United Nations

Knowledge Identifier: &United_Nations

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United Nations

International organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace add

Category: Politics

Founded in 1945.

Countries: (20%), United States (18%), United Kingdom (6%)

Main connections: Ban Ki-moon, United Nations General Assembly, Kofi Annan

Linked to: United Nations General Assembly, United Nations Security Council, International Court of Justice, International Monetary Fund

 

Timeline


 

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1945

Because of the widespread recognition that humankind could not afford a third world war, the United Nations was established to replace the flawed League of Nations in 1945 in order to maintain international peace and promote cooperation in solving international economic, social and humanitarian problems add something

 

Established in 1945 by the United Nations Charter, the Court began work in 1946 as the successor to the Permanent Court of International Justice add something

 

Regulation of armaments was included in the writing of the United Nations Charter in 1945 and was envisioned as a way of limiting the use of human and economic resources for the creation of them add something

 

The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue add something

 

On 25 April 1945, the UN Conference on International Organization began in San Francisco, attended by 50 governments and a number of non-governmental organizations involved in drafting the United Nations Charter add something

 

Alger Hiss - Hiss was secretary-general of the San Francisco United Nations Conference on International Organization , which began on April 25, 1945, and became the full director of the OSPA. In 1946, he left government service to become president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, where he served until May 5, 1949, when he was forced to step down

 

World War II - Universal Declaration of Human Rights - In an effort to maintain peace, the Allies formed the United Nations, which officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, and adopted The Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, as a common standard for all member nations


1946

Lucas Cornelius Steyn - He assisted the South African delegation to the United Nations from 1946 to 1949, and was a legal adviser in the 1950 International Court of Justice hearing into South Africa's refusal to give up South West Africa

 

Trygve Lie - He was the leader of the Norwegian delegation to the United Nations general assembly in 1946

 

Trygve Lie - Lie led the Norwegian delegation to the United Nations conference in San Francisco in 1946 and was a leader in drafting the provisions of the United Nations Security Council

 

The first meetings of the General Assembly, with 51 nations represented, and the Security Council, took place in Methodist Central Hall Westminster in London beginning 6 January 1946 add something

 

The first session was convened on 10 January 1946 in the Methodist Central Hall Westminster in London and included representatives of 51 nations add something

 

Trygve Lie - On 1 February 1946, he was elected as the first Secretary General of the United Nations as a result of a compromise between the major powers, having missed to be elected President of the first General Assembly by only a small margin


1947

The UN promotes human development through some related agencies, particularly the UNDP. The World Bank Group and International Monetary Fund , for example, are independent, specialized agencies and observers within the UN framework, according to a 1947 agreement add something

 

Sumner Welles - He argued that American policy should insist on the fulfillment of the 1947 promise of the United Nations General Assembly to establish two independent states within an economic union, policed by a United Nations force

 

Ernest Bevin - The decision to allow the United Nations to determine Palestine's future was formalised by the Attlee government's public declaration in February 1947 that Britain's Mandate in Palestine had become "unworkable


1948

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, though not legally binding, was adopted by the General Assembly in 1948 as a common standard of achievement for all add something


1949

Pierre Harmel - Harmel represented Belgium at the fourth session of the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1949


1950

Sun Myung Moon - Korean War - After serving 34 months of his sentence, Moon escaped in 1950, during the Korean War, when United Nations troops advanced on the camp and the guards fled


1951

Frank Porter Graham - He served as a mediator at the United Nations as a representative to India and Pakistan in the Kashmir dispute, serving in this capacity from 1951 through 1967

 

James Van Fleet - In 1951, he replaced General Matthew B. Ridgway as commander of the U.S. Eighth Army and United Nations forces in Korea

 

Mike Mansfield - In 1951, he was appointed by President Harry S. Truman as a delegate to the United Nations sixth session in Paris

 

Paul Robeson - On December 17, 1951 Robeson presented to the United Nations an anti-lynching petition, "We Charge Genocide"


1956

Kurt Waldheim - In 1956 he was made Ambassador to Canada, returning to the Ministry in 1960, after which he became the Permanent Representative of Austria to the United Nations in 1964

 

Louis St. Laurent - In 1956, under his direction, St-Laurent's Secretary of State for External Affairs Lester B. Pearson, helped solve the Suez Crisis in 1956 between Great Britain, France, Israel and Egypt, bringing forward St-Laurent's 1946 views on a U.N. military force in the form of the United Nations Emergency Force or peacekeeping


1958

Valdas Adamkus - Adamkus raised concerns about other Soviet activities in occupied Lithuania to United Nations Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld in 1958, and to President John F. Kennedy in 1962

 

Marian Anderson - In 1958 she was officially designated delegate to the United Nations, a formalization of her role as "goodwill ambassadress" of the U.S. which she had played earlier

 

Ravi Shankar - In 1958, Shankar participated in the celebrations of the tenth anniversary of the United Nations and UNESCO music festival in Paris

 

Louis St. Laurent - St-Laurent was succeeded as Liberal Party leader by his former Secretary of State for External Affairs and representative at the United Nations, Lester B. Pearson, at the party's leadership convention in 1958


1959

In the United States, an early opponent of the UN was the John Birch Society, which began a "get US out of the UN" campaign in 1959, charging that the UN's aim was to establish a "One World Government" add something


1960

The General Assembly adopted the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples in 1960 with no votes against but abstentions from all major colonial powers add something


1961

George Plimpton - He was appointed by President John F. Kennedy as U.S. deputy ambassador to the United Nations serving from 1961 to 1965

 

Hugh Foot, Baron Caradon - In 1961, he became British Ambassador to the United Nations Trusteeship Council


1964

Hugh Foot, Baron Caradon - After Harold Wilson won the 1964 election, Foot became Minister of State for Foreign Affairs and British Ambassador to the United Nations from 1964-1970

 

Mohamed ElBaradei - His diplomatic career began in 1964 in the Ministry of External Affairs, where he served in the Permanent Missions of Egypt to the United Nations in New York and in Geneva, in charge of political, legal, and arms-control issues

 

The group was founded on 15 June 1964 by the "Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Countries" issued at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development add something


1965

Ray Dolby - After Cambridge, Dolby acted as a technical advisor to the United Nations in India, until 1965, when he returned to England, where he founded Dolby Laboratories

 

Kenzo Tange - In 1965 Tange was asked by the United Nations to enter a limited competition for the redevelopment of Skopje , which was at that time a city of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia


1966

Sam Nujoma - After years of asking the United Nations to ensure the occupying power South Africa released control of South West Africa, he authorized armed resistance in 1966


1967

The first major meeting was in Algiers in 1967, where the "Charter of Algiers" was adopted and the basis for permanent institutional structures was begun add something

 

Suze Rotolo - Rotolo married Italian Enzo Bartoccioli, a film editor who works for the United Nations, in 1967


1971

This replaced Traditional Chinese in 1971 when the UN representation of China was changed from the Republic of China to the People's Republic of China add something

 

Ralph Abernathy - Abernathy addressed the United Nations in 1971 on World Peace and served as the leader of many peace missions as the President of the World Peace Council headquartered in Helsinki, Finland

 

Barry Goldwater - Goldwater fought in 1971 to stop US funding of the United Nations after the People's Republic of China was admitted to the organization

 

W. H. Auden - In 1971 Secretary-General of the United Nations U Thant commissioned Auden to write the words, and Pablo Casals to compose the music, for a "Hymn to the United Nations", but the work had no official status


1973

Five of the official languages were chosen when the UN was founded; Arabic was added later in 1973 add something


1975

The committee has overseen the decolonization of every country larger than 20,000 km² and removed them from the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories, besides Western Sahara, a country larger than the UK only relinquished by Spain in 1975 add something

 

Pearl Bailey - In 1975 she was appointed special ambassador to the United Nations by President Gerald Ford

 

Marvin Gaye - In October 1975, Gaye gave a performance at a UNESCO benefit concert at New York's Radio City Music Hall to support UNESCO's African literacy drive, resulting in him to be commended at the United Nations by then-Ambassador of Ghana Shirley Temple Black and Kurt Waldheim


1976

Pearl Bailey - She attended several meetings of the United Nations and later appeared in a campaign ad for President Gerald Ford in the 1976 election


1977

Martti Ahtisaari - From 1977 to 1981, he served as United Nations Commissioner for Namibia, working to secure the independence of Namibia from the Republic of South Africa


1978

Paul Robeson - His efforts to end Apartheid in South Africa were posthumously rewarded by the United Nations General Assembly in 1978

 

Shashi Tharoor - Shashi Tharoor's career in the United Nations began in 1978 as a staff member of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees in Geneva


1980

Jeane Kirkpatrick - After serving as Ronald Reagan's foreign policy adviser in his 1980 campaign and later in his Cabinet, the longtime Democrat-turned-Republican was nominated as the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations and became the first woman to hold this position

 

Jeane Kirkpatrick - Kirkpatrick became a foreign policy adviser throughout Reagan's 1980 campaign and presidency and, after his election to the presidency, the United States Ambassador to the United Nations, a position she held for four years


1981

Vicky Leandros - In 1981, she recorded the album "Love is Alive" including duets with Demis Roussos, Johnny Hallyday and US star David Soul for a United Nations Benefit

 

Khalid of Saudi Arabia - In January 1981, King Khaled was *awarded by the United Nations a gold medal


1985

Alvin C. York - Lee, 1985, 125 He questioned the failure of United Nations forces to use the atomic bomb in Korea


1988

Gold specifically mentions Yasser Arafat's 1988 invitation to address the General Assembly as a low point in the UN's history add something

 

The peacekeeping force as a whole received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1988 add something


1990

During the 1990s, the United States withheld dues citing inefficiency, and only started repayment on the condition that a major reforms initiative was introduced add something

 

Kofi Awoonor - From 1990 to 1994 Awoonor was Ghana's Ambassador to the United Nations where he headed the committee against apartheid


1991

Brian Mulroney - Gulf War - Mulroney supported the United Nations coalition during the 1991 Gulf War and when the UN authorized full use of force in the operation, Canada sent a CF-18 squadron with support personnel and a field hospital to deal with casualties from the ground war as well as a company of The Royal Canadian Regiment to safeguard these ground elements

 

Cyrus Vance - In 1991 he was named Special Envoy of the Secretary-General of the United Nations for Croatia and proposed the Vance Plan for solution of conflict in Croatia


1992

Muhammad Saeed al-Sahhaf - He served as Ambassador to Sweden, Burma, the United Nations and Italy, before returning to Iraq to serve as Foreign Minister in 1992

 

Gloria Estefan - In 1992, she served as a public member of the United States Delegation to the 47th Session of the United Nations' General Assembly Opening Plenary


1993

Vandana Shiva - Other *awards she has received include the Global 500 *award of the United Nations Environment Programme in 1993, and the Earth Day International *award of the United Nations for her dedicated commitment to the preservation of the planet as demonstrated by her actions, leadership and by setting an example for the rest of the world

 

Madeleine Albright - In January 1993, Clinton nominated her to be U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, her first diplomatic posting

 

Madeleine Albright - Albright was appointed Ambassador to the United Nations, her first diplomatic post, shortly after Clinton was inaugurated, presenting her credentials on February 9, 1993


1994

In 1994, the Office of Internal Oversight Services was established by the General Assembly to serve as an efficiency watchdog add something

 

Joycelyn Elders - In 1994, she was invited to speak at a United Nations conference on AIDS


1995

Maya Angelou - Angelou delivered what Richard Long called her "second 'public' poem", entitled "A Brave and Startling Truth", which commemorated the 50th anniversary of the United Nations in 1995

 

James Hormel - He was a member of the 1995 United Nations Commission on Human Rights and the 1996 U.S. delegation to the United Nations General Assembly, and the boards of directors of the San Francisco Chamber of Commerce and the American Foundation for AIDS Research

 

George Monbiot - In 1995, Nelson Mandela presented him with a United Nations Global 500 *award for outstanding environmental achievement

 

James Hormel - Instead Hormel was named as part of the United Nations delegation from the US to the Human Rights Commission in 1995, and in 1996 became an alternate for the United Nations General Assembly

 

Jean Michel Jarre - Jarre performed many of his most well-known hits at the "Concert for Tolerance" on Bastille Day in 1995, celebrating the 50th anniversary of the United Nations

 

Maya Angelou - In June 1995, she delivered what Richard Long called her "second 'public' poem", entitled "A Brave and Startling Truth", which commemorated the 50th anniversary of the United Nations


1997

An official reform programme was begun by Kofi Annan in 1997 add something

 

Mohamed ElBaradei - He was the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency , an intergovernmental organization under the auspices of the United Nations, from December 1997 to November 2009


1998

Since 1998, it has held another meeting each April with finance ministers heading key committees of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund add something

 

Jeremy Paxman - In 1998, Denis Halliday, a United Nations Humanitarian Coordinator, resigned his post in Iraq, describing the effects of his own organisation's sanctions as genocide


1999

Richard Holbrooke - From 1999 to 2001, Holbrooke served as U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations

 

Magic Johnson - He was the main speaker for the United Nations World AIDS Day Conference in 1999, and has served as a United Nations Messenger of Peace

 

Richard Holbrooke - In August 1999, Holbrooke was sworn-in as the 22nd U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, replacing Bill Richardson


2000

Sun Myung Moon - In 2000, Moon sponsored a United Nations conference which proposed the formation of "a religious assembly, or council of religious representatives, within the structure of the United Nations

 

Loren Legarda - Legarda was named as one of the "Global Leaders for Tomorrow" by the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland in 2000, and was awarded by the United Nations Environmental Program in Turin, Italy, for her work on the environment in 2001

 

Sun Myung Moon - Since 2000, Moon has promoted the creation of an interreligious council at the United Nations as a check and balance to its political-only structure

 

Joe Volpe - He described as "unfortunate" Canada's decision to support an United Nations resolution critical of Israel in October 2000, and later argued that Canada should have abstained

 

In December 2000, the Assembly revised the scale of assessments to reflect current global circumstances add something


2001

Mohammad Khatami - Consequently, the United Nations proclaimed the year 2001 as the United Nations' "Year of Dialogue Among Civilizations", as per Khatami's suggestion

 

Abbas Kiarostami - In 2001, Kiarostami and his assistant, Seifollah Samadian, traveled to Kampala , Uganda at the request of the United Nations &International_Fund_for_Agricultural_Development, to film a documentary about programs assisting Ugandan orphans

 

Omar al-Bashir - International pressure intensified in 2001, however, and leaders from the United Nations called for al-Bashir to make efforts to end the conflict and allow humanitarian and international workers to deliver relief to the southern regions of Sudan

 

Mohammad Khatami - The United Nations proclaimed the year 2001 as the United Nations' "Year of Dialogue Among Civilizations", on Khatami's suggestion

 

Richard Holbrooke - In January 2001, Holbrooke said that "Iraq will be one of the major issues facing the incoming Bush administration at the United Nations

 

Meryl Streep - The same year, Streep co-hosted the annual Nobel Peace Prize Concert concert with Liam Neeson which was held in Oslo, Norway on December 11, 2001 in honour of the Nobel Peace Prize laureate, the United Nations and Kofi Annan


2002

Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden - During spring semester 2002, Victoria completed a study program with the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency , and in June and September was an intern at the United Nations in New_York; in the fall she was an intern at the Swedish Trade Council's offices in Berlin and Paris

 

Michael Bloomberg - His younger sister, Marjorie Tiven, has been Commissioner of the New York City Commission for the United Nations, Consular Corps and Protocol, since February 2002


2003

Alexander Cockburn - Gulf War - Cockburn denounced the economic and political sanctions imposed on the Iraqi government by the United Nations, but Cockburn was more aggressive than most in his criticisms of American and British actions during the 12 years between the formal resolution of the Persian Gulf War and the 2003 invasion

 

Jeane Kirkpatrick - In 2003, she headed the US delegation to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights

 

Shashi Tharoor - In this capacity, he was responsible for the communication strategy, enhancing the image and effectiveness of the UN. In 2003, the Secretary-General appointed him to the additional responsibility of United Nations Coordinator for Multilingualism

 

Bernard Kerik - In a United Nations UNODC Fact Finding Mission Report dated May 18, 2003, Kerik was cited as leading a small "International Policing Team", to restructure and rebuild the Iraqi Police and Ministry of Interior


2004

Aung San Suu Kyi - Universal Declaration of Human Rights - The United Nations Working Group for Arbitrary Detention published in 2004 an Opinion that Aung San Suu Kyi's deprivation of liberty was arbitrary and in contravention of Article 9 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948, and requested that the authorities in Burma set her free, but the authorities ignored the request at that time

 

Muttiah Muralitharan - In June 2004, Muralitharan joined the United Nations World Food Program as an ambassador to fight hunger among school children

 

Christopher Reeve - In June 2004, Reeve provided a videotaped message on behalf of the Genetics Policy Institute to the delegates of the United Nations in defense of somatic cell nuclear transfer, which was under consideration to be banned by world treaty


2005

A 2005 RAND Corp study found the UN to be successful in two out of three peacekeeping efforts add something

 

Thabo Mbeki - In 2005, he was awarded the Champion of the Earth Award by the United Nations

 

Mohamed ElBaradei - United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan said that he was delighted that the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize had been awarded to the UN nuclear watchdog and its head, ElBaradei

 

In September 2005, the UN convened a World Summit that brought together the heads of most member states, calling the summit "a once-in-a-generation opportunity to take bold decisions in the areas of development, security, human rights and reform of the United Nations" add something

 

Martti Ahtisaari - In November 2005, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appointed Ahtisaari as Special Envoy for the Kosovo status process which was to determine whether Kosovo, having been administered by the United Nations since 1999, should become independent or remain a province of Serbia


2006

An ethics office was established in 2006, responsible for administering new financial disclosure and whistleblower protection policies add something

 

Richard M. Daley - In May 2006 in Geneva, Switzerland the United Nations Committee Against Torture released a report, which, along with calling on the United States to close the detention center at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, and criticizing interrogation techniques, took note of the "limited investigation and lack of prosecution" in connection to accusations of torture in Areas 2 and 3 of the Chicago Police Department

 

Wayne Rooney - In July 2006, Rooney's lawyers went to the United Nations' World Intellectual Property Organisation to gain ownership of the Internet domain names "waynerooney.com" and "waynerooney

 

DJ BoBo - DJ BoBo became a United Nations &World_Food_Programme National Ambassador Against Hunger in October 2006, becoming the first Swiss celebrity to take up the role


2007

Since the passage of the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in 2007, much of the work of UNPFII has surrounded the compliance of U.N. member states to the standards of that declaration add something

 

The Secretariat is headed by the Secretary-General, who acts as the "de facto" spokesperson and leader of the UN. The current Secretary-General is Ban Ki-moon, who took over from Kofi Annan in 2007 and has been elected for a second term to conclude at the end of 2016 add something

 

The UN's most prominent position is Secretary-General which has been held by Ban Ki-moon of South Korea since 2007 add something

 

The rights of some 370 million indigenous peoples around the world are a focus for the UN, with a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples being approved by the General Assembly in 2007 add something

 

John Baird (Canadian politician) - Baird was the Harper government's representative at the release of a major United Nations report on climate change in Paris in February 2007

 

In June 2007, the Fifth Committee created a draft resolution for the terms of reference of this committee add something


2008

Loren Legarda - In 2008, she was chosen as "United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction Asia Pacific Regional Champion for Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation"

 

George Monbiot - Hay Festival - Monbiot made an unsuccessful attempt to carry out a citizen's arrest of John Bolton, a former U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, when the latter attended the Hay Festival to give a talk on international relations in May 2008

 

The UN is one of the official supporters of the World Security Forum, a major international conference on the effects of global catastrophes and disasters, which took place in the United Arab Emirates in October 2008 add something


2009

A review of UN action during the final months of the Sri Lanka's civil war in 2009, in which tens of thousands of people were killed, criticized the UN leadership, UN Security Council and top UN officials in Sri Lanka add something

 

Charles Aznavour - In 2009 he was appointed ambassador of Armenia to Switzerland, as well as Armenia's permanent delegate to the United Nations at Geneva

 

Fredrik Reinfeldt - Reinfeldt was responsible in this role to put EU's efforts to get into a binding agreement at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen in 2009 but this did not succeed

 

Loren Legarda - This campaign aims to contribute to the United Nations Environmental Program, which aims to reach the seven billion-tree mark by 2009

 

In July 2009, the World Food Programme reported that it has been forced to cut services because of insufficient funding add something


2010

Desi Bouterse - According to the "United Nations Convention against illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances", since Bouterse was convicted before his election as Head of State in 2010 he has no immunity

 

Alejandro Toledo - In 2010, Toledo joined the Spanish Prime Minister, Nobel Peace Prize Laureate David Trimble, Italian philosopher Marcello Pera, former United States Ambassador to the United Nations John Bolton, British historian Andrew Roberts, and others in forming the Friends of Israel Initiative

 

Ali Larter - In June 2010, Larter was one of thousands of delegates from 130 countries who participated in a United Nations conference, 'Women Deliver' in Washington D.C.

 

John Baird (Canadian politician) - After resuming his environment portfolio from November 2010 until January 2011, Baird was Harper government's main representative to the United Nations climate conference in Cancun in December 2010

 

Chris Huhne - On 9 December 2010, Huhne represented the United Kingdom at the 2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference


2011

In 2011, the United Nations passed its first resolution recognizing LGBT rights, and followed up with a report documenting violations of the rights of LGBT people, including hate crime, criminalization of homosexuality, and discrimination add something


2012

John Baird (Canadian politician) - Soon after, a United Nations report contradicted the study mentioning that "steep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions can be accomplished at a cost of only 0,12 per cent of the world's annual economic output" but Baird responded that Canada will have its gas emissions levels peaked in 2012 three years before the UN's set target of 2015

 

Dikembe Mutombo - In January 2012, Mutombo was mentioned in a United Nations report regarding his role in a failed gold deal in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

 

In July 2012, the South African and Brazilian ambassadors demanded further discussion on discrimination against LGBT people add something


2013

New York: New York University Press, 2013 add something

 


2015

Progress towards these goals, which were to be met by 2015, was ultimately uneven add something

 

The Sustainable Development Goals were launched in 2015 to succeed the Millennium Development Goals add something


2016

In an effort to enhance transparency, in 2016 the organization held its first public debate between candidates for Secretary-General add something


2017

The UN's most prominent officer is the Secretary-General, an office held by Portuguese António Guterres since 2017 add something

 

The current Secretary-General is António Guterres, who replaced Ban Ki-moon in 2017 add something

 

On January 1, 2017, Portuguese diplomat António Guterres, who previously served as U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees, became the ninth Secretary-General add something