Vladimir Lenin

Knowledge Identifier: +Vladimir_Lenin


Vladimir Lenin

Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist who served as the leader of the Russian SFSR from 1917, and then concurrently as Premier of the Soviet Union from 1922, until 1924 add

Category: Politics

Born in 1870.

Countries: Russia (45%), (9%), Germany (8%)

Main connections: Leon Trotsky, Alexander Parvus, Rysy

Linked to: Soviet Union, Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, Penguin Books, Pravda




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Vladimir Lenin was born in 1870 add something


Proceeding to Paris, France, Vladimir met with Paul Lafargue and undertook research into the Paris Commune of 1871, which he saw as an early prototype for a proletarian government add something


Another brother, Nikolai, had died several days after birth in 1873 add something


Advocating an agrarian-socialist platform, the SR emphasised the role of the peasant as revolutionary, highlighting the fact that in 1881, the Russian peasantry numbered 75 million, while the urban proletariat numbered only 1 million add something


He hoped that connections could be cemented between his Social-Democratic movement and the Emancipation of Labour group; an organisation founded in Geneva by Pleckhanov and other Russian Marxist emigres in 1883 add something


On 4 December he took part in a demonstration demanding the abolition of the 1884 statute and the re-legalisation of student societies, but along with 100 other protesters was arrested by police add something


Ilya Ulyanov died of a brain haemorrhage on 12 January 1886, when Vladimir was 16 years old add something


Born into a wealthy middle-class family in Simbirsk, Lenin gained an interest in revolutionary leftist politics following the execution of his brother in 1887 add something


Entering the Judicial Faculty of Kazan University in August 1887, Vladimir moved into a flat in the city, being joined in November by his mother, who began renting out their Simbirsk family home add something


His mother disliked his radicalism, in September 1888 persuading him to write to the Ministry of the Interior asking them to allow him to study at a foreign university, and although they refused his request, they did allow him to move back to Kazan, where he settled on the Pervaya Gora with his mother and brother Dmitry add something


In September 1889, the Ulyanovs moved to Samara, Russia for the winter, where Vladimir made contact with a number of dissidents who had been exiled there for their political views, joining a discussion circle run by Alexei P. Sklyarenko add something


Becoming increasingly sceptical of the usefulness of militant attacks and assassinations, he argued against such tactics in a December 1889 debate with M.V. Sabunaev, who was in the area trying to recruit members for the People's Freedom Party add something


In May 1890, Mariya convinced the authorities to allow Vladimir to undertake his exams externally at a university of choice add something


Vladimir remained in Samara, Russia for several years, in January 1892 being employed as a legal assistant for a regional court, soon gaining a job with local lawyer Andrei N. Khardin add something


Hoping to be taken seriously as an intellectual, in 1893 he submitted a paper, "New Economic Developments in Peasant Life", to the liberal journal "Russian Thought", but it was rejected; it would eventually see publication in 1927 add something


Nevertheless, despite disagreeing on tactics, he made friends among the People's Freedom Party, in particular an older man named Apollon Shukht, who would later ask Vladimir to be the godfather of his daughter in 1893 add something


By autumn 1894, Vladimir was the leader of a workers' circle who met for two hours on a Sunday to discuss revolutionary socialist ideas; to them he was known by a pseudonym, Nikolai Petrovich, although they affectionately referred to him as "starik" because of his appearance add something


Championing Marxist thought among the revolutionary socialist movement, in January 1894 he openly debated with the well known theorist V.P. Vorontsov, author of "The Fate of Capitalism in Russia" at a clandestine meeting, where his outspoken behaviour was noted by a police spy who was present add something


In 1896–97, strikes had hit St. Petersburg in an attempt to decrease the working day from 12 or 13 hours to 10 and a half, but while the Marxists were not responsible for its organisation, they had proved influential in helping to organise the strikers themselves add something


By July 1896 he had finished "Draft and Explanation of A Programme for the Social Democratic Party" and had commenced work on his book "The Development of Capitalism in Russia" add something


The Tsarist government made use of a large network of prison camps and areas of exile on the verges of its empire to deal with dissidents and criminals; by 1897 there were 300,000 Russian citizens in this system, and Vladimir was now one of them add something


Given a few days in St. Petersburg in February 1897 to put his affairs in order before being sent east, he used this as an opportunity to meet up with fellow revolutionaries add something


In May 1898, Vladimir's partner Nadya joined him in exile, having been arrested in August 1896 for organizing a strike add something


Although she was initially posted to Ufa, she successfully convinced the authorities to allow her to move to Shushenskoye, claiming that she and Vladimir were engaged; they subsequently married in a church service on 10 July 1898 add something


His three year exile over, Vladimir was banned from returning to St. Petersburg, instead settling in Pskov, a small town two hours' train ride from the capital, in February 1900 add something


After visiting his wife in Ufa, on 29 July 1900, he left Russia for Western Europe add something


On 24 August 1900, a conference of Russian Marxists was held in the Swiss town of Corsier to discuss the development of "Iskra", but both Vladimir and Potresov were shocked at the controlling nature of Plekhanov, particularly when he gave an antisemitic outburst; both of them lost a lot of respect for "the father of Russian Marxism", a man whom they had always looked up to add something


Ultimately, it was agreed that the paper would be produced in Munich , where it would be harder for the Swiss-based Plekhanov to control it, and Vladimir moved to the city in September 1900 add something


Nikolay Bauman - In 1900, he became acquainted with Lenin while in Zurich


Alexander Parvus - In 1900, he met Vladimir Lenin for the first time, in Munich , each admiring the other's theoretical works


Evgeny Chirikov - In 1900-1901 Chirikov contributed to the magazine "Life", which published works by Gorky and Vladimir Lenin


A second RSDLP publication, entitled "Zarya", appeared in March 1901, and would run for four issues, but "Iskra" was far more successful, being smuggled into Russia illegally, where it was distributed, becoming the most successful Russian underground publication for 50 years add something


Vladimir Ulyanov adopted the "nom de guerre" of "Lenin" in December 1901, possibly taking the River Lena as a basis, thereby imitating the manner in which Plekhanov had adopted the pseudonym on "Volgin" after the River Volga add something


Nikolay Bauman - In December 1901, at the order of Lenin he travelled to Moscow , and served in the Moscow committee of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party


In 1902, he published a political pamphlet entitled "What Is to Be Done-" – named after the influential Chernychevsky novel – under this new pseudonym add something


It contained contributions from such figures as the Polish Rosa Luxemburg, the Czech-German Karl Kautsky, and a young Ukrainian Marxist, Leon Trotsky, who became a regular contributor from the autumn of 1902 add something


Despite remaining an orthodox Marxist, he had begun to accept the Social Revolutionary Party's views on the revolutionary power of the Russian peasantry, penning a pamphlet while in Geneva in 1903 entitled "To the Village Poor", in which he tried to convert them to the Marxist cause add something


In 1903, Lenin attended the 2nd Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party which initially convened at Brussels before moving to London add something


Nikolay Bauman - In 1903 he was a delegate to the Second Party Congress from the Moscow party organization, and supported Lenin's views on all the questions discussed


Pub - It is said that Vladimir Lenin and a young Joseph Stalin met in the "Crown and Anchor" pub on Clerkenwell Green when the latter was visiting London in 1903


Nikolai Bryukhanov - In August 1903, when the party split into two mostly independent factions, Vladimir Lenin's Bolsheviks and Julius Martov's Mensheviks, Bryukhanov sided with the Bolsheviks


Russian Revolution - In November 1905, Lenin returned to Russia to support the 1905 Russian Revolution add something


In 1906, he was elected to the Presidium of the RSDLP; and shuttled between Finland and Russia, but resumed his exile in December 1907, after the Tsarist defeat of the revolution and after the scandal of the 1907 Tiflis bank robbery add something


Nikolai Semashko (medicine) - In 1906 he emigrated to Switzerland and lived in Geneva, where he met with Vladimir Lenin


Rosa Luxemburg - In 1907, she went to the Russian Social Democrats' Fifth Party Day in London , where she met Vladimir Lenin


Robert Siewert - From 1908 to 1915, he worked as a bricklayer in Switzerland, where he got to know Vladimir Lenin and Heinrich Brandler


Olga Kameneva - In 1908, after Lev Kamenev's release from prison, the Kamenevs left Russia for Geneva and Paris , where Lev Kamenev became one of Vladimir Lenin's two deputies


Lyubov Axelrod - She was critical of both Alexander Bogdanov and Vladimir Lenin during their debate over Empiriocriticism in 1908-1909, branding their ideas anti-Marxist


Inessa Armand - In November 1908 Armand managed to escape from Mezen and eventually left Russia to settle in Paris where she met Vladimir Lenin and other Bolsheviks living in foreign exile


In 1909, to disambiguate philosophic doubts about the proper practical course of a socialist revolution, Lenin published "Materialism and Empirio-criticism" , which became a philosophic foundation of Marxism-Leninism add something


Alexander Bogdanov - He was a key figure in the early history of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party, being one of its cofounders and a rival to Vladimir Lenin until being expelled in 1909


Rysy - In the 20th century, the communist authorities claimed Vladimir Lenin climbed the mountain sometime in the early 1910s


Rysy - In the 20th century, the communist authorities claimed Vladimir Lenin climbed the mountain sometime in the early 1910s


At the beginning of the war, the Austrians briefly detained him in Poronin, his town of residence; on 5 September 1914 Lenin moved to neutral Switzerland, residing first at Bern , at Zürich add something


Matvei Muranov - After the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, Muranov and other Bolshevik deputies followed the lead of the exiled Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin, denouncing the war and calling on Russian soldiers to turn their weapons against their own government


Zimmerwald Conference - In 1915, in Switzerland, at the anti-war Zimmerwald Conference, he led the Zimmerwald Left minority, who failed, against the majority pacifists, to achieve the conference's adopting Lenin's proposition of transforming the imperialist war into a class war add something


Tristan Tzara - At some point between 1915 and 1917, Tzara is believed to have played chess in a coffeehouse that was frequented by Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin


Nikolai Krylenko - In the summer of 1915 Vladimir Lenin sent Krylenko back to Russia to help rebuild the Bolshevik underground organization


In the spring of 1916, in Zürich, Lenin wrote "Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism" add something


Scramble for Africa - In 1916, Vladimir Lenin published "Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism" describing this phenomenon


Wars of national liberation - This concept of "imperialism" and its relations to colonies had been theorized in Vladimir Lenin's 1916 book, "Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism" while Ho Chi Minh, who founded the Viet-Minh in 1930 and declared the independence of Vietnam on September 2, 1945, following the 1945 August Revolution, was a founding member of the French Communist Party in 1921


February Revolution - Following the February Revolution of 1917, in which the Tsar was overthrown and a provisional government took power, he decided to return home add something


October Revolution - As the leader of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, he took a senior role in orchestrating the October Revolution in 1917, which led to the overthrow of the Russian Provisional Government and the establishment of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, the world's first constitutionally socialist state add something


Financial support was continued until July of 1917, when the Provisional Government, after revealing German funding for the Bolsheviks, outlawed the party and issued an arrest warrant for Lenin add something


In 1917, as an anti-imperialist, Lenin said that oppressed peoples had the unconditional right to secede from the Russian Empire; however, at end of the Civil War, the USSR annexed Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan, because the White Movement used them as attack bases add something


In February 1917 popular demonstrations in Russia provoked by the hardship of war forced Tsar Nicholas II to abdicate add something


Controversial as it was in April 1917, the programme of the April Theses made the Bolshevik party a political refuge for Russians disillusioned with the Provisional Government and the war add something


In late August 1917, while Lenin was in hiding in Finland, the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army General Lavr Kornilov sent troops from the front to Petrograd in what appeared to be a military coup attempt against the Provisional Government add something


Scarlat Callimachi - Chiva & ?chiop While travelling through Finland in 1917, Callimachi attended a public meeting at which Vladimir Lenin gave a speech, and consequently adopted Bolshevism


Herman Gorter - In 1917, he hailed the Russian revolution as the beginning of that global revolution, although he soon afterward came to oppose Lenin


Vladimir Bonch-Bruyevich - In the Soviet Union, Bonch-Bruyevich was best known as the author of a canonical Soviet book about Vladimir Lenin, whom Bonch-Bruyevich served as secretary in the years immediately following the Bolshevik revolution in 1917


Alexander Parvus - Through Trotsky, the method was eventually adopted by Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks in Lenin's April Theses in 1917


Fiorello La Guardia - Thus he supported the Irish independence movement and the anti-czarist Russian Revolution of 1917, but did not approve of Vladimir Lenin


Alexander Parvus - In March 1917, in a plan strategized together with Parvus, German intelligence sent Vladimir Lenin and a group of 30 of his revolutionary associates from Switzerland through Germany in a train car under supervision of Swiss socialist Fritz Platten


Grigori Sokolnikov - He returned to Russia in April 1917 along with Vladimir Lenin in the 'sealed train', and on arriving in Russia became part of the editorial board of the Bolshevik's central party organ


Nikolay Alexandrovich Milyutin - Milyutin made personal contact with Vladimir Lenin on the day of his return from emigration in April 1917


Tan Malaka - Russian Revolution - After the Russian Revolution of October 1917, Malaka increasingly became interested in communism and socialism, reading books by Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, and Vladimir Lenin


Russian Academy of Sciences - In December 1917, Sergey Fedorovich Oldenburg, a leading ethnographer and political activist in the Kadet party, met with Vladimir Lenin to discuss the future of the Academy


Moreover, since 1918, in re-establishing the economy, for the productive business administration of each industrial enterprise in Russia, Lenin proposed a government-accountable leader for each enterprise add something


The first occasion was on 14 January 1918 in Petrograd, when assassins ambushed Lenin in his automobile after a speech add something


On 19 January 1918, relying upon the soviets, the Bolsheviks, allied with anarchists and the Socialist Revolutionaries, dissolved the Russian Constituent Assembly thereby consolidating the Bolshevik Government's political power add something


First World War - Treaty of Brest-Litovsk - Resultantly, Lenin's withdrawal proposal gained majority support, and, on 3 March 1918, Russia withdrew from the First World War via the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, losing much of its European territory add something


In response to Fanya Kaplan's failed assassination of Lenin on 30 August 1918, and the successful assassination of the Petrograd Cheka chief Moisei Uritsky, Stalin proposed to Lenin "open and systematic mass terror add something


The second event was on 30 August 1918, when the Socialist Revolutionary Fanya Kaplan approached Lenin at his automobile after a speech; he was resting a foot on the running board as he spoke with a woman add something


To that effect, among other acts, at Moscow, execution lists signed by Lenin authorised the shooting of 25 Tsarist ministers, civil servants, and 765 White Guards in September 1918 add something


On 19 December 1918, a year after its creation, a resolution was adopted at Lenin's behest that forbade the Bolshevik's own press from publishing "defamatory articles" about the Cheka add something


R. H. Bruce Lockhart - In 1918, Bruce Lockhart and fellow British agent, Sidney Reilly, were dramatically implicated in a plot to assassinate Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin


Maria Spiridonova - She led the Left SRs into alliance with Lenin and the Bolsheviks, but was imprisoned for a time and incarcerated in a mental sanitarium after the Left SRs broke with the Bolsheviks in 1918


In 1919 Lenin recorded eight speeches on to gramophone records add something


To implement world revolution the Third or Communist International was convened in Russia in 1919, to replace the discredited Second International add something


Russian Civil War - During the Russian Civil War, anti-Bolsheviks faced torture and summary execution, and by May 1919, there were some 16,000 enemies of the people imprisoned in the Tsarist katorga labour camps; by September 1921 the prisoner populace exceeded 70,000 add something


Angelica Balabanoff - She became secretary of the Communist Third International in 1919 and worked alongside Vladimir Lenin, Leon_Trotsky, Grigory Zinoviev, and Emma Goldman, as well as many others


Socialist Party of America - In January 1919 Vladimir Lenin invited the Industrial Workers of the World and the radical wing of the Socialist Party to join in the founding of the Communist Third International, the Comintern


Georgy Pyatakov - In March 1919 he attended the 8th Congress of the Russian Communist Party, where he unsuccessfully opposed Lenin's position on national self determination


In the early 1920s, the Russian cosmism movement proved so popular that Leonid Krasin and Alexander Bogdanov proposed to cryonically preserve Lenin for future resurrection, yet, despite buying the requisite equipment, that was not done add something


Professor Christopher Read states that though terror was employed at the height of the Civil War fighting, "from 1920 onwards the resort to terror was much reduced and disappeared from Lenin's mainstream discourses and practices" add something


George Costakis - Bolshevik Revolution - At first the Bolshevik Revolution under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin supported the new abstract art but from 1920 onwards the freedom of artists in Russia was increasingly curtailed


Albert Londres - In 1920, Londres succeeded in entering the USSR, described the nascent Bolshevik regime, profiled Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky and told of the suffering of the Russian people


Mustafa Kemal Ataturk - In his message to Vladimir Lenin, the Bolshevik leader and head of the RSFSR's government, dated 26 April 1920, Kemal promised to coordinate his military operations with the Bolsheviks' "fight against imperialist governments" and requested 5 million lira in gold as well as armaments "as first aid" to his forces


And the crushing of the revolts in Kronstadt and Tambov in 1921 resulted in tens of thousands of executions add something


In 1921 Lenin proposed the New Economic Policy, a system of state capitalism which started the process of industrialisation and recovery from the Russian Civil War add something


After the March 1921 left-wing Kronstadt Rebellion mutiny, Lenin replaced war communism with the New Economic Policy , and successfully rebuilt industry and agriculture add something


Shripad Amrit Dange - In 1921, Dange published a pamphlet titled "Gandhi Vs. Lenin", a comparative study of the approaches of both the leaders; but, Lenin coming out as better of the two


Henk Sneevliet - The same year he was present at the second congress of the Comintern in Moscow, as a representative of the Partai Komunis Indonesia , which was the successor to Sneevliet's ISDV. Vladimir Lenin was impressed enough by him to send him as a Comintern representative to China, to help the formation of Communist Party of China, and he was present at the First Congress of the Chinese Communist Party in July 1921 together with Vladimir Neumann of the Russian Communist Party when the Communist Party of China was formally established


After the first stroke, Lenin dictated government papers to Nadezhda; among them was "Lenin's Testament" , a document partly inspired by the 1922 Georgian Affair, which was a conflict about the way in which social and political transformation within a constituent republic was to be achieved add something


In 1922, the Russian SFSR joined former territories of the Russian Empire in becoming the Soviet Union add something


In March 1922, when physicians examined him, they found evidence of neither nervous nor organic pathology, but, given his fatigue and the headaches he suffered, they prescribed rest add something


The mental strains of leading a revolution, governing, and fighting a civil war aggravated the physical debilitation consequent to the wounds from the attempted assassinations; Lenin retained a bullet in his neck, until a German surgeon removed it on 24 April 1922 add something


Upon returning to St. Petersburg in May 1922, Lenin suffered the first of three strokes, which left him unable to speak for weeks, and severely hampered motion in his right side; by June, he had substantially recovered add something


In December 1922, he suffered the second stroke that partly paralyzed his right side, he withdrew from active politics add something


Shripad Amrit Dange - On his return to India, M.N. Roy who had read "Gandhi Vs. Lenin" met Dange in 1922


In March 1923, he suffered the third stroke that rendered him mute and bed-ridden until his death add something


Gyumri in Armenia was named "Leninakan" from 1924 to 1990, Khujand in Tajikistan "Leninabad" from 1936 to 1991 add something


The city of Saint Petersburg , the site where both February and October revolutions started, was renamed "Leningrad" in 1924, four days after Lenin's death add something

Vladimir Lenin died in 1924 add something


Lenin died at 18,50 hrs, Moscow time, on 21 January 1924, aged 53, at his estate at Gorki settlement add something


When Lenin died on 21 January 1924, near Moscow, he was acclaimed as "the greatest genius of mankind" and "the leader and teacher of the peoples of the whole world" add something


Instead, the body of V. I. Lenin was embalmed and permanently exhibited in Lenin's Mausoleum, in Moscow, on 27 January 1924 add something


At Lenin's death, Nadezhda mailed his testament to the central committee, to be read aloud to the 13th Party Congress in May 1924 add something


Whittaker Chambers - In 1924, Chambers read Vladimir Lenin's "Soviets at Work" and was deeply affected by it


Hotsumi Ozaki - In 1926, he joined the "Asahi Shimbun" newspaper, where he wrote articles on Soviet leaders Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin


Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky - In 1929, it was taken off and replaced with a statue of Lenin, which stood there until 1989


Tristan Tzara - As early as 1934, Tzara, together with Breton, Éluard and communist writer René Crevel, organized an informal trial of independent-minded Surrealist Salvador Dalí, who was at the time a confessed admirer of Hitler, and whose portrait of William Tell had alarmed them because it shared likeness with Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin


Virendranath Chattopadhyaya - On March 18, 1934 he gave a talk about his reminiscences of Vladimir Lenin


In his "Diaries in Exile, 1935", Leon Trotsky recollected that Lenin authorised the execution of the Russian Royal Family add something


Asaka, Uzbekistan - In 1937, it was granted town status and again renamed, this time "'Leninsk"', after Vladimir Lenin


Symphony No. 6 (Shostakovich) - Shostakovich had announced once in September 1938 that he was anxious to work on his Sixth Symphony, which would be a monumental composition for soloists, chorus and orchestra employing the poem "Vladimir Ilyich Lenin" by Vladimir Mayakovsky, but the declamatory nature of the poem made it difficult to set


Symphony No. 6 (Shostakovich) - In January 1939, he spoke about the Sixth Symphony in a radio address, with no mention of Lenin or any extramusical associations


Edmund Wilson - In his book, "To the Finland Station" , Wilson studied the course of European socialism, from the 1824 discovery by Jules Michelet of the ideas of Vico culminating in the 1917 arrival of Vladimir Lenin at the Finland Station of Saint Petersburg to lead the Bolsheviks in the Russian Revolution


Symphony No. 7 (Shostakovich) - Initially dedicated to the life and deeds of Vladimir Lenin, Shostakovich decided instead to dedicate the symphony to the city of Leningrad on its completion in December 1941


Joseph Stalin - His body was preserved in Lenin's Mausoleum until 31 October 1961, when his body was removed from the mausoleum and buried in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis next to the Kremlin walls as part of the process of de-Stalinization


Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works - In 1971, the factory and the workers received the award from Vladimir Lenin


Rudi Dutschke - October Revolution - Revolutionary socialist Count von Dutschke is close friends with a very aged Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov in Moorcock's alternate 1973 where World War I and the October Revolution never took place


Cuba - The Constitution of 1976, which defined Cuba as a socialist republic, was replaced by the Constitution of 1992, which is "guided by the ideas of José Martí and the political and social ideas of Marx, Engels and Lenin


Boris Bazhanov - Bazhanov's notes were discovered in early 1990 by Soviet historian Victor Danilov and used in support of an answer to one of the mysteries of the Bolshevik Revolution: why Leon Trotsky refused Vladimir Lenin's offer to appoint him as heir


In 1991, after a contested vote between Communists and liberals, the Leningrad government reverted the city's name to Saint Petersburg whilst the surrounding Leningrad Oblast remained so named; like-wise the city of Ulyanovsk and the Ulyanovsk Oblast remain so named add something


Three days after his death, Petrograd was renamed Leningrad in his honour, so remaining until 1991, when the USSR dissolved, yet the administrative area remains "Leningrad Oblast" add something


A "retrospective diagnosis" published in The European Journal of Neurology in 2004 stengthens these suspicions add something


Despite the official diagnosis of death from stroke consequences, the Russian scientist Ivan Pavlov reported that Lenin died of neurosyphilis, according to a publication by V. Lerner and colleagues in the "European Journal of Neurology" in 2004 add something


In a poll conducted in 2012 by a Russian website, 48 per cent of the people that responded voted that the body of the former leader should be buried add something


Leonid Brezhnev - In a Levada Center poll conducted in 2013, Brezhnev beat Vladimir Lenin as Russia's favourite leader in the 20th century with 56 per cent approval


"The Moscow Times," April 22, 2014 add something


As of 2017 it's in public display in the mausoleum on the Red Square add something


As of 2019 the body remains on public display in Lenin's Mausoleum on Red Square add something