Spanish civil war

Knowledge Identifier: !Spanish_Civil_War

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Spanish Civil War

fought from 17 July 1936 to 1 April 1939 between the Republicans, who were loyal to the democratically elected Spanish Republic, and the Nationalists, a rebel group led by General Francisco Francoadd

Category: Military

Activity starting in 1936.

Countries: Spain (34%), United Kingdom (13%), Germany (10%)

Main connections: Francisco Franco, Catalonia, Falange

Linked to: Falange, Basque Nationalist Party, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, International Committee of the Red Cross

 

Timeline


 

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1936

A Popular Front alliance was organized, which narrowly won the 1936 elections add something

 

Victor Oehrn - He was appointed to command of in January 1936, and patrolled in Spanish waters during the Civil War in July–September 1936

 

German involvement began days after fighting broke out in July 1936 add something

 

In July 1936, British officials convinced Blum not to send arms to the Republicans and, on 27 July, the French government declared that it would not send military aid, technology or forces to assist the Republican forces add something

 

Eberhard von Stohrer - Spanish Civil War - During the Spanish Civil War from July 1936 to April 1939, he stayed in Madrid , acting as an observer and spy of the legal Second Spanish Republic and reporting news to the Nazi government in Berlin

 

Carlo Rosselli - Spanish Civil War - In July 1936 the Spanish Civil War erupted as the fascist-monarchical led army attempted a coup d'état against the republican government of the Popular Front

 

Albert Edward Smith - Spanish Civil War - In July 1936, he traveled to Spain during the Spanish Civil War as an emissary of the "Friends of the Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion"

 

Emma Goldman - Spanish Civil War - In July 1936, the Spanish Civil War started after an attempted "coup d'état" by parts of the Spanish Army against the government of the Second Spanish Republic

 

Wilhelm Ritter von Thoma - Spanish Civil War - The Spanish Civil War broke out in July 1936 with an uprising by rightist generals against the leftist Popular Front government

 

Diario de Aragon - Spanish Civil War - The publication was discontinued as the Spanish Civil War broke out in July 1936

 

Antonio Machado - Spanish Civil War - When Francisco Franco launched his coup d'état in July 1936, launching the Spanish Civil War, Machado was in Madrid

 

Rudolf Rocker - He was working on "Nationalism and Culture", when the Spanish Civil War broke out in July 1936 instilling great optimism in Rocker

 

Ricardo Zamora - In July 1936 during the early days of the Spanish Civil War, "ABC" falsely reported that Zamora had been killed by Republicans

 

Falange - With the eruption of the Civil War in July 1936, the Falange fought on the Nationalist side against the Spanish Second Republic

 

Jose Calvo Sotelo - Spanish Civil War - These preparations led to the uprising of the Army of Africa in Melilla on 17 July 1936 that, under the assumed command of Generals Emilio Mola, Francisco Franco, Gonzalo Queipo de Llano and José Sanjurjo, marked the beginning of the Spanish Civil War

 

El Correo - Due to these conservative stances, "El Pueblo Vasco" was shut down by the Spanish Republic government on July 17, 1936, just before the Spanish Civil War

 

On 1 August 1936, a pro-Republican rally of 20,000 people confronted Blum, demanding that he send aircraft to the Republicans, at the same time as right-wing politicians attacked Blum for supporting the Republic and being responsible for provoking Italian intervention on the side of Franco add something

 

However, the Blum government provided aircraft to the Republicans through covert means with Potez 54 bomber aircraft, Dewoitine aircraft, and Loire 46 fighter aircraft being sent from 7 August 1936 to December of that year to Republican forces add something

 

On 21 August 1936, France signed the Non-Intervention Agreement add something

 

Pedro Salinas - Spanish Civil War - On 31 August 1936, shortly after the beginning of the Spanish Civil War, he moved to the USA, to take up the position of the Mary Whiton Calkins professor at Wellesley College, Mass

 

Franz Borkenau - Spanish Civil War - In September 1936, Borkenau paid a two-month visit to Spain, where he observed the effects of Spanish Civil War in Madrid , Barcelona and Valencia

 

Republican Left (Spain) - Later, alongside the Republican Union Party, the party was the main component of the Largo Caballero government in September 1936, at the start of the Spanish Civil War

 

Also, until 8 September 1936, aircraft could freely pass from France into Spain if they were bought in other countries add something

 

Wilhelm Balthasar - Spanish Civil War - In November 1936, he volunteered to join "Sonderstab W", named after its commander General Helmuth Wilberg, for deployment in the Spanish Civil War

 

Even after covert support by France to the Republicans ended in December 1936, the possibility of French intervention against the Nationalists remained a serious possibility throughout the war add something

 

Romanian volunteers were led by Ion I Mo?a, deputy-leader of the Legion of the Archangel Michael , whose group of seven Legionaries visited Spain in December 1936 to ally their movement with the Nationalists add something

 

The consolidation of various militias into the Republican Army had started in December 1936 add something


1937

As to other works of art, Pablo Picasso painted "Guernica" in 1937, taking inspiration from the bombing of Guernica add something

 

In the "May Days" of 1937, many thousands of anarchist and communist Republican soldiers fought for control of strategic points in Barcelona add something

 

The Nationalists advanced from their strongholds in the south and west, capturing most of Spain's northern coastline in 1937 add something

 

This film, The Spanish Earth, premiered in dwellings all over America in July, 1937 add something

 

This work, featured at the 1937 International Exhibition in Paris, was shipped back to the Spanish Republic's capital in Valencia following the Exhibition, but has since gone missing or has been destroyed add something

 

"Guernica", like many important Republican masterpieces, was featured at the 1937 International Exhibition in Paris add something

 

Angelica Garnett - Spanish Civil War - Angelica grew up believing that two of those grandchildren, Vanessa and Clive's sons, Julian Bell, who was killed in 1937 during the Spanish Civil War, and the art historian Quentin Bell, were her brothers, rather than her half-brothers

 

Abel Paz - Spanish Civil War - During the Spanish Civil War and Spanish revolution he fought in the Barcelona May Events of 1937

 

Heinrich Rau - Spanish Civil War - From there, in 1937, he went on to Spain, where he participated in the Spanish Civil War as a leader of one of the International Brigades

 

Werner Hartenstein - Spanish Civil War - Hartenstein participated in several patrols in 1937 and 1938 on board "Greif" in Spanish waters as part of the "Legion Condor" during the Spanish Civil War

 

Gerhard Bigalk - Spanish Civil War - He initially trained as an observer in the naval air force, and saw service during the Spanish Civil War, making 21 combat flights in 1937

 

Hugh Scanlon - Spanish Civil War - He joined the Communist Party of Great Britain in 1937 following the events of the Spanish Civil War and made use of its networks and organising skills to rise through the union, becoming a district official in 1947

 

Alexander Rado - Spanish Civil War - In 1937 Radó visited Italy to collect intelligence about the Italian military support of the Francist forces in the Spanish civil war

 

Egon Erwin Kisch - Spanish Civil War - In 1937 and 1938, Kisch was in Spain, where left-wingers from across the world had been drawn by the Spanish Civil War

 

Gustaf Munch-Petersen - Spanish Civil War - In 1937 he joined the International Brigades and fought in the Spanish Civil War, where he fell the next year

 

George Steer - Spanish Civil War - In 1937 he was sent to report on the Spanish Civil War

 

W. H. Auden - Spanish Civil War - In 1937 he went to Spain intending to drive an ambulance for the Republic in the Spanish Civil War, but was put to work broadcasting propaganda, a job he left in order to visit the front

 

Josephine Herbst - Spanish Civil War - In 1937 she toured the fronts of the Spanish Civil War, as a guest of the Stalinist supporters of the Second Spanish Republic

 

Harry DeWolf - Spanish Civil War - In 1937, DeWolf studied at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich and served on an exchange with a RN cruiser squadron in the Mediterranean Sea during the Spanish Civil War

 

John Dos Passos - Spanish Civil War - In 1937, during the Spanish Civil War, he returned to Spain with his friend Ernest Hemingway, but his views on the Communist movement had already begun to change

 

Adolf Galland - Spanish Civil War - In 1937, during the Spanish Civil War, he volunteered for the Condor Legion and flew ground attack missions in support of the Nationalists under Francisco Franco

 

Ettore Bastico - Spanish Civil War - In 1937, during the later stages of the Spanish Civil War, Bastico replaced Mario Roatta as the Commander-in-Chief of the Italian Corps of Volunteer Troops in Spain

 

Elio Vittorini - Spanish Civil War - In 1937, he was expelled from the national Fascist Party for writing in support of the Republican side in the Spanish Civil War

 

A. J. P. Taylor - Spanish Civil War - In particular, Trevor-Roper criticised Taylor's argument that the Hossbach Memorandum of 1937 was a meaningless document because none of the scenarios outlined in the Memorandum as the prerequisite for war such as the Spanish Civil War leading to a war between Italy and France in the Mediterranean or civil war breaking out in France occurred

 

Herbert Kaminski - Spanish Civil War - Kaminski served during the Spanish Civil War though 1937 and 1938

 

Langston Hughes - Spanish Civil War - Partly as a show of support for the Republican faction during the Spanish Civil War, in 1937 Hughes traveled to Spain as a correspondent for the "Baltimore Afro-American" and other various African-American newspapers

 

Jack Jones (trade unionist) - Spanish Civil War - She had first been married to the communist trade union organiser and close friend of Jones, George Brown but he had been killed in the Battle of Brunete in 1937 during the Spanish Civil War

 

Walter Lowenfels - Spanish Civil War - The poems in the book commemorated the 18 steelworkers killed by US Steel during the 1937 Little Steel strike, and discussed the Spanish Civil War

 

Gunther Prien - Spanish Civil War - "U-26" went on two patrols in 1937 during the Spanish Civil War

 

Plan (aid organisation) - During the Spanish Civil War in 1937, as many as 11,000 refugees a day were passing through the railway station at Santander in Spain

 

Ken Sprague - His first work of art, in 1937, in response to the Guernica air raid in the Spanish Civil War, was a linocut made from linoleum torn from the kitchen floor

 

Clement Attlee - In 1937, Attlee visited Spain and visited the British Battalion of the International Brigades fighting in the Spanish Civil War

 

Leopold Kohr - In 1937, Kohr became a freelance correspondent during the Spanish Civil War, where he was impressed by the limited, self-contained governments of the separatist states of Catalonia and Aragon, as well as the small Spanish anarchist city states of Alcoy and Caspe

 

W. H. Auden - In 1937, after observing the Spanish Civil War he wrote a politically-engaged pamphlet poem "Spain" ; he later discarded it from his collected works

 

Willy Brandt - In 1937, during the Civil War, Brandt worked in Spain as a journalist

 

Geo Bogza - Late in 1937, Geo Bogza traveled to Spain as a war correspondent in the Civil War, supporting the Republican side

 

Maria Teresa Prieto - She went to stay with her brother Carlos in Mexico in 1937 during the Spanish Civil War where she studied with Manuel Ponce and Carlos Chavez

 

Miguel Llobet - The statement by Philip J. Bone in "The Guitar and Mandolin" that Llobet "was killed in 1937, in an air raid in Barcelona during the Spanish Civil War" has been tacitly contradicted by all reliable sources

 

In February 1937, over 7,000 were killed after the capture of Málaga add something

 

With his ranks swelled by Italian troops and Spanish colonial soldiers from Morocco, Franco made another attempt to capture Madrid in January and February 1937, but was again unsuccessful add something

 

On May 21, 1937, around 4,000 Basque children were taken to the UK on the aging steamship "SS Habana" from the Spanish port of Santurtzi add something

 

Euzkadi (daily) - Spanish Civil War - In June 1937, during the Spanish Civil War, after the "national" forces occupied Bilbao, "Euzkadi"'s publication was cancelled and the premises were offered to "El Correo Español" which was the newspaper of Spanish Falange

 

Lillian Hellman - Spanish Civil War - In October 1937, Hellman spent a few weeks in Spain to lend her support, as other writers had, to the International Brigades of non-Spaniards who had joined the anti-Franco side in the Spanish Civil War

 

Ernest Sheepshanks - Spanish Civil War - Sheepshanks died, aged 27, in December 1937 at Caudiel, Teruel, where he was a Reuters special correspondent at the Battle of Teruel in the Spanish Civil War, covering the war from the pro-Franco side

 

Wolfgang Schellmann - Two years later, on 19 December 1937, "Oberleutnant" Schellmann was given command of the 1st "Staffel" of "Jagdgruppe" 88, in the "Condor Legion", fighting in the Spanish Civil War


1938

Capturing large parts of Catalonia in 1938 and 1939, the war ended with the victory of the Nationalists and the exile of thousands of leftist Spaniards, many of whom fled to refugee camps in southern France add something

 

In 1938, Franco feared an immediate French intervention against a potential Nationalist victory in Spain through French occupation of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, and Spanish Morocco add something

 

Juan Antonio Samaranch - Spanish Civil War - During the Spanish Civil War, he was conscripted into the Republican forces in 1938, at the age of 18, to serve as a medical orderly

 

H. V. Kaltenborn - Spanish Civil War - His vivid reporting of the Spanish Civil War and the Czech crisis of 1938 helped established the credibility of radio news in the public mind and helped to overcome the nation's isolationist sensibilities

 

Edward Heath - Spanish Civil War - In 1938 he visited Barcelona , under attack from Spanish Nationalist forces during the Spanish Civil War

 

Alfred Neumann (East Germany) - Spanish Civil War - In 1938, he was expelled from the Soviet Union as he had no Soviet citizenship, and he went to Spain where he participated in the Spanish Civil War as a member of the International Brigades

 

Fernando Remacha - Spanish Civil War - In 1938, in the midst of the Spanish Civil War, he received his second Premio Nacional de Música for the "String Quartet", composed in 1924 as a required piece under his Italian grant

 

Whitechapel Gallery - Spanish Civil War - The Gallery exhibited Pablo Picasso's "Guernica" in 1938 as part of a touring exhibition organised by Roland Penrose to protest the Spanish Civil War

 

Adolf Borchers - He joined the Condor Legion in the fall of 1938 and participated as a Unteroffizier in the Spanish Civil War

 

Alvah Bessie - No stranger to soldiering, through 1938 Bessie fought as a volunteer in the Abraham Lincoln Brigade of the International Brigades during the Spanish Civil War

 

Josep Pla - Claiming health reasons, he abandoned an agitated and dangerous Madrid a few months before the beginning of the Spanish Civil War. Not even Barcelona seemed safe to him, and he fled in a boat of the Catalan republic towards Marseille , in September 1938, in the company of Adi Enberg, a Norwegian citizen born in Barcelona who worked for the Francoist espionage service

 

Marca (newspaper) - "MARCA" was founded on 21 December 1938, at the height of the Spanish Civil War, in nationalist-held San Sebastián


1939

Also see Hunter, Allan, "White Corpsucles in Europe," Chicago, Willett, Clark & Co., 1939; and Brown, H. Runham, "Spain: A Challenge to Pacifism," London, The Finsbury Press, 1937 add something

 

Beevor notes that around 150,000 had returned by 1939 add something

 

Franco's troops conquered Catalonia in a whirlwind campaign during the first two months of 1939 add something

 

The Nationalists prevailed, and Franco ruled Spain for the next 36 years, from 1939 until his death in 1975 add something

 

Helmut Rosenbaum - Spanish Civil War - After a period of training on surface vessels and service on various U-boats during the Spanish Civil War, he took cammand of his first U-boat in 1939

 

Sefton Delmer - Spanish Civil War - Delmer covered important stories in Europe including the Spanish Civil War and the invasion of Poland by the "Wehrmacht" in 1939

 

Walter Adolph - Spanish Civil War - He was awarded the Spanish Cross in Gold with Swords, for his service in the Spanish Civil War. From early 1939 Adolph served as "Staffelkapitän", 2

 

Francisco Talamantez Oscuro - Spanish Civil War - Oscuro led a detachment of former university students called "Los Oscuros" who were spurred to action by the Luftwaffe Bombing of Gernika, and who fought in a series of battles and sieges over the course of the Spanish Civil War. Although it is known that they suffered heavy casualties, particularly at Madrid and Barcelona , the Los Oscuros battalion never formally surrendered and many of their members appeared to have melted back into the civilian population after the fall of Madrid in 1939

 

Paulino Masip - Driven into exile in Mexico in 1939 by the events of the Spanish Civil War, he became involved with the nascent Golden age of Mexican cinema and was the author of over 50 screenplays

 

Juan Jose Carbo - In 1939 near the end of the Spanish Civil War, Carbó moved with his family to Valencia where his father died

 

Corin Tellado - In 1939, after the Spanish Civil War, her father was promoted to First Officer and the whole family moved to Cádiz

 

Maria Rodrigo - The two left Spain for Switzerland during the Spanish Civil War, moved in 1939 to Bogotáa, Colombia, at the invitation of rector Agustín Nieto Caballero, and in 1950 to Puerto Rico at the invitation of José María García Madrid

 

Louis MacNeice - The poem was finished by February 1939, and published in May. It is widely viewed as MacNeice's masterpiece, recording his feelings as the Spanish civil war raged and the United Kingdom headed towards war with Germany, as well as his personal concerns and reflections over the past decade

 

On 5 March 1939, the Republican army, led by the colonel Segismundo Casado and the politician Julián Besteiro, rose against the prime minister Juan Negrin and formed a military "junta" with the Council of National Defense to negotiate a peace deal add something

 

Georg-Wilhelm Schulz - Spanish Civil War - During this time he appears to have been amongst those sent to help the Spanish Nationalists during the Spanish Civil War as he was awarded the Spanish Cross on 6 June 1939


1940

Olga Costa - Spanish Civil War - In Mexico City in the 1940 and 1950s, their social life revolved around the Monument to the Revolution area or Tabacalera, filled with refugees from the Spanish Civil War including Andrés Henestrosa, Lola Álvarez Bravo, Julio Prieto Posadas, María Izquierdo, Juan Soriano and Inés Amor

 

Seida - Spanish Civil War - In the 1940s, after the Spanish Civil War, Seida extended the premises in Zorroza with a new building to a Chrysler design, and switched to coachbuilding, the first bus chassis bodied being a hundred of German Klöckner units released in 1942


1941

Valencia CF - Spanish Civil War - The Spanish Civil War halted the progress of the Valencia team until 1941, when it won the Copa del Rey, beating RCD Espanyol in the final

 

Werner Hartenstein - After a period of training on surface vessels and service on various torpedo boats during the Spanish Civil War and first year of World War II, he transferred to the U-boat service in 1941


1942

Emiliana de Zubeldia - Spanish Civil War - After the Spanish Civil War, she took Mexican citizenship in 1942 and, in 1947, moved to Hermosillo, Sonora


1943

Howard Fast - Spanish Civil War - In 1943, he joined the Communist Party USA and in 1950 he was called before the House Committee on Un-American Activities; in his testimony, he refused to disclose the names of contributors to a fund for a home for orphans of American veterans of the Spanish Civil War , and was given a three-month prison sentence for contempt of Congress


1944

In 1944, a group of republican veterans, who fought in the French resistance against the Nazis, invaded the Val d'Aran in northwest Catalonia, but were defeated after 10 days add something


1945

Second World War - Most were repatriated to Spain after the war, but some 250 still remained in Britain by the end of the Second World War in 1945 add something

 

Indalecio Prieto - In 1945, toward the end of World War II, he was one of those who attempted to form a republican government in exile, hoping to reach an accord with the monarchist opposition to Francisco Franco, ruler of Spain since the end of the Civil War, with at view to restoring Spanish democracy


1946

Bank of Spain - In 1946 after the Spanish Civil War, the government of General Franco placed the bank under tight control


1947

Marcel Junod - After medical school and a short position as a surgeon in Mulhouse, he became an ICRC delegate and was deployed in Ethiopia during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, in Spain during the Spanish Civil War, and in Europe as well as in Japan during World War II. In 1947, he wrote a book with the title "Warrior without Weapons" about his experiences


1950

After the official end of the war, guerrilla warfare was waged on an irregular basis by the Spanish Maquis well into the 1950s, gradually reduced by military defeats and scant support from the exhausted population add something

 

Roman Karmen - Karmen was a true believer in Communism, and roamed the world portraying the Spanish Civil War, the battles for Moscow and Leningrad in World War II, the First Indochina War, and the rise of Communism in South East Asia in the 1950s and in South America during the 1960s


1951

Compania Sevillana de Electricidad - Spanish Civil War - After the interruption of the Spanish Civil War, the company remained in Spanish hands, and a decade later began its most rapid period of expansion, beginning with a merger with Mengemor in 1951


1953

J. Bowyer Bell - Spanish Civil War - Bell graduated in 1953, and began studying the Spanish Civil War at Duke University in North Carolina

 

Heinrich Rau - Three weeks later, during a session of the eight person Politburo on 8 July 1953, Rau made a recommendation that Ulbricht be replaced, while Rau's Spanish Civil War comrade, Stasi chief Wilhelm Zaisser, who in Spain had been known as 'General Gómez', accused Ulbricht of having perverted the party


1955

Vuelta a Espana - Spanish Civil War - The race was prevented from being run by the World Wars and the Spanish Civil War in the early years of its existence; however, the race has been held annually since 1955


1958

Ernesto Gimenez Caballero - After the Spanish Civil War he spent most of his time abroad, holding positions in the Spanish embassies in Paraguay and Brazil before being appointed ambassador to Paraguay in 1958, a position he held for 14 years


1961

In his 1961 book, Spanish archbishop Antonio Montero Moreno, who at the time was director of the journal "Ecclesia", wrote that 6,832 were killed during the war, including 4,184 priests, 2,365 monks and friars, and 283 nuns, in addition to 13 bishops, a figure accepted by historians, including Beevor add something


1962

Carl Schmitt - In 1962, Schmitt gave lectures in Francoist Spain, two of them giving rise to the publication, the following year, of "Theory of the Partisan" , in which he qualified the Spanish civil war as a "war of national liberation" against "international Communism


1969

Alfred Chakin - Spanish Civil War - "The Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion: The Canadian Contingent in the Spanish Civil War." Toronto: Copp Clark, 1969


1975

Aleksandra Samusenko - In his 1975 book the Russian author Y.A. Zhukov wrote that Samusenko was a veteran of the Spanish Civil War and the Winter War, though Garin discounted this rumor in "Tsvety na tankakh"


1980

Leon Rosselson - Spanish Civil War - Rosselson and Bailey performed two other shows during the 1980s, one about Tom Paine, the other about the Spanish Civil War


1989

Ramon Sender - In 1989, Sender published "Death in Zamora", a book investigating the execution of his mother by Franco's forces during the Spanish Civil War


1994

John Bryson (author) - Spanish Civil War - His novel of the Spanish Civil War, "To the Death, Amic", was published by Viking in 1994 and as "Hasta la Muerte, Amigo" by Editorial Milenio Spain in 2006


2001

Sam Lesser - Spanish Civil War - Lesser was a founding member of the International Brigade Memorial Trust, an organisation established in 2001 to educate the public in the history of the International Brigades and remember those who died in the Spanish Civil War, and served as its chair


2004

Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero - Spanish Civil War - In October 2004 Zapatero's government undertook the task of morally and legally rehabilitating those who were suppressed during and after the Spanish Civil War, by instituting a Memorial Commission chaired by Vice-Prime Minister María Teresa Fernández de la Vega


2005

Confederacion Nacional del Trabajo - In 2005, the government of Spain continued the return of the union endowments seized during and after the Civil War to the UGT and CNT. According to some social groups and media reports, this return was seen to be a show of favoritism to the UGT, because in 1936, the anarcho-syndicalist trade unions had about as many members as other unions, but the government returned about four million euros to the CNT while the UGT received a much larger amount


2008

In 2008 a Spanish judge, Baltasar Garzón, opened an investigation into the executions and disappearances of 114,266 people between 17 July 1936 and December 1951 add something

 

Baltasar Garzon - Spanish Civil War - In October 2008, Garzón opened a controversial inquiry into alleged crimes against humanity committed by the Nationalist government during the Spanish Civil War and the years that followed the war

 

Baltasar Garzon - On 17 October 2008, Garzón formally declared the acts of repression committed by the Franco regime to be crimes against humanity, and accounted them in more than one hundred thousand killings during and after the Spanish Civil War


2009

In a 2009 news story, Reuters reported, "About 136,000 Moroccan fighters fought for the Generalissimo's Army of Africa, the feared vanguard of a force that, ironically, Franco portrayed as a Christian crusade against godless communists" add something

 

ABC (newspaper) - Spanish Civil War - On September 25, 2009, "ABC" made its complete archives, dating back to 1903, available online, giving modern readers a chance to see contemporaneous news about the Spanish Civil War or Francisco Franco's death