat of Nazi Germany, Patton was quick to assert the Soviet Union would cease to be an ally of the United States


1946

Mao Dun - In 1946 he visited the Soviet Union


1948

Madeleine Albright - However, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia took over the government in 1948, with support from the Soviet Union, and as an opponent of Communism, Korbel was forced to resign from his position

 

Golda Meir - Meir was appointed Israel's minister plenipotentiary to the Soviet Union, with her term beginning on 2 September 1948 and ending in March 1949


1949

Stanislaw Ulam - On August 29, 1949, the Soviet Union tested its first fission bomb, the RDS-1


1950

During the 1950s and 1960s, the Soviet economy experienced comparatively high growth and was catching up to the West add something

 

Following the Khrushchev Thaw of the late 1950s and early 1960s, censorship was diminished add something

 

However, the powers and functions of the Supreme Soviet were extended in the late 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, including the creation of new state commissions and committees add something

 

Pol Pot - After the Soviet Union recognized the Viet Minh as the government of Vietnam in 1950, French Communists took up the cause of Vietnam's independence


1955

It aided post-war reconstruction in the countries of Eastern Europe, while turning them into satellite states, binding them in a military alliance in 1955, and an economic organization from 1949 to 1991, the latter a counterpart to the European Economic Community add something

 

" Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1955, 1966 add something

 

Nikita Khrushchev - In February 1955, Khrushchev gave a speech in which he advocated an Iowa-style corn belt in the Soviet Union, and a Soviet delegation visited the U.S. state that summer


1956

Soviet military force was used to suppress anti-Stalinist uprisings in Hungary and Poland in 1956 add something

 

John Maynard Smith - He became gradually less attracted to communism and became a less active member, finally leaving the Party in 1956 like many other intellectuals, after the Soviet Union brutally suppressed the Hungarian Revolution

 

Fyodor Dostoyevsky - In 1956 an olive-green postage stamp dedicated to Dostoyevsky was released in the Soviet Union with a print run of 1,000 copies

 

Nikita Khrushchev - On February 25, 1956, at the 20th Party Congress, he delivered the "Secret Speech," denouncing Stalin's purges and ushering in a less repressive era in the Soviet Union

 

Between July 1956 and September 1991, there were 15 union republics add something


1957

During this period, the Soviet Union continued to realize scientific and technological exploits: Launching the first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1 in 1957; a living dog, Laika in 1957; the first human being, Yuri Gagarin in 1961; the first woman in space, Valentina Tereshkova in 1963; Alexey Leonov, the first person to walk in space in 1965; the first soft landing on the moon by spacecraft Luna 9 in 1966 and the first moon rovers, Lunokhod 1 and Lunokhod 2 add something

 

Glenn Gould - In 1957, Gould embarked on a tour of the Soviet Union, becoming the first North American to play there since World War II. His concerts featured Bach, Beethoven, and the serial music of Schoenberg and Berg, which had been suppressed in the Soviet Union during the era of Socialist Realism

 

Wernher von Braun - In 1957, with the launch of Sputnik 1, there was a growing belief within the United States that America lagged behind the Soviet Union in the emerging Space Race


1958

Nikita Khrushchev - In November 1958, calling West Berlin a "malignant tumor", he gave the United States, United Kingdom and France six months to conclude a peace treaty with both German states and the Soviet Union


1959

During this period, the number of churches fell from 20,000 to 10,000 from 1959 to 1965, and the number of synagogues dropped from 500 to 97 add something

 

Enrico Mattei - Cold War - Mattei visited Moscow in 1959, where he brokered an oil import deal with the Soviet Union in the middle of the Cold War over intense protests from NATO and the U.S. He publicly supported independence movements against colonial powers, which allowed ENI to take advantage of postcolonial bitterness in places like Algeria

 

Nikita Khrushchev - In 1959, during Nixon's visit to the Soviet Union, Khrushchev took part in what later became known as the Kitchen Debate, as Nixon and Khrushchev had an impassioned argument in a model kitchen at the American National Exhibition in Moscow , with each defending the economic system of his country

 

Lee Harvey Oswald - The Associated Press story of the defection of a U.S. Marine to the Soviet Union was reported on the front pages of some newspapers in 1959

 

Hosni Mubarak - From February 1959 to June 1961, Mubarak undertook further training in the Soviet Union, attending a Soviet pilot training school in Moscow and another at Kant Air Base, near Bishkek in Kyrgyzstan , an airfield that is today home to the Russian 5th Air Army's 999th Air Base

 

Lee Harvey Oswald - A former U.S. Marine who had defected to the Soviet Union between October 1959 and June 1962, Oswald was initially arrested for the murder of police officer J. D. Tippit, on a Dallas street approximately 40 minutes after Kennedy was shot

 

Lee Harvey Oswald - In October 1959, just before turning 20, Oswald traveled to the Soviet Union, the trip planned well in advance


1960

Grain and sophisticated consumer manufactures became major import articles from around the 1960s add something

 

In the 1960s, nearly all Soviet children had access to education, the only exception being those living in remote areas add something

 

Overall, between 1960 and 1989, the growth rate of per capita income in the Soviet Union was slightly above the world average add something

 

The late 1960s and the 1970s witnessed a reversal of the declining trajectory of the rate of mortality in the U.S., and was especially notable among men of working age, but was prevalent in Russia and other predominantly Slavic areas of the country add something

 

These improvements continued into the 1960s, when the life expectancy in the Soviet Union surpassed that of the United States add something

 

Nikita Khrushchev - He pushed for an immediate summit, but was frustrated by French President Charles de Gaulle, who postponed it until 1960, a year in which Eisenhower was scheduled to pay a return visit to the Soviet Union

 

Enrico Mattei - In 1960, after concluding the agreement with the Soviet Union and while negotiating with China, Mattei publicly declared that the American monopoly was over

 

Tony Hoare - In 1960, he left the Soviet Union and began working at Elliott Brothers, Ltd, a small computer manufacturing firm, where he implemented ALGOL 60 and began developing major algorithms

 

Jacques Brel - In January 1960, Brel's new impressario, Charles Marouani, organised a series of international concert tours for the singer that would take him from the French provinces to the Soviet Union, the Middle East, Canada, and the United States


1962

In 1962, he precipitated a crisis with the United States over the Soviet deployment of nuclear missiles in Cuba add something

 

The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis marked a period of extreme tension between the two superpowers, considered the closest to a mutual nuclear confrontation add something

 

Yuri Gagarin - In 1962, he began serving as a deputy to the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union

 

Nikita Khrushchev - Superpower tensions culminated in the Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962, as the Soviet Union sought to install medium range nuclear missiles in Cuba, about from the U.S. coast


1963

Kim Philby - After Philby defected to the Soviet Union in 1963, Eleanor visited him in Moscow; in November 1964, following a visit to America, she returned, intending to settle permanently

 

Nikita Khrushchev - Drought struck the Soviet Union in 1963; the harvest of of grain was down from a peak of in 1958

 

Roy E. Disney - In 1963, Nkrumah was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize by the Soviet Union


1964

This event caused Khrushchev much embarrassment and loss of prestige, resulting in his removal from power in 1964 add something


1965

Legalization of some elements of the decentralized economy was attempted with the reform of 1965 add something


1968

In 1968, the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact allies invaded Czechoslovakia to halt the Prague Spring reforms add something

 

Valeriy Borzov - Born in Sambir, Drohobych Oblast, Soviet Union, Borzov started his track and field career in 1968

 

Kim Philby - Philby occupied himself by writing his memoirs, published in England in 1968 under the title "My Silent War"; it was not published in the Soviet Union until 1980


1969

Arthur Miller - In 1969, Miller's works were banned in the Soviet Union after he campaigned for the freedom of dissident writers


1970

Soviet invasion of Afghanistan - In the 1970s, a relaxation of relations followed, but tensions resumed with the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 add something

 

At the start, this decline grew very rapidly, but gradually slowed down between 1970 and 1975 add something

 

By the late 1970s and early 1980s, Soviet economists were calling for the construction of more roads to alleviate some of the burden from the railways and to improve the Soviet state budget add something

 

Following the ousting of Khrushchev, another period of collective leadership ensued, consisting of Leonid Brezhnev as General Secretary, Alexei Kosygin as Premier and Nikolai Podgorny as Chairman of the Presidium, lasting until Brezhnev established himself in the early 1970s as the preeminent Soviet leader add something

 

However, after 1970, the growth, while still positive, steadily declined much more quickly and consistently than in other countries despite a rapid increase in the capital stock add something

 

In the 1970s and 1980s, the Soviet Union heavily relied on fossil fuel exports to earn hard currency add something

 

It remained stable during most years, although in the 1970s, it went down slightly, possibly because of alcohol abuse add something

 

The infant mortality rate increased from 24,7 in 1970 to 27,9 in 1974 add something

 

Golda Meir - During the 1970s about 200,000 Russian-Jewish emigrants were allowed to leave the Soviet Union for Israel by way of Austria

 

Neil Armstrong - In May 1970, Armstrong traveled to the Soviet Union to present a talk at the 13th annual conference of the International Committee on Space Research; after arriving in Leningrad from Poland, he traveled to Moscow where he met Premier Alexei Kosygin


1972

Valeriy Borzov - In 1972 he won both the 100 and 200 metres sprint events for the Soviet Union at the Olympic Games in Munich

 

Maximilian Kaller - Hoppe held that post until Pope Paul VI terminated the apostolic administration of Ermland diocese and finally appointed again a bishop to the see on 28 June 1972, named Warmia , however, not comprising the former diocesan area within the Soviet Union


1974

After 1974, the government stopped publishing statistics on this add something

 

Mikhail Gorbachev - Three years later, in 1974, he was made a Deputy to the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union and Chairman of the Standing Commission on Youth Affairs


1976

Garry Kasparov - Korchnoi had defected from the Soviet Union in 1976, and was at that time the strongest active non-Soviet player


1977

In October 1977, the third Soviet Constitution was unanimously adopted add something


1980

An analysis of the official data from the late 1980s showed that after worsening in the late-1970s and the early 1980s, adult mortality began to improve again add something

 

For most of the period after World War II up to its collapse, the Soviet economy was the second largest in the world by GDP , and was 3rd in the world during the middle of the 1980s to 1989 add something

 

For this reason, until the 1980s it was commonly--but incorrectly--called "Russia add something

 

In the late 1980s the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform the Union, introducing the policies of "glasnost" and "perestroika" in an attempt to end the period of economic stagnation and democratize the government add something

 

In the late 1980s, he refused military support to the Soviet Union's former satellite states, resulting in the toppling of multiple communist regimes add something

 

In the late 1980s, the constituent republics of the Soviet Union started legal moves towards potentially declaring sovereignty over their territories, citing Article 72 of the U.S. constitution, which stated that any constituent republic was free to secede add something

 

In the second half of the 1980s, Gorbachev's policies of "perestroika" and "glasnost" significantly expanded freedom of expression in the media and press add something

 

Billy Bragg - Also during the 1980s, Bragg travelled to the Soviet Union a few times, after Mikhail Gorbachev had started to promote the policies of perestroika and glasnost

 

John Foster Dulles - Dulles' rollback policy was later implemented by the Reagan Administration during the 1980s and it is sometimes credited with the collapse of the Soviet Empire, the Communist Bloc in eastern Europe as well as the Soviet Union itself

 

Garry Kasparov - In his 1980 Olympiad debut, he became, at age 17, the youngest player to represent the Soviet Union or Russia at that level, a record which was broken by Vladimir Kramnik in 1992


1982

A poll conducted by Soviet authorities in 1982 recorded 20 percent of the Soviet population as "active religious believers add something

 

The prevailing mood of the Soviet leadership at the time of Brezhnev's death in 1982 was one of aversion to change add something

 

Samantha Smith - In 1982, Smith wrote a letter to the newly appointed CPSU General Secretary Yuri Andropov, and received a personal reply which included a personal invitation to visit the Soviet Union, which she accepted

 

Samantha Smith - When Yuri Andropov succeeded Leonid Brezhnev as leader of the Soviet Union in November 1982, the mainstream Western newspapers and magazines ran numerous front page photographs and articles about him


1984

Wayne Gretzky - In 1984, he travelled to the Soviet Union to film a television program on Russian goaltender Vladislav Tretiak


1985

In an attempt to avoid a third short-lived leader, in 1985, the Soviets turned to the next generation and selected Mikhail Gorbachev add something

 

Michael Foot - Oleg Gordievsky, a high-ranking KGB officer who defected from the Soviet Union to Britain in 1985, made allegations against Foot in his 1995 memoirs

 

John Denver - To mark the 10th anniversary of Denver's death, his family released a set of previously unreleased recordings of Denver's 1985 concert performances in the Soviet Union

 

Mikhail Gorbachev - One of the first reforms Gorbachev introduced was the anti-alcohol campaign, begun in May 1985, which was designed to fight widespread alcoholism in the Soviet Union

 

Sun Myung Moon - In August 1985, seven years before the fall of Soviet Union, the Professors World Peace Academy, an organization founded by Moon, sponsored a conference in Geneva to debate the theme "The situation in the world after the fall of the communist empire

 

Samantha Smith - In October 1985, Smith's mother founded the Samantha Smith Foundation, which fostered student exchanges between the United States and the Soviet Union until it became dormant in the mid-1990s


1986

Mikhail Gorbachev - In December 1986, the first signs of the nationalities problem that would haunt the later years of the Soviet Union's existence surfaced as riots, named Jeltoqsan, occurred in Alma Ata and other areas of Kazakhstan after Dinmukhamed Kunayev was replaced as First Secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan


1987

In 1987, Mikhail Gorbachev tried to reform and revitalize the economy with his program of "perestroika" add something


1988

At its peak in 1988, it was the largest producer and second largest exporter of crude oil, surpassed only by Saudi Arabia add something

 

Between 1988 and 1990, facing considerable opposition, Mikhail Gorbachev enacted reforms shifting power away from the highest bodies of the party and making the Supreme Soviet less dependent on them add something

 

Gorbachev moved to end the Cold War. In 1988, the Soviet Union abandoned its nine-year war in Afghanistan and began to withdraw its forces add something

 

The USSR had several centers of excellence, such as the Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Complex, founded in 1988 by Russian eye surgeon Svyatoslav Fyodorov add something

 

Mikhail Gorbachev - Also during 1988, Gorbachev announced that the Soviet Union would abandon the Brezhnev Doctrine, and allow the Eastern bloc nations to freely determine their own internal affairs

 

On 16 November 1988, the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR passed the Estonian Sovereignty Declaration that asserted Estonia's sovereignty and declared the supremacy of Estonian laws over those of the Soviet Union add something


1989

Although the Russian Orthodox Church maintained a cozy relationship with the Communists, the Ukrainian Catholic Church was suppressed in Soviet-controlled Ukraine until 1989 add something

 

By 1989, Soviet scientists were among the world's best-trained specialists in several areas, such as energy physics, selected areas of medicine, mathematics, welding and military technologies add something

 

By their calculation, per capita income of Soviet Union in 1989 should have been twice as high as it was considering the amount of investment, education and population add something

 

In 1989, the Russian SFSR, which was the largest constituent republic convened a newly elected Congress of People's Deputies add something

 

George H. W. Bush - Foreign policy drove the Bush presidency; military operations were conducted in Panama and the Persian Gulf at a time of world change; the Berlin Wall fell in 1989 and the Soviet Union dissolved two years later

 

The Congress of People's Deputies was established, the majority of whose members were directly elected in competitive elections held in March 1989 add something

 

Mikhail Gorbachev - Elections to the Congress of People's Deputies were held throughout the Soviet Union in March and April 1989

 

Mikhail Gorbachev - In March and April 1989 elections to the Congress of People's Deputies took place throughout the Soviet Union


1990

In 1990, Gorbachev introduced and assumed the position of the President of the Soviet Union, concentrated power in his executive office, independent of the party, and subordinated the government, now renamed the Cabinet of Ministers of the U.S., to himself add something

 

Many held their first free elections in the Soviet era for their own national legislatures in 1990 add something

 

Mikhail Gorbachev - Coit D. Blacker wrote in 1990 that the Soviet leadership "appeared to have believed that whatever loss of authority the Soviet Union might suffer in Eastern Europe would be more than offset by a net increase in its influence in Western Europe

 

Sergey Brin - In the summer of 1990, a few weeks before his 17th birthday, his father led a group of high school math students, including Sergey, on a two-week exchange program to the Soviet Union

 

In March 1990, the newly elected Supreme Soviet of the Lithuanian SSR declared independence, followed by the Georgian Supreme Soviet in April 1991 add something

 

Sun Myung Moon - In April 1990, Moon visited the Soviet Union and met with President Mikhail Gorbachev

 

On 7 April 1990, a law was passed allowing a republic to secede if more than two-thirds of its residents voted for it in a referendum add something

 

On 12 June 1990, the Congress declared Russia's sovereignty over its territory and proceeded to pass laws that attempted to supersede some of the U.S.'s laws add something


1991

New Union Treaty - In the summer of 1991, the New Union Treaty, which would have turned the Soviet Union into a much looser Union, was agreed upon by eight republics add something

 

In 1991, the Soviet Union had a pipeline network of for crude oil and another for natural gas add something

 

The period of legal uncertainty continued throughout 1991 as constituent republics slowly became de facto independent add something

 

The total population was estimated at 293 million in 1991 add something

 

Garry Kasparov - He represented the Soviet Union four times and Russia four times, following the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991

 

Mikhail Gorbachev - The Soviet Union collapsed with dramatic speed during the fall of 1991, as one republic after another declared independence

 

Mikhail Gorbachev - On 10 January 1991 Gorbachev issued an ultimatum-like request addressing the Lithuanian Supreme Council demanding the restoration of the validity of the constitution of the Soviet Union in Lithuania and the revoking of all anti-constitutional laws

 

A referendum for the preservation of the U.S. was held on 17 March 1991, with the majority of the population voting for preservation of the Union in nine out of the 15 republics add something

 

In August 1991, Latvia and Estonia immediately declared the restoration of their full independence , while the other twelve republics continued discussing new, increasingly looser, models of the Union add something

 

In August 1991, a coup d'état was attempted by hardliners against Gorbachev, with the intention of reversing his policies add something

 

The Soviet Union ultimately recognized the secession of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania on 6 September 1991 add something

 

The remaining republics were recognized as independent with the Soviet Union's final dissolution in December 1991 add something

 

Alexander Lukashenko - He was the only deputy of the Belarusian parliament who voted against ratification of the December 1991 agreement that dissolved the Soviet Union and set up the Commonwealth of Independent States in its place

 

On 8 December 1991, the presidents of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus signed the Belavezha Accords, which declared the Soviet Union dissolved and established the Commonwealth of Independent States in its place add something

 

While doubts remained over the authority of the accords to do this, on 21 December 1991, the representatives of all Soviet republics except Georgia signed the Alma-Ata Protocol, which confirmed the accords add something

 

On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states add something

 

On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev yielded to the inevitable and resigned as the President of the U.S., declaring the office extinct add something


1992

The Soviet Army remained in place in the early months of 1992, but was thereafter absorbed into the different military forces of the newly independent states add something

 

Under the 1992 Lisbon Protocol, Russia agreed to receive all nuclear weapons remaining in the territory of other former Soviet republics add something


2004

"Socialism Betrayed: Behind the Collapse of the Soviet Union", International Publishers Co Inc., U.S. 2004 add something


2009

Tarja Halonen - In 2009, Halonen rejected calls to apologize for Finland's attitude towards Estonian independence from the Soviet Union in 1991


2013

"RT", December 21, 2013 add something


2014

Dissolution of the Soviet Union - In 2014, on the initiative of the citizen of the city of Tolyatti Dmitry Tretyakov, born in 1981, were taken judicial attempts to challenge the unconstitutional dissolution of the Soviet Union in Court add something

 

On 10 January 2014 the Supreme Court of Russia issued a ruling, which refused to consider the claim, stating that "acts do not affect the rights and freedoms or legitimate interests of the applicant" add something

 

On 27 November 2014, the European court of human rights in Strasbourg, under the chairmanship of judge Elisabeth Steiner decided to reject the complaint, additionally stating that the decision cannot be appealed to the Grand chamber add something


2016

Documents obtained in 2016 revealed the Soviet Union's plans for a statewide doping system in track and field in preparation for the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles add something

 

Portugalov was one of the main figures involved in the implementation of the Russian doping program prior to the 2016 Summer Olympics add something


2018

October 2018 Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized add something