United States Army
Viet Minh
World War II
Korean War
Richard Nixon
Ngo Dinh Diem
Ho Chi Minh

See also

Vietnam War

Knowledge Identifier: !Vietnam_War


Vietnam War

Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.add

Category: Military

Activity starting in 1955.

Countries: United States (47%), Vietnam (16%), (7%)

Main connections: United States Army, Viet Minh, World War II

Linked to: Viet Minh, Khmer Rouge, Communist Party of Vietnam, Kuomintang




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As a measure of the level of political repression, according to Gabriel Kolko about 12,000 suspected opponents of Diem were killed between 1955 and 1957 and by the end of 1958 an estimated 40,000 political prisoners had been jailed add something


Beginning in the summer of 1955, Diem launched the "Denounce the Communists" campaign, during which communists and other anti-government elements were arrested, imprisoned, tortured, or executed add something


From April 0 to June 1955, Diem eliminated any political opposition in the south by launching military operations against two religious groups; Cao Dai and Hoa Hao of Ba Cut add something


U.S. government reports currently cite 1 November 1955 as the commencement date of the "Vietnam Conflict," because this was the day when the U.S. Military Assistance Advisory Group in Indochina was reorganized into country-specific units and MAAG Vietnam was established add something


Elections throughout the country were to be held in 1956 to establish a unified government add something


In 1956, leaders in Hanoi admitted to "excesses" in implementing this program and restored a large amount of the land to the original owners add something


The last French soldiers were to leave Vietnam in April 1956 add something


Speech to the American Friends of Vietnam, June 1956 add something


He instituted the death penalty against any activity deemed communist in August 1956 add something


However the North Vietnamese leadership approved tentative measures to revive the southern insurgency in December 1956 add something


In 1957, independent observers from India, Poland, and Canada representing the International Control Commission stated that fair, unbiased elections were not possible in the northern part of Vietnam due to Communist influence add something


In early 1957 South Vietnam had its first peace in over a decade add something


In May 1957, Diem undertook a ten-day state visit to the United States add something


Communist forces were under a single command structure set up in 1958 add something


Joseph L. Mankiewicz - Vietnam War - In 1958, Mankiewicz directed "The Quiet American", an adaptation of Graham Greene's 1955 novel about the seed of American military involvement in what would become the Vietnam War


By Early 1959 however, Diem had considered it a campaign and implemented Law 10/59, which made political violence punishable by death and property confiscation add something


North Vietnam invaded Laos in 1959, and used 30,000 men to build invasion routes through Laos and Cambodia by 1961 add something


The first arms delivery via the trail was completed in August 1959 add something


Chinese-supplied rice allowed North Vietnam to pull military-age men from the paddies and to impose a universal draft beginning in 1960 add something


He seemed concerned only with fending off coups, and had become more paranoid after attempts in 1960 and 1962, which he partly attributed to U.S. encouragement add something


In the 1960 U.S. presidential election, Senator John F. Kennedy defeated vice-president Richard Nixon add something


Similarly, historian Arthur Schlesinger Jr. states that "it was not until September, 1960 that the Communist Party of North Vietnam bestowed its formal blessing and called for the liberation of the south from American imperialism" add something


Sources dispute whether North Vietnam played a direct role in aiding and organizing South Vietnamese rebels prior to 1960 add something


U.S. involvement escalated in the early 1960s, with troop levels tripling in 1961 and again in 1962 add something


Christopher Hitchens - Vietnam War - In the 1960s, Hitchens joined the political left, drawn by his anger over the Vietnam War, nuclear weapons, racism, and "oligarchy", including that of "the unaccountable corporation"


Thomas Merton - Vietnam War - Merton became well known for his dialogues with other faiths and his non-violent stand during the race riots and Vietnam War of the 1960s


Muhammad Ali - Vietnam War - Widespread protests against the Vietnam War had not yet begun, but with that one phrase, Ali articulated the reason to oppose the war for a generation of young Americans, and his words served as a touchstone for the racial and antiwar upheavals that would rock the 1960s


Isaac Asimov - He was a vocal opponent of the Vietnam War in the 1960s and in a television interview during the early 1970s he publicly endorsed George McGovern


Amitai Etzioni - In the 1960s, he was concerned with the Cuban Missile crisis, the nuclear arms race, the Vietnam war and the criticisms of Project Apollo's cost


Richard Nixon - Nixon believed that with the Democrats torn over the issue of the Vietnam War, a Republican had a good chance of winning, although he expected the election to be as close as in 1960.


In December 1960, the National Liberation Front was formally created consisting of all anti-GVN activists and included non-communists add something


Between 1961 and 1964 the Army's strength rose from about 0850 000 to nearly a million men add something


In 1961 and 1962, the Kennedy administration authorized the use of chemicals to destroy rice crops add something


One of the most controversial aspects of the U.S. military effort in Southeast Asia was the widespread use of chemical defoliants between 1961 and 1971 add something


The Strategic Hamlet Program had been initiated in 1961 add something


The numbers for U.S. troops deployed to Vietnam during the same period were quite different; 2,000 in 1961, rising rapidly to 16,500 in 1964 add something


In May 1961, Vice president Lyndon B. Johnson visited Saigon and enthusiastically declared Diem the "Winston Churchill of Asia add something


In June 1961, he bitterly disagreed with Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev when they met in Vienna to discuss key U.S.-Soviet issues add something


In November 1961, Park Chung Hee proposed South Korean participation in the war to John F. Kennedy, but Kennedy disagreed add something


Australia began by sending advisors to Vietnam in 1962, and combat troops were committed in 1965 add something


In the summer of 1962, Mao Zedong agreed to supply Hanoi with 90,000 rifles and guns free of charge add something


Robert Caro - Vietnam War - Caro highlighted some of Johnson's campaign contributions, such as those from the Texas construction firm Brown and Root; in 1962 the company was acquired by another Texas firm, Halliburton, which became a major contractor in the Vietnam War


Mike Mansfield - An early supporter of Ngo Dinh Diem, Mansfield had a change of heart on the Vietnam issue after a visit to Vietnam in 1962


Benjamin Spock - In 1962, Spock joined The Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy, otherwise known as SANE. Spock was politically outspoken and active in the movement to end the Vietnam War. In 1968, he and four others were singled out for prosecution by Attorney General Ramsey Clark on charges of conspiracy to counsel, aid, and abet resistance to the draft.


Colin Powell - Powell was a captain during the Vietnam War, serving as a South Vietnamese Army adviser from 1962 to 1963


In April 1962, John Kenneth Galbraith warned Kennedy of the "danger we shall replace the French as a colonial force in the area and bleed as the French did add something


On 23 July 1962, fourteen nations, including China, South Vietnam, the Soviet Union, North Vietnam and the United States, signed an agreement promising the neutrality of Laos add something


By 1963, there were 16,000 American military personnel in South Vietnam, up from Eisenhower's 0900 advisors add something


Early in 1963, the Army Nurse Corps launched Operation Nightingale, an intensive effort to recruit nurses to serve in Vietnam add something


General Paul Harkins, the commander of U.S. forces in South Vietnam, confidently predicted victory by Christmas 1963 add something


Johnson had reversed Kennedy's disengagement policy from Vietnam in withdrawing 1,000 troops by the end of 1963 , with his own NSAM 0273 to expand the war add something


Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press, 1963 add something


Peer De Silva, former head of the Saigon department of the CIA, wrote that from as early as 1963, Viet Cong units were using disembowelment and other methods of mutilation for psychological warfare add something


U.S. officials began discussing the possibility of a regime change during the middle of 1963 add something


The inept performance of the South Vietnamese army was exemplified by failed actions such as the Battle of Ap Bac on 2 January 1963, in which a small band of Viet Cong beat off a much larger and better equipped South Vietnamese force, many of whose officers seemed reluctant even to engage in combat add something


On 21 August 1963, the ARVN Special Forces of Colonel Le Quang Tung, loyal to Diem's younger brother Ngo Dinh Nhu, raided pagodas across Vietnam, causing widespread damage and destruction and leaving a death toll estimated to range into the hundreds add something


President Diem was overthrown and executed, along with his brother, on 2 November 1963 add something


On 24 November 1963, Johnson said, "the battle against communism add something


Joe Biden - Biden received five student draft deferments during this period, with the first coming in late 1963 and the last in early 1968, at the peak of the Vietnam War. In April 1968, he was reclassified by the Selective Service System as not available for service due to having had asthma as a teenager.


North Vietnam sent 10,000 troops of the NVA to attack the south in 1964, and this figure increased to 0100 000 in 1965 add something


Thai forces saw much more action in the covert war in Laos between 1964 and 1972, though Thai regular formations there were heavily outnumbered by the irregular "volunteers" of the CIA-sponsored Police Aerial Reconnaissance Units or PARU, who carried out reconnaissance activities on the western side of the Ho Chi Minh Trail add something


The first South Korean troops began arriving in 1964 and large combat formations began arriving a year later add something


Raymond Massey - Vietnam War - He too dabbled in politics, appearing in a television advertisement in support of the conservative Republican presidential candidate Barry Goldwater in 1964, in which he denounced the burgeoning Vietnam War


Lloyd Bentsen - Vietnam War - The campaign came in the wake of Yarborough's politically hazardous votes in favor of the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and his opposition to the Vietnam War


Lodge, frustrated by the end of the year, cabled home about Minh: "Will he be strong enough to get on top of things-" His regime was overthrown in January 1964 by General Nguyen Khanh add something


On 1 May 1964 Lyndon Johnson requested South Korean participation add something


On 2 August 1964, the , on an intelligence mission along North Vietnam's coast, allegedly fired upon and damaged several torpedo boats that had been stalking it in the Gulf of Tonkin add something


The second attack led to retaliatory air strikes, prompted Congress to approve the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution on 7 August 1964, add something


David A. Hargrave - Vietnam War - Hargrave served in the United States Army during the Vietnam War for six years, serving from August 28, 1964 through August 20, 1970


By early 1965, 7,559 South Vietnamese hamlets had been destroyed by the Viet Cong add something


He was featured on the cover of "Time" magazine three times and was named 1965's Man of the Year add something


Soviet crews fired USSR-made surface-to-air missiles at the F-4 Phantom, which were shot down over Thanh Hoa in 1965 add something


Starting in 1965, China sent anti-aircraft units and engineering battalions to North Vietnam to repair the damage caused by American bombing, rebuild roads and railroads, and to perform other engineering works add something


Thai Army formations, including the "Queen's Cobra" battalion, saw action in South Vietnam between 1965 and 1971 add something


U.S. combat units were deployed beginning in 1965 add something


Adrian Cronauer - Cronauer co-wrote the original story for the film "Good Morning, Vietnam", which was based on his experiences as a Saigon-based deejay during the Vietnam War, where he served from 1965 to 1966


Allen Ginsberg - Ginsberg played a key role in ensuring that a 1965 protest of the Vietnam war, which took place at the Oakland, California-Berkeley city line and drew several thousand marchers, was not violently interrupted by the California chapter of the motorcycle gang, the Hells Angels, and their leader, Sonny Barger


Robert Menzies - In 1965, Menzies committed Australian troops to the Vietnam War, and to reintroduce conscription


On 8 March 1965, 3,500 U.S. Marines were dispatched to South Vietnam add something


From July 1965 to the end of 1974, fighting in Vietnam was attended by some 6,500 officers and generals, as well as more than 4,500 soldiers and sergeants of the Soviet Armed Forces add something


Bertrand Russell - In October 1965 he tore up his Labour Party card because he suspected the party was going to send soldiers to support the US in the Vietnam War.


Jackie Robinson - Vietnam War - He enrolled in the Army in search of a disciplined environment, served in the Vietnam War, and was wounded in action on November 19, 1965


" Washington, D.C. Government Printing Office, 1966, vol add something


Samuel L. Gravely, Jr. - Vietnam War - During the Vietnam War he commanded the destroyer as it performed plane guard duty and gunfire support off the coast of Vietnam in 1966, making him the first African American to lead a ship into combat


David Horowitz - Vietnam War - In 1966, Ralph Schoenman persuaded Bertrand Russell to convene a war crimes tribunal to judge American involvement in the Vietnam War


Thich Nhat Hanh - Vietnam War - It was during his 1966 stay in the U.S. that Thich Nhat Hanh met with Martin Luther King, Jr. and urged him to publicly denounce the Vietnam War


Bob Kerrey - Vietnam War - Kerrey served in the United States Navy as a SEAL from 1966 to 1969 during the Vietnam War


Gerald Ford - Criticism over the Johnson Administration's handling of the Vietnam War began to grow in 1966, with Ford and Congressional Republicans expressing concern that the United States was not doing what was necessary to win the war.


Jeremy Rifkin - He had an epiphany when one day in 1966 he walked past a group of students protesting the Vietnam War and picketing the administration building and was amazed to see, as he recalls, that "my frat friends were beating the living daylights out of them


Loretta Lynn - Her song, "Dear Uncle Sam", released in 1966 during the Vietnam War, describes a wife's anguish at the loss of a husband to war


Keith Holyoake - In 1966 Holyoake's Government sent limited military support to the Vietnam War


Tim Fischer - In 1966 he was conscripted into the Australian Army, was commissioned at the Officer Training Unit, Scheyville and served in the Vietnam War - an experience which left him with a lifelong identification with the Australian armed forces, as well as an affinity with Asia


James Stewart - In 1966, Brigadier General James Stewart flew as a non-duty observer in a B-52 on a bombing mission during the Vietnam War. At the time of his B-52 flight, he refused the release of any publicity regarding his participation, as he did not want it treated as a stunt, but as part of his job as an officer in the Air Force Reserve.


Arthur Calwell - The Labor Party suffered a crushing defeat in the 1966 election, which Menzies' successor Harold Holt fought on the Vietnam War issue


Muhammad Ali - Ali and then-WBA heavyweight champion boxer Ernie Terrell had agreed to meet for a bout in Chicago on March 29, 1966 but the Illinois Athletic Commission refused to host the fight due to Ali's Vietnam War statements


In August 1966 after the arrival of the 9th Division the Koreans established a corps command, the Republic of Korea Forces Vietnam Field Command, near I Field Force, Vietnam at Nha Trang add something


Charles de Gaulle - In September 1966, in a famous speech in Phnom Penh , he expressed France's disapproval of the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, calling for a U.S. withdrawal from Vietnam as the only way to ensure peace.


As a result of a decision of the Korean Workers' Party in October 1966, in early 1967 North Korea sent a fighter squadron to North Vietnam to back up the North Vietnamese 921st and 923rd fighter squadrons defending Hanoi add something


" December 1966. quoted in Marilyn B. Young add something


In 1967, Thieu became president with Ky as his deputy, after rigged elections add something


Public opinion steadily turned against the war following 1967 and by 1970 only a third of Americans believed that the U.S. had not made a mistake by sending troops to fight in Vietnam add something


Westmoreland predicted victory by the end of 1967 add something


Gray Davis - Vietnam War - After completing the program in 1967 he entered active duty in the United States Army, serving in the Vietnam War during its height until 1969


Gustav Hasford - Vietnam War - Born in Russellville, Alabama, Hasford joined the United States Marine Corps in 1967 and served as a combat correspondent during the Vietnam War


Alexander Calder - Vietnam War - Calder used prints for advocacy, as in poster prints from 1967 and 1969 protesting the Vietnam War


John McCain - Vietnam War - During the Vietnam War, he was almost killed in the 1967 USS "Forrestal" fire


Silvestre Reyes - In 1967, Reyes served as a helicopter crew chief in the Vietnam War. In 1968, Reyes suffered complete hearing loss to his right ear when mortar landed near his foxhole during combat.


Muhammad Ali - In 1967, three years after Ali had won the World Heavyweight Championship, he was publicly vilified for his refusal to be conscripted into the U.S. military, based on his religious beliefs and opposition to the Vietnam War


Mary Jo Kopechne - Vietnam War - Once, during March 1967, she stayed up all night at Kennedy's Hickory Hill home to type a major speech against the Vietnam War, while the senator and his aides such as Ted Sorenson and C.Richard Semple II made last-minute changes to it


Creighton Abrams - Vietnam War - Due to concerns about the conduct of the Vietnam War, he was appointed as deputy to General William Westmoreland, head of the Military Assistance Command in Vietnam, in May 1967


Carlos Lozada - Vietnam War - The United States at that time was involved in the Vietnam War and on June 11, 1967, Lozada was sent to Vietnam and assigned to Co. A, 2nd Battalion, 503 Infantry, 173rd Airborne Brigade


Norman Mailer - In October 1967, he was arrested for his involvement in an anti-Vietnam War demonstration at the Pentagon.


In November 1967 Westmoreland spearheaded a public relations drive for the Johnson administration to bolster flagging public support add something


Since November 1967, the Taiwanese government secretly operated a cargo transport detachment to assist the United States and South Vietnam add something


Vietnam Veterans Against the War - After explosive news reports of American military abuses, such as the 1968 My Lai Massacre, brought new attention and support to the anti-war movement, some veterans joined Vietnam Veterans Against the War add something


American involvement in the war peaked in 1968, at the time of the Tet Offensive add something


In 1968, The Vietnam War Crimes Working Group was established by the Pentagon task force set up in the wake of the My Lai Massacre, to attempt to ascertain the veracity of emerging claims of war crimes by U.S. armed forces in Vietnam, during the Vietnam War period add something


James E. Westheider wrote that "At the height of American involvement in 1968, for example, there were 0543 000 American military personnel in Vietnam, but only 80,000 were considered combat troops add something


Maximum troop levels peaked at 50,000 in 1968, however all were withdrawn by 1973 add something


They stayed through 1968, and 0200 pilots were reported to have served add something


William Gibson - Vietnam War - After spending his adolescence at a private boarding school in Arizona, Gibson evaded the draft during the Vietnam War by emigrating to Canada in 1968, where he became immersed in the counterculture and after settling in Vancouver eventually became a full-time writer


Denise Levertov - Vietnam War - Also in response to the Vietnam War, Levertov joined the War Resisters League, and in 1968 signed the Writers and Editors War Tax Protest pledge, vowing to refuse tax payments in protest against the war


Daniel Berrigan - Vietnam War - He achieved fame and notoriety in 1968 when he and his brother, Philip, were put on the FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list for their involvement in antiwar protests during the Vietnam war


David Halberstam - Vietnam War - He is interviewed in the 1968 documentary film on the Vietnam War entitled "In the Year of the Pig"


Michael Foot - Vietnam War - He opposed the government's moves to restrict immigration, join the Common Market and reform the trade unions, was against the Vietnam War and Rhodesia's unilateral declaration of independence, and denounced the Soviet suppression of "socialism with a human face" in Czechoslovakia in 1968


Humphry Berkeley - Vietnam War - In 1968 he had resigned from the Conservative Party, largely in opposition to its stance on the Vietnam War


Nelson Algren - Vietnam War - In 1968, he signed the Writers and Editors War Tax Protest pledge, vowing to refuse tax payments in protest against the Vietnam War


Galway Kinnell - Vietnam War - In 1968, he signed the Writers and Editors War Tax Protest pledge, vowing to refuse tax payments in protest against the Vietnam War. Kinnell draws upon both his involvement with the civil rights movement and his experiences protesting against the Vietnam War in his book-long poem "The Book of Nightmares"


Gloria Steinem - Vietnam War - In 1968, she signed the Writers and Editors War Tax Protest pledge, vowing to refuse tax payments in protest against the Vietnam War


Kay Boyle - Vietnam War - In 1968, she signed the Writers and Editors War Tax Protest pledge, vowing to refuse tax payments in protest against the Vietnam War. In her later years, she became an active supporter of Amnesty International and worked for the NAACP


Hunter S. Thompson - Vietnam War - In early 1968, he signed the Writers and Editors War Tax Protest pledge, vowing to refuse tax payments in protest against the Vietnam War. According to Thompson's letters and his later writings, at this time he planned to write a book called "The Joint Chiefs" about "the death of the American Dream


Mick Jagger - Vietnam War - Jagger, who at the time described himself as an anarchist and espoused the leftist slogans of the era, took part in a demonstration against the Vietnam War outside the US Embassy in London in 1968


Pete Duel - Duel became involved in politics during the primaries for the 1968 presidential election, campaigning for Eugene McCarthy, in opposition to the Vietnam war


Allen Ginsberg - In 1968, Ginsberg signed the Writers and Editors War Tax Protest pledge, vowing to refuse tax payments in protest against the Vietnam War.


Daniel Berrigan - In 1968, he signed the Writers and Editors War Tax Protest pledge, vowing to refuse tax payments in protest against the Vietnam War. In the same year, he was interviewed in the anti-Vietnam War documentary film "In the Year of the Pig", and later that year became involved in radical nonviolent protest


Westmoreland became Chief of Staff of the Army in March 1968, just as all resistance was finally subdued add something


On 10 May 1968, despite low expectations, peace talks began between the United States and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam add something


Hector Santiago-Colon - Vietnam War - His actions on June 28, 1968 during the Vietnam War saved the lives of his fellow comrades


Sino-Soviet relations soured after the Soviets invaded Czechoslovakia in August 1968 add something


Randy Weaver - When the Vietnam War began to escalate, Weaver dropped out of community college and joined the United States Army in October 1968


The Chinese began to withdraw in November 1968 in preparation for a clash with the Soviets, which occurred at Zhenbao Island in March 1969 add something


During the height of U.S. military involvement, 31 December 1968, the breakdown of allied forces were as follows: 0536 100 U.S. military personnel, with 30,610 U.S. military having been killed to date; 65,000 Free World Forces personnel; 0820 000 South Vietnam Armed Forces with 88,343 having been killed to date add something


Under pressure from Washington, however, he changed this policy in 1969 add something


Larry Hama - Vietnam War - After high school, Hama took a job drawing shoes for catalogs, and served in the United States Army from 1969 to 1971, during the Vietnam War, where he became a firearms and explosive ordnance expert


Dan White - Vietnam War - He was a sergeant in the 101st Airborne Division in the Vietnam War from 1969 to 1970 and was honorably discharged in 1971


Spencer Bachus - He served in the Alabama National Guard from 1969 to 1971, during the Vietnam War, while attending law school; he earned a Juris Doctor degree from the University of Alabama Law School in 1972.


Lee Marvin - Marvin was a liberal Democrat who opposed the Vietnam War and declared his support for the gay rights movement in a January 1969 interview with Playboy magazine.


Wesley Clark - Vietnam War - Clark was assigned a position in the 1st Infantry Division and flew to Vietnam on May 21, 1969 during the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War


First Lieutenant Sharon Lane was the only female military nurse to be killed by enemy gunfire during the war, on 8 June 1969 add something


Kenneth Anger - "Demon Brother" includes Anton LaVey as a priest, newsreel footage of the Vietnam War, and clips of The Rolling Stones' July 1969 free concert in London's Hyde Park, their first public appearance after the death of Brian Jones and their first performance with Mick Taylor


In September 1969, Ho Chi Minh died at age seventy-nine add something


Bill Clinton - While at Oxford he participated in Vietnam War protests and organized an October 1969 Moratorium event


On 10 October 1969, Nixon ordered a squadron of 18 B-52s loaded with nuclear weapons to race to the border of Soviet airspace to convince the Soviet Union that he was capable of anything to end the Vietnam War. add something


On 15 October 1969, the Vietnam Moratorium attracted millions of Americans add something


Howard Zinn - In December 1969, radical historians tried unsuccessfully to persuade the American Historical Association to pass an anti-Vietnam War resolution


Beginning in 1970, American troops were being taken away from border areas where much more killing took place, and instead put along the coast and interior, which is one reason why casualties in 1970 were less than half of 1969's totals add something


In 1970, Prince Sihanouk was deposed by his pro-American prime minister Lon Nol add something


North Vietnam invaded Cambodia in 1970 at the request of Khmer Rouge leader Nuon Chea add something


The fatal shooting of four students at Kent State University in 1970 led to nation-wide university protests add something


Jello Biafra - Vietnam War - During the 1970s, he became involved in activism in reaction to several events of the era including the Vietnam War, the Chicago 7 trial, and the Kent State shootings


John Maynard Keynes - Vietnam War - Historian Peter Pugh has stated a key cause of the economic problems afflicting America in the 1970s was the refusal to raise taxes to finance the Vietnam War, which was against Keynesian advice


Jeff Kennett - Vietnam War - Kennett returned to civilian life in 1970, reentering a divided Australian society, split by the Vietnam War, of which Kennett was a firm supporter


A. M. Rosenthal - During the 1970s he directed coverage of a number of important news stories, including the Vietnam war and the Watergate scandal


Peter C. Lemon - He received the award for his actions on April 1, 1970 while serving in Tay Ninh province during the Vietnam War


John Lindsay - Vietnam War - On May 8, 1970, near the intersection of Wall Street and Broad Street and at New York City Hall a riot started when about 200 construction workers mobilized by the New York State AFL-CIO attacked about 1,000 high school and college students and others protesting the Kent State shootings, the American invasion of Cambodia and the Vietnam War


China's withdrawal from Vietnam was completed in July 1970 add something


Boston, Massachusetts Beacon Press, 1971, vol add something


In 1971 Australia and New Zealand withdrew their soldiers add something


In 1971 the Pentagon Papers were leaked to "The New York Times" add something


In 1971 the later U.S. presidential candidate, John Kerry, testified before the U.S. Senate and stated that over 0150 U.S. veterans testified during the Winter Soldier Investigation and described war crimes committed in Southeast Asia add something


Mike Gravel - Vietnam War - As Senator, Gravel became nationally known for his forceful but unsuccessful attempts to end the draft during the Vietnam War and for putting the Pentagon Papers into the public record in 1971 at risk to himself


Dan Blocker - Vietnam War - Blocker so opposed the Vietnam War that it helped influence him to uproot his family in 1971 and move them to Lugano, Switzerland


Ron Kovic - Vietnam War - His first arrest was during an anti-Vietnam War demonstration at an Orange County, California draft board in the spring of 1971 when he refused to leave the office of the draft board explaining to a representative that, by sending young men to Vietnam, they were inadvertently, "condemning them to their death," or to be wounded and maimed like himself in a war that he had come to believe was, "immoral and made no sense


John Dingell - He supported the Vietnam War until 1971.


Denise Levertov - Some of her war poetry was published in her 1971 book "To Stay Alive", a collection of anti-Vietnam War letters, newscasts, diary entries, and conversations


The ARVN launched Operation Lam Son 719 in February 1971, aimed at cutting the Ho Chi Minh trail in Laos add something


Many U.S. troops were removed from the region, and on 5 March 1971, the United States returned the 5th Special Forces Group, which was the first American unit deployed to South Vietnam, to its former base in Fort Bragg, North Carolina add something


Mike Gravel - The existing draft law was scheduled to conclude at the end of June 1971, and the Senate faced a contentious debate about whether to extend it as the Vietnam War continued


The war was the central issue of the 1972 presidential election add something


Vietnamization was again tested by the Easter Offensive of 1972, a massive conventional invasion of South Vietnam add something


Ed Bradley - Vietnam War - In 1972, he volunteered to be transferred to Saigon to cover the Vietnam War, as well as spending time in Phnom Penh covering the war in Cambodia


Kate Jackson - Vietnam War - Jackson's performance was well received in the 1972 independent film "Limbo", one of the first theatrical films to address the Vietnam War and the wives of soldiers who were POWs, MIA or killed in action


Sam Yorty - He finally ended his bid shortly before the California primary in June 1972, asking voters to support Humphrey because of the radical nature of anti-Vietnam War candidate George McGovern


In October 1972, they reached an agreement add something


In the November 1972 Election, Democrat nominee George McGovern lost 49 of 50 states to the incumbent president Richard Nixon add something


By 1973, approximately 7,500 women had served in Vietnam in the Southeast Asian theater add something


Conscription in the United States had been controlled by the president since World War II, but ended in 1973 add something


Jane Fonda - Vietnam War - Later, on the subject of torture used during the Vietnam War, Fonda told "The New York Times" in 1973, "I'm quite sure that there were incidents of torture


John McCain - The book traces McCain's family background and childhood, covers his time at Annapolis and his service before and during the Vietnam War, concluding with his release from captivity in 1973


Despite the Paris Peace Accords, which was signed by all parties in January 1973, the fighting continued add something


On 15 January 1973, Nixon announced the suspension of offensive action against North Vietnam add something


The Paris Peace Accords on "Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam" were signed on 27 January 1973, officially ending direct U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. A cease-fire was declared across North and South Vietnam add something


On 15 March 1973, President Nixon implied that the United States would intervene militarily if the communist side violated the ceasefire add something


During his confirmation hearings in June 1973, Secretary of Defense James R. Schlesinger stated that he would recommend resumption of U.S. bombing in North Vietnam if North Vietnam launched a major offensive against South Vietnam add something


The oil price shock of October 1973 caused significant damage to the South Vietnamese economy add something


The U.S. midterm elections in 1974 brought in a new Congress dominated by Democrats who were even more determined to confront the president on the war add something


Ron Kovic - In 1974, Kovic led a group of disabled Vietnam War veterans in wheelchairs on a 17-day hunger strike inside the Los Angeles office of Senator Alan Cranston


The Vietcong resumed offensive operations when dry season began and by January 1974 it had recaptured the territory it lost during the previous dry season add something


Gerald Ford took over as U.S. president on 9 August 1974 after president Nixon resigned due to the Watergate scandal add something


At the start of 1975, the South Vietnamese had three times as much artillery and twice the number of tanks and armoured cars as the opposition add something


Congress immediately voted in restrictions on funding and military activities to be phased in through 1975 and to culminate in a total cutoff of funding in 1976 add something


From 1975 to 1996, the United States resettled some 0250 000 Lao refugees from Thailand, including 0130 000 Hmong add something


Since 1975, an estimated 1,4 million refugees from Vietnam and other Southeast Asian countries have been resettled to the United States, while Canada, Australia, and France resettled over 0500 000 add something


Thieu, mistrustful and indecisive, remained president until 1975, having won a one-man election in 1971 add something


Phuoc Binh, the provincial capital, fell on 6 January 1975 add something


On 10 March 1975, General Dung launched Campaign 0275 a limited offensive into the Central Highlands, supported by tanks and heavy artillery add something


The capture of Saigon by the Vietnam People's Army in April 1975 marked the end of the war, and North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year add something


Phnom Penh, the capital of Cambodia, fell to followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea, commonly known as the Khmer Rouge, on 17 April 1975 add something


Schlesinger announced early in the morning of 29 April 1975 the evacuation from Saigon by helicopter of the last U.S. diplomatic, military, and civilian personnel add something


On 30 April 1975, Vietnamese People's Army troops entered the city of Saigon and quickly overcame all resistance, capturing key buildings and installations add something


The communist Pathet Lao overthrew the royalist government of Laos in December 1975, establishing the Lao People's Democratic Republic add something


A larger offensive might provoke a U.S. reaction and interfere with the big push planned for 1976 add something


If the town could be taken, the provincial capital of Pleiku and the road to the coast would be exposed for a planned campaign in 1976 add something


On 2 July 1976, North and South Vietnam were merged to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam add something


In 1977, United States president Jimmy Carter granted a full, complete and unconditional pardon to all Vietnam-era draft dodgers add something


Alexander Calder - However, representatives of the Calder family boycotted the January 10, 1977 ceremony "to make a statement favoring amnesty for Vietnam War draft resisters


From 1978 to 1979, some 0450 000 ethnic Chinese left Vietnam by boat as refugees or were expelled across the land border with China add something


Jane Fonda - She won her second Oscar in 1978 for "Coming Home", as a Marine officer's wife who volunteers at a veterans' hospital and becomes involved with a disabled Vietnam War veteran


In response, China invaded Vietnam in 1979 add something


In response, China launched a brief, punitive invasion of Vietnam in 1979 add something


Source: Harry G. Summers, Jr. Vietnam War Almanac, Facts on File Publishing, 1985 add something


Paul X. Kelley - Vietnam War - He joined the Marine Force Reconnaissance community and served with distinction during the Vietnam War. His final assignments were as Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps and Commandant of the Marine Corps until his retirement in 1987


In 1988, Vietnam suffered a famine that afflicted millions add something


Willem Dafoe - In 1988, Dafoe starred in another film set during the Vietnam War, this time as CID Agent Buck McGriff in Off Limits.


Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Russian officials acknowledged that the Soviet Union had stationed up to 3,000 troops in Vietnam during the war add something


" Washington, D.C. Government Printing Office, 1991, vol add something


Jeff Kennett - The largest public protest in Melbourne since the Vietnam War occurred on 10 November 1992, with an estimated 100,000 people marching in opposition to the retrenchment of many workers and the large State budget cutbacks


Joe Lieberman - Vietnam War - A spokesperson told "The Hartford Courant" in 1994 that Lieberman received an educational deferment from the Vietnam War draft when he was an undergraduate and law student from 1960 to 1967


Bob Dornan - Vietnam War - In 1995, he received a minor reprimand from the House for stating in a floor speech that President Bill Clinton had "given aid and comfort to the enemy" during the Vietnam War. In 1996, Dornan ran for President of the United States, using his campaign primarily as a vehicle to continue to criticize Clinton


Robert McNamara - Vietnam War - McNamara's memoir, "In Retrospect", published in 1995, presented an account and analysis of the Vietnam War from his point of view


Associated Press, 3 April 1995, "Vietnam Says 1,1 Million Died Fighting For North add something


In 1998 after a high level review by the Department of Defense and through the efforts of Richard B. Fitzgibbon's family the start date of the Vietnam War according to the US government was officially changed to 1 November 1955 add something


Brian Dennehy - Vietnam War - Although he said in numerous interviews that he had spent five years fighting in Vietnam during the Vietnam War, even telling harrowing tales of being hit by shrapnel, it was revealed in the 1998 book "Stolen Valor" by B.G. Burkett that Dennehy had never served overseas at all during his time in the military


W. Thomas Smith, Jr. - Vietnam War - The interviews were published together as a single piece on the Vietnam War in the November 1998 issue of "George"


Bill Clinton - Clinton's November 2000 visit to Vietnam was the first by a U.S. President since the end of the Vietnam War


Bob Kerrey - In 2001, the "New York Times Magazine" and "60 Minutes II" carried reports on an incident that occurred during Kerrey's Vietnam War service


In 2003 a series of investigative reports by the Toledo Blade uncovered a large number of unreported American war crimes particularly from the Tiger Force unit add something


Scott O'Grady - In 2004, O'Grady, supporting George W. Bush for re-election, accused Bush's opponent John Kerry of "treason" for actions taken during the Vietnam War


Michelle Malkin - Vietnam War - In August 2004, following claims by Swift Boat Veterans for Truth that presidential candidate John Kerry had lied about his record during the Vietnam War, Malkin appeared on MSNBC's "Hardball with Chris Matthews" and stated that there were "legitimate questions" over whether one of Kerry's wounds was "self-inflicted


An undated NSA publication declassified in 2005, however, revealed that there was no attack on 4 August add something


As of 2006, the Vietnamese government estimates that there are over 4,000,000 victims of dioxin poisoning in Vietnam, although the United States government denies any conclusive scientific links between Agent Orange and the Vietnamese victims of dioxin poisoning add something


In 2008, by contrast, approximately one-third of women in the military felt that they had been sexually harassed compared with one-third of men add something


Witnesses to this include Senator John McCain, 2008 U.S. Presidential candidate and former Vietnam prisoner of war, according to his 1999 book "Faith of My Fathers" add something


As of 2013, the U.S. government is paying Vietnam veterans and their families or survivors more than 22 billion dollars a year in war-related claims add something


Nick Turse, in his 2013 book, Kill Anything that Moves: The Real American War in Vietnam, argues that a relentless drive toward higher body counts, a widespread use of free-fire zones, rules of engagement where civilians who ran from soldiers or helicopters could be viewed as VietCong, and a widespread disdain for Vietnamese civilians led to massive civilian casualties and endemic war crimes inflicted by U.S. troops add something


Tu was awarded Nobel Prize in 2015 for her contribution on the anti-malaria treatment add something