William Shockley

Knowledge Identifier: +William_Shockley


William Shockley

American physicist and inventor add

Category: Sciences

Born in 1910.

Countries: United States (48%), (24%), California (17%)

Main connections: John Bardeen, Through-silicon via, Silicon Valley

Linked to: Stanford University, Physical Review, Silicon Valley, Massachusetts Institute of Technology




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William Shockley was born in 1910 add something


Bell Labs' attorneys soon discovered Shockley's field effect principle had been anticipated and devices based on it patented in 1930 by Julius Lilienfeld, who filed his MESFET-like patent in Canada on October 22, 1925 add something


He received his Bachelor of Science degree from the California Institute of Technology in 1932 add something


John C. Slater - Slater's doctoral students, during this time, included Nathan Rosen Ph.D. in 1932 for a theoretical study of the hydrogen molecule, and William Shockley Ph.D. 1936 for an energy band structure of sodium chloride, who later received a Nobel Prize for the discovery of the transistor


While still a student, Shockley married Iowan Jean Bailey in August 1933 add something


In March 1934 Jean had a baby girl, Alison; she had a son, Richard who became a physicist add something


Shockley was awarded his PhD from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1936 add something


In 1938, he received his first patent, "Electron Discharge Device" on electron multipliers add something


In 1944 he organized a training program for B-29 bomber pilots to use new radar Bombsights add something


In late 1944 he took a three month tour to bases around the world to assess the results add something


Shortly after the end of the war in 1945, Bell Labs formed a Solid State Physics Group, led by Shockley and chemist Stanley Morgan, which included John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, physicist Gerald Pearson, chemist Robert Gibney, electronics expert Hilbert Moore, and several technicians add something


In July 1945, the War Department asked Shockley to prepare a report on the question of probable casualties from an invasion of the Japanese mainland add something


By the winter of 1946 they had enough results that Bardeen submitted a paper on the surface states to "Physical Review" add something


For his work during the war Secretary of War Robert Patterson awarded Shockley the Medal for Merit on October 17, 1946 add something


Transistor - Following its development in 1947 by American physicists John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley, the transistor revolutionized the field of electronics, and paved the way for smaller and cheaper radios, calculators, and computers, among other things


Power electronics - In 1947 the bipolar point-contact transistor was invented by Walter H. Brattain and John Bardeen under the direction of William Shockley at Bell Labs


John Bardeen - In the spring of 1947, William Shockley set Brattain and Bardeen to a task to explain why an amplifier he had devised didn't work.


He admitted that he kept some of own work secret until his "hand was forced" by Shive's 1948 advance add something


On February 13, 1948 another team member, John N. Shive, built a point contact transistor with bronze contacts on the front and back of thin wedge of germanium, proving that holes could diffuse through bulk germanium and not just along the surface as previously thought add something


John Bardeen - John Bardeen, William Shockley and Walter Brattain at Bell Labs, 1948.


Meanwhile, Shockley worked furiously on his magnum opus, "Electrons and Holes in Semiconductors" which was finally published as a 558 page treatise in 1950 add something


Shockley's attempts to commercialize a new transistor design in the 1950s and 1960s led to California's "Silicon Valley" becoming a hotbed of electronics innovation add something


Thyristor - The Silicon Controlled Rectifier or Thyristor proposed by William Shockley in 1950 and championed by Moll and others at Bell Labs was developed in 1956 by power engineers at General Electric led by Gordon Hall and commercialized by G.E.'s Frank W. "Bill" Gutzwiller


Bardeen began pursuing a theory for superconductivity and left Bell Labs in 1951 add something


In 1951, he was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences add something


This resulted in his invention of the junction transistor, which was announced at a press conference on July 4, 1951 add something


Shockley obtained a patent for this invention on September 25, 1951 add something


He took a leave from Bell Labs in 1953 and moved back to the California Institute of Technology for four months as a visiting professor add something


Shockley separated from his wife Jean in the spring of 1954, divorcing her that summer add something


Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory - In 1955, Shockley joined Beckman Instruments, where he was appointed as the Director of Beckman's newly founded Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory division at 391 San Antonio Road, Mountain View, California add something


Shortly after forming Shockley Semiconductor, on November 23, 1955, Shockley married Emmy Lanning, a teacher of psychiatric nursing from upstate New York add something


Arnold Orville Beckman - In 1955, Beckman established the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory to fund William Shockley's research into semiconductor technology


A group of about 30 colleagues, who have met on and off since 1956, met at Stanford, California in 2002 to reminisce about their time with Shockley and his central role in sparking the information technology revolution, its organizer saying "Shockley is the man who brought silicon to Silicon Valley add something


Along with John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain, Shockley co-invented the transistor, for which all three were awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics add something


John Bardeen - In 1956, John Bardeen shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with William Shockley of Semiconductor Laboratory of Beckman Instruments and Walter Brattain of Bell Telephone Laboratories "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect".


In late 1957, eight of Shockley's researchers, who called themselves the "traitorous eight", resigned after Shockley decided not to continue research into silicon-based semiconductors add something


Hewlett-Packard - HP is recognized as the symbolic founder of Silicon Valley, although it did not actively investigate semiconductor devices until a few years after the "traitorous eight" had abandoned William Shockley to create Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957


Innovation - In 1957, dissatisfied employees of Shockley Semiconductor, the company of Nobel laureate and co-inventor of the transistor William Shockley, left to form an independent firm, Fairchild Semiconductor


Fairchild Camera and Instrument - In 1957, the company was approached by members of the "traitorous eight" to rescue the group from the authoritarian regime of William Shockley


The firm was sold in 1960 and became a part of ITT in 1968 add something


Through-silicon via - The first TSV was patented by William Shockley in 1962, although most people in the electronics industry consider Merlin Smith and Emanuel Stern of IBM the inventors of TSV, based on their patent Methods of Making Thru-Connections in Semiconductor Wafers filed on December 28, 1964 and granted on September 26, 1967


Through-silicon via - The first TSV was patented by William Shockley in 1962, although most people in the electronics industry consider Merlin Smith and Emanuel Stern of IBM the inventors of TSV, based on their patent Methods of Making Thru-Connections in Semiconductor Wafers filed on December 28, 1964 and granted on September 26, 1967


Eliyahu Comay - In 1967 William Shockley and R. P. James presented a paradox called "Hidden Momentum"


Shockley's last patent was granted in 1968, for a rather complex semiconductor device add something


According to 1970 US Census, unskilled and skilled whites had on average 3,7 and 2,3 children, respectively, whereas the corresponding numbers for blacks were 5,4 and 1,9 add something


While the "Nobel sperm bank" issue was in the news, Playboy magazine published in its August 1980 issue a lengthy interview with Shockley add something


In 1981 he filed a libel suit against the "Atlanta Constitution" after a reporter called him a "Hitlerite" and compared his racial views to those of the Nazis add something


They had a very happy marriage that lasted until his death in 1989 add something

William Shockley died in 1989 add something


By the time of his death he was almost completely estranged from most of his friends and family, except his wife who died in 2007 add something


Charles Proteus Steinmetz - Through 2017 seventy-three gatherings have taken place, held almost exclusively at Union College, featuring such renown figures as Nobel laureate experimental physicist Robert A. Millikan, helicopter inventor Igor Sikorsky, nuclear submarine pioneer Admiral Hyman G. Rickover , Nobel-winning semiconductor inventor William Shockley, and Internet 'founding father' Leonard Kleinrock