United States Congress

Knowledge Identifier: &United_States_Congress

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United States Congress

US Government's most representative body add

Category: Politics

Founded in 1774.

Countries: United States (74%), (13%), United Kingdom (2%)

Main connections: Admission to the Union, United States Senate, Congress

Linked to: United States Senate, Supreme Court of the United States, Democratic Party, Government Accountability Office

 

Timeline


 

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1776

On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, referring to the new nation as the "United States of America" add something


1781

The Articles of Confederation in 1781 created a unicameral body with equal representation among the states in which each state had a veto over most decisions add something


1784

Samuel Elbert - In 1784, he was elected to the United States Congress, but declined to serve because he did not consider himself physically fit for the task


1785

Samuel Elbert - The matter of taxation came before Elbert early in April, 1785, when William Houston, Georgia's delegate to the United States Congress, wrote a letter informing him that New York and Georgia were the only states that had not conceded the right to levy these taxesthat feeling against Georgia in the national capital New York City at the time was very high, even going so far as to threaten to vote Georgia out of the Union


1787

But since 1787, the population disparity between large and small states has grown; in 2006, for example, California had seventy times the population of Wyoming add something

 

When the Constitution was ratified in 1787, the ratio of the populations of large states to small states was roughly twelve to one add something


1789

The new government became active in 1789 add something


1795

Edward Livingston - From 1795 to 1801 Livingson was a Democratic-Republican U.S. Representative in the United States Congress from the state of New York, where he was one of the leaders of the opposition to Jay's Treaty, and introduced the resolution calling upon President George Washington to furnish Congress with the details of the negotiations of the peace treaty with the Kingdom of Great Britain, which the President refused to share


1800

The Library of Congress was established by an act of Congress in 1800 add something

 

Thomas Jefferson's election to the presidency marked a peaceful transition of power between the parties in 1800 add something


1812

The Library had mostly law books when it was burned by a British raiding party during the War of 1812, but the library's collections were restored and expanded when Congress authorized the purchase of Thomas Jefferson's private library add something

 

Samuel Livingston Breese - War of 1812 - During the War of 1812, he served under Commodore Thomas McDonough at the Battle of Lake Champlain, and for gallant conduct at Plattsburgh received a sword and a vote of thanks from the United States Congress


1816

Henry Baldwin (judge) - Baldwin was elected to the United States Congress as a member of the Democratic-Republican Party in 1816, representing Pennsylvania, but resigned after six years because of his declining health and failing finances


1818

John Wilkins Whitfield - "'John Wilkins Whitfield"' was a territorial delegate to the United States Congress representing the Kansas Territory from 1854 until 1856


1820

John W. Dawson - Born on October 21, 1820, in Cambridge, Indiana he was a lawyer, a farmer and a newspaper editor before he entered politics, unsuccessfully running for a seat in the Indiana House of Representatives in 1854, Secretary of State of Indiana in 1856, and United States Congress in 1858


1823

Benjamin Williams Crowninshield - In addition to serving two more terms in the Massachusetts House, he was elected to four terms the United States Congress from 1823 to 1831


1832

Caleb Blood Smith - He began practice at the latter place, established and edited the "Sentinel" in 1832, served several terms in the Indiana legislature, and was in the United States Congress in 1843–1849, having been elected as a Whig


1836

John Alexander McClernand - As a Democrat he served in 1836 and in 1840–43 in the Illinois House of Representatives, and in 1843–51 and in 1859–61 was a representative in the United States Congress, where in his first term he vigorously opposed the Wilmot Proviso, but in his second term was a strong Unionist and introduced the resolution of July 15, 1861, pledging money and men to the national government


1841

Henry Van Rensselaer - Van Rensselaer was elected as a Whig to the Twenty-seventh United States Congress, and served from March 4, 1841 to March 3, 1843


1842

William Grose - He passed the bar exam in 1842 and established a successful law practice and unsuccessfully ran for the United States Congress in 1852 as a Democrat


1843

Robert C. Schenck - He was elected to the United States Congress from his district in 1843, and re-elected in 1845, 1847 and 1849


1846

Peter Burwell Starke - In 1846, while his brother was in the United States Army during the Mexican War, Starke run for a seat in the United States Congress as a member of the Whig Party to replace Jefferson Davis


1850

David Jackson Bailey - Bailey was elected to represent Georgia's 3rd congressional district in 1850 as a State Rights Representative to the 32nd United States Congress

 

Clement Claiborne Clay - He ran for a seat in the United States Congress in 1850, but was not elected


1857

In 1857, for example, the Supreme Court struck down provisions of a congressional act of 1820 in its Dred Scott decision add something

 

Isaac Stevens - As a result of this public perception, Stevens was popular enough to be elected the territory's delegate to the United States Congress in 1857 and 1858


1858

William Andrew Quarles - Quarles was an unsuccessful candidate for the United States Congress from Tennessee in 1858


1859

Emperor Norton - After assuming absolute control over the country, he saw no further need for a legislature, and on October 12, 1859, he issued a decree formally abolishing the United States Congress


1860

Benjamin Prentiss - Prentiss ran unsuccessfully for United States Congress in 1860


1861

Nathaniel Lyon - On December 24, 1861, the United States Congress passed a resolution of thanks for the "eminent and patriotic services of the late Brigadier General Nathaniel Lyon


1864

Coles Bashford - He was elected President of the first Territorial Council in 1864, and served from 1867 until 1869 as a territorial delegate to the United States Congress as an independent, rather than with his former party

 

Lucy Stone - In 1864, the organization gathered 400,000 signatures to petition the United States Congress, significantly assisting in the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment abolishing slavery

 

David S. Stanley - Battle of Franklin - For leading one of his brigades in a successful counterattack during a critical moment in the fighting at the Battle of Franklin on November 30, 1864, the President of the United States on behalf of the United States Congress presented him with the Congressional Medal of Honor on March 29, 1893


1865

Caesar Antoine - At the convention, he advocated tax reforms, an extensive bill of rights, and application to the United States Congress for extension of the Freedmen's Bureau, which was established in 1865 and abolished in 1872

 

Ralph P. Buckland - He resigned from the army January 6, 1865, and returned to Ohio after winning election to the United States Congress

 

Augustus Hill Garland - Despite this pardon, he was prohibited from practicing law due to a provision passed by the United States Congress on January 24, 1865, stripping the law licenses of all lawyers who worked with the Confederate government or military


1869

James S. Negley - After the war, Negley was elected as a Republican to the United States Congress in 1869

 

Ramon Emeterio Betances - He lobbied the United States Congress successfully against an annexation of the Dominican Republic by the United States, requested in a vote by a majority of voters in a referendum in 1869


1873

James Henderson Blount - Blount served in the United States Congress representing the sixth district of Georgia from 1873 to 1893


1876

John T. Wilder - He unsuccessfully ran for the United States Congress in 1876


1891

John Thomas Scharf - In 1891 the United States Congress passed the Immigration Act of 1891, the nation's first comprehensive immigration law


1894

Napoleon J.T. Dana - Due to a Special Act of the United States Congress in 1894, Dana was commissioned a captain the U.S. Army from August 2–11

 

John W. Sprague - In 1894 the United States Congress awarded the Medal of Honor to General John W. Sprague for distinguished gallantry during the Battle of Decatur, Georgia, Alabama


1896

E.T. Kingsley - Born in the United States, he had previously been a member of DeLeon's Socialist Labor Party of America and had been a candidate for the United States Congress several times including in the Fourth Congressional District of California in 1896 and the Fifth Congressional District of California in 1898


1899

Herbert Putnam - He was the eighth Librarian of the United States Congress from 1899 to 1939


1903

William Harding Carter - A strong advocate of reform in the United States Army during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Carter and Secretary of War Elihu Root are credited with the creation of the U.S. Army War College and helped pass the General Staff Act of 1903 through the United States Congress, replacing the office of commanding general with a chief of staff and a more efficient reorganization of military staff structure

 

Henry Kirke Porter - He served in the United States House of Representatives in the 58th United States Congress from 1903 - 1905 as an Independent Republican


1905

John J. Pershing - Since Theodore Roosevelt could not yet promote Pershing, he petitioned the United States Congress to authorize a diplomatic posting, and Pershing was stationed as military attaché in Tokyo in 1905


1908

Ralph H. Cameron - In 1908, he was elected to the United States Congress as the delegate from Arizona, and he served in that regard until 1912, when Arizona was admitted into the Union as a state


1912

Carl Hayden - Bearing credentials from Territorial Governor Richard Elihu Sloan, Hayden was sworn in to the 62nd United States Congress on February 19, 1912


1913

The Sixteenth Amendment in 1913 extended congressional power of taxation to include income taxes add something

 

The constitutionally-mandated report, normally given as an annual speech, is modeled on Britain's Speech from the Throne, was written by most presidents after Jefferson but personally delivered as a spoken oration beginning with Wilson in 1913 add something


1917

Prince Maximilian of Baden - He openly spoke against the resumption of the unrestricted submarine warfare in 1917, which provoked the declaration of war by the United States Congress on April 6

 

Philip Roosevelt (army officer) - Immediately after United States Congress declared war on 6 April 1917, the Signal Corps summoned Roosevelt to Washington to help plan the aviation mobilization


1919

Philip Roosevelt (army officer) - The Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was certified as ratified on January 29, 1919 and the National Prohibition Act, passed in the United States Congress over United States President Woodrow Wilson's veto on October 28, 1919


1920

Frank Murphy - He ran unsuccessfully as a Democrat for the United States Congress in 1920, when national and state Republicans swept Michigan


1924

Samuel Woodfill - In 1924 an effort was made by some independent Democrats to encourage Woodfill to run for the United States Congress and challenge Democrat incumbent Arthur B. Rouse


1928

John William McCormack - He was elected to the United States Congress in 1928 to fill the vacancy caused by the death of James A. Gallivan

 

Edgar Jadwin - As Chief of Engineers he sponsored the plan for Mississippi River flood control that was adopted by the United States Congress in May 1928


1932

Roosevelt's election in 1932 marked a shift in government power towards the executive branch add something


1934

Richmond P. Hobson - In 1934, by special act of the United States Congress, he was advanced to Naval Constructor with a rank of Rear Admiral, and placed on the retired list


1940

Valdas Adamkus - In response, on July 22, the United States Congress unanimously passed a resolution that Russia should "issue a clear and unambiguous statement of admission and condemnation of the illegal occupation and annexation by the Soviet Union from 1940 to 1991 of the Baltic countries of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania", but Russia refused


1941

Hank Greenberg - After most of the 1941 season, however, he was honorably discharged when the United States Congress released men aged 28 years and older from service, being released on December 5, 1941, two days before Japan bombed Pearl Harbor


1942

Cecil R. King - King served out Geyer's unfinished term, and was elected as a Democrat to the 77th United States Congress by a special election on August 25, 1942


1944

John Dill - He was posthumously *awarded an American Distinguished Service Medal in 1944 as well as receiving an unprecedented joint resolution of the United States Congress appreciating his services


1945

Sergio Osmena - In December, 1945 the House Insular Affairs of the United States Congress approved the joint resolution setting the election date no later than 30 April 1946


1946

Sergio Osmena - On 30 April 1946, the United States Congress, at last approved the Bell Act, which as early as 20 January had been reported to the Ways and Means Committee of the lower house, having been already passed by the Senate


1947

Cecil R. King - King served as a member of the United States House Committee on Ways and Means, beginning a commitment that he would serve during twelve of his following thirteen terms in the House of Representatives, excluding only 1947-1948, during the 80th United States Congress


1950

Some political scientists speculate there is a "coattail effect" , although there is some evidence that the coattail effect is irregular and possibly declining since the 1950s add something


1954

Robert L. Eichelberger - The United States Congress, in recognition of his service, promoted Eichelberger, along with a number of other officers who had commanded armies or similar higher formations, to general in 1954


1956

George Mikan - In 1956 Mikan was the Republican candidate for the United States Congress in Minnesota's 3rd congressional district

 

Bill Mauldin - In 1956, he ran unsuccessfully for the United States Congress as a Democrat in New York's 28th Congressional District


1960

In 1960, Democratic candidate John F. Kennedy narrowly won the presidency and power shifted again to the Democrats who dominated both houses of Congress until 1994 add something

 

Gordon Canfield - Canfield was re-elected to represent New Jersey's Eight District for a total of nine terms, until finally when he was not a candidate for renomination in 1960 to the 87th United States Congress

 

Robert Triffin - In 1960, Triffin testified before the United States Congress warning of serious flaws in the Bretton Woods system


1961

Edward J. Patten - He was elected into office for the 88th United States Congress on January 3, 1961

 

Charles Samuel Joelson - He was sworn into the United States Congress on January 3, 1961


1964

Guy Gabaldon - Gabaldon ran unsuccessfully for United States Congress in California in 1964

 

Bull Connor - His aggressive tactics backfired when the spectacle of the brutality being broadcast on national television served as one of the catalysts for major social and legal change in the southern United States and helped in large measure to assure the passage by the United States Congress of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

 

Coleen Gray - In 1964, along with actors Victor Jory and Susan Seaforth, Gray testified before the United States Congress as part of "Project Prayer," arguing in favor of a constitutional amendment allowing school prayer

 

Henry Helstoski - The anti-Vietnam War Helstoski beat the nine-term Republican incumbent Frank C. Osmers, Jr. by 2,428 votes to win the election, and he was sworn in to the 89th United States Congress on January 3, 1965


1966

Wendell Corey - The conservative politician ran for the California seat in the United States Congress in 1966, but lost the primary election


1968

Cecil R. King - After nearly twenty-seven years of service, King was not a candidate for re-election in the 1968 House elections to the 90th United States Congress


1969

Jack Kemp - In 1969, the Erie County Republican Party approached him about running for the United States Congress


1970

Committee chairmen remained influential in both houses until the reforms of the 1970s add something


1971

Federal Election Campaign Act - Lobbying became a big factor despite the 1971 Federal Election Campaign Act add something


1972

Berkley Bedell - After starting a successful business in his youth, Berkley Fly Co., he ran for the United States Congress in 1972, but was defeated by incumbent Wiley Mayne


1973

Leo K. Thorsness - The Medal of Honor was awarded by the United States Congress during his captivity, but not announced until his release in 1973 to prevent the Vietnamese from using it against Thorsness, as was the Air Force Cross awarded to Capt Johnson for the same mission


1974

War Powers Resolution - However, in recent years, Congress has restricted presidential power with laws such as the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 and the War Powers Resolution add something

 

In 1974, Richard Nixon resigned from office after impeachment proceedings in the House Judiciary Committee indicated he would eventually be removed from office add something

 

It was created as an independent nonpartisan agency by the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 add something

 

One source suggests post-Watergate laws amended in 1974 meant to reduce the "influence of wealthy contributors and end payoffs" instead "legitimized PACs" since they "enabled individuals to band together in support of candidates add something


1976

Dan Quayle - He practiced law in Huntington, Indiana with his wife before being elected to the United States Congress in 1976, aged 29


1978

Lloyd L. Burke - Overall, he spent thirty-five years in the US Armed Forces, served as the Army's liaison officer to the United States Congress, and retired with the rank of full colonel in 1978

 

Laura Bush - She campaigned during her husband's unsuccessful 1978 run for the United States Congress and later his successful Texas gubernatorial campaign

 

Ashwin Madia - "'Jigar Ashwin Madia"', known as "'Ashwin Madia"' , is an American attorney and Iraq War veteran who ran for the United States Congress in Minnesota's 3rd congressional district in 2008


1980

Keith Henson - In 1980, Henson testified before the United States Congress when the L5 Society successfully opposed the Moon Treaty


1982

Philip Agee - In 1982, the United States Congress passed the Intelligence Identities Protection Act , legislation that seemed directly aimed at Agee's works


1984

Members elected since 1984 are covered by the Federal Employees Retirement System add something


1986

Bill Nelson - In 1986, he became the second sitting member of the United States Congress to fly in space


1992

If a seat becomes vacant in an open district, both parties may spend heavily on advertising in these races; in California in 1992, only four of twenty races for House seats were considered highly competitive add something


1994

Partisanship returned, particularly after 1994; one analyst attributes partisan infighting to slim congressional majorities which discouraged friendly social gatherings in meeting rooms such as the "Board of Education" add something

 

Dick Morris - After the 1994 mid-term election, in which Republicans took control of both houses of the United States Congress and gained considerable power in the states, Clinton once again sought Morris' help to prepare for the 1996 Presidential election


1996

Kwame Kilpatrick - Kilpatrick was elected in 1996 to the Michigan House of Representatives after his mother vacated the seat to campaign for a position in the United States Congress

 

Bill Gaede - Shortly after Gaede's plea, the United States Congress enacted the Industrial Espionage Act of 1996, legislation that would soon be used to prosecute activities of the type Gaede was involved in


1998

Barry Gordon - In 1998, Gordon was the Democratic Party nominee for the United States Congress from the Pasadena, California area


2000

Charles B. McVay III - In October 2000, the United States Congress passed a resolution that Captain McVay's record should reflect that "he is exonerated for the loss of the USS "Indianapolis"


2001

Charles B. McVay III - Following years of efforts by some survivors and others to clear his name, Captain McVay was posthumously exonerated by the United States Congress in 2001


2002

Reforms such as the 2002 McCain-Feingold act limited campaign donations but did not limit "soft money" contributions add something


2003

Pat Robertson - In response to Taylor's alleged crimes against humanity, the United States Congress passed a bill In November 2003 that offered two million dollars for his capture


2004

Warren Buffett - At the 2004 annual meeting, he lambasted a bill before the United States Congress that would consider only some company-issued stock options compensation as an expense, likening the bill to one that was almost passed by the Indiana House of Representatives to change the value of Pi from 3,14159 to 3,2 through legislative fiat

 

Alexander Lukashenko - The United States Congress has sought to aid the opposition groups by passing the Belarus Democracy Act of 2004 to introduce sanctions against Lukashenko's government and provide financial and other support to the opposition


2005

Skanderbeg - On October 27, 2005, the United States Congress issued a resolution "honoring the 600th anniversary of the birth of Gjergj Kastrioti , statesman, diplomat, and military genius, for his role in saving Western Europe from Ottoman occupation


2006

Ali al-Bahlul - Carol Rosenberg, reporting in the "Miami Herald", reported that Bahlul would be allowed to represent himself before the commissions authorized by the United States Congress's Military Commissions Act of 2006, while he was not allowed to represent himself before the Presidentially authorized commissions

 

Ellen Johnson Sirleaf - On 15 March 2006, President Sirleaf addressed a joint meeting of the United States Congress, asking for American support to help her country become a brilliant beacon, an example to Africa and the world of what love of liberty can achieve


2007

From 2007 to 2008, 175 members of Congress received "half or more of their campaign cash" from PACs add something

 

In 2007 there were approximately 17,000 federal lobbyists in Washington add something

 

Bruce Hornsby - On January 4, 2007, former Grateful Dead members Bob Weir, Bill Kreutzmann and Mickey Hart reunited along with Hornsby, Mike Gordon and Warren Haynes to play two sets. including Dead classics, at a post-inauguration fundraising party for Nancy Pelosi, the first woman to serve as Speaker of the House in the United States Congress

 

Congressional Research Service, February 9, 2007 add something

 

Vincenzo Manno - Because of his devotion to divulging culture in the world of music, on May 3, 2007, Vincenzo Manno was honoured with a tribute by the United States Congress, in occasion of the 40th Anniversary of his career


2008

In 2008, George F. Will called the Capitol building a "tomb for the antiquated idea that the legislative branch matters add something

 

Bertie Ahern - On 30 April 2008, in Washington DC, Ahern became the sixth Irish leader to address the United States Congress


2009

In 2009, however, few Americans were familiar with leaders of Congress add something

 

Casimir Pulaski - After a previous attempt failed, the United States Congress passed a joint resolution conferring honorary U.S. citizenship on Pulaski in 2009, sending it to the President for approval

 

Iqbal Masih - In January 2009, the United States Congress established the annual Iqbal Masih Award for the Elimination of Child Labor


2010

As a result, presidential arm-twisting of senators can happen before a key vote; for example, President Obama's secretary of state, Hillary Rodham Clinton, urged her former senate colleagues to approve a nuclear arms treaty with Russia in 2010 add something


2011

Julia Gillard - Gillard travelled to the United States in March 2011 to mark the 60th Anniversary of the ANZUS Alliance and was invited to address the United States Congress

 

Sukhee Kang - On July 6, 2011, he announced his candidacy for the United States Congress


2012

Raoul Wallenberg - On July 26, 2012 Wallenberg was posthumously awarded a Congressional Gold Medal by the United States Congress "in recognition of his achievements and heroic actions during the Holocaust

 

Raoul Wallenberg - On July 26, 2012 he was awarded a Congressional Gold Medal by the United States Congress "in recognition of his achievements and heroic actions during the Holocaust


2013

A Congress covers two years; the current one, the 113th Congress, began on January 3, 2013, and would end on January 3, 2015 add something

 

Domenico Montanaro, NBC News, October 10, 2013, ://firstread add something


2014

In January 2014, it was reported that for the first time over half of the members of Congress are millionaires add something


2015

A Congress covers two years; the current one, the 114th Congress, began on January 3, 2015, and would end on January 3, 2017 add something


2017

A Congress covers two years; the current one, the 115th Congress, began on January 3, 2017, and will end on January 3, 2019 add something


2019

A Congress covers two years; the current one, the 116th Congress, began on January 3, 2019, and will end on January 3, 2021 add something